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by Harper Lee 

Copyright (C) 1960 by Harper Lee 
Copyright (C) renewed 1988 by Harper Lee 
Published by arrangement with McIntosh and Otis, Inc. 



o Chapter 1 
o Chapter 2 
o Chapter 3 
o Chapter 4 
o Chapter 5 
o Chapter 6 
o Chapter 7 
o Chapter 8 
o Chapter 9 
o Chapter 10 
o Chapter 1 1 

o Chapter 12 
o Chapter 13 
o Chapter 14 
o Chapter 15 
o Chapter 16 
o Chapter 17 
o Chapter 18 
o Chapter 19 
o Chapter 20 
o Chapter 21 
o Chapter 22 
o Chapter 23 
o Chapter 24 
o Chapter 25 
o Chapter 26 
o Chapter 27 
o Chapter 28 
o Chapter 29 
o Chapter 30 
o Chapter 3 1 

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for Mr. Lee and Alice 
in consideration of Love & Affection 
Lawyers, I suppose, were children once. 
Charles Lamb 


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Chapter 1 

When he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the 
elbow. When it healed, and Jem’s fears of never being able to play football were 
assuaged, he was seldom self-conscious about his injury. His left arm was 
somewhat shorter than his right; when he stood or walked, the back of his hand 
was at right angles to his body, his thumb parallel to his thigh. He couldn’t have 
cared less, so long as he could pass and punt. 

When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them, we 
sometimes discussed the events leading to his accident. I maintain that the Ewells 
started it all, but Jem, who was four years my senior, said it started long before 
that. He said it began the summer Dill came to us, when Dill first gave us the idea 
of making Boo Radley come out. 

I said if he wanted to take a broad view of the thing, it really began with Andrew 
Jackson. If General Jackson hadn’t run the Creeks up the creek, Simon Finch 
would never have paddled up the Alabama, and where would we be if he hadn’t? 

We were far too old to settle an argument with a fist-fight, so we consulted 
Atticus. Our father said we were both right. 

Being Southerners, it was a source of shame to some members of the family that 
we had no recorded ancestors on either side of the Battle of Hastings. All we had 
was Simon Finch, a fur-trapping apothecary from Cornwall whose piety was 
exceeded only by his stinginess. In England, Simon was irritated by the 
persecution of those who called themselves Methodists at the hands of their more 
liberal brethren, and as Simon called himself a Methodist, he worked his way 
across the Atlantic to Philadelphia, thence to Jamaica, thence to Mobile, and up 
the Saint Stephens. Mindful of John Wesley’s strictures on the use of many words 
in buying and selling, Simon made a pile practicing medicine, but in this pursuit 
he was unhappy lest he be tempted into doing what he knew was not for the glory 
of God, as the putting on of gold and costly apparel. So Simon, having forgotten 
his teacher’s dictum on the possession of human chattels, bought three slaves and 
with their aid established a homestead on the banks of the Alabama River some 
forty miles above Saint Stephens. He returned to Saint Stephens only once, to find 
a wife, and with her established a line that ran high to daughters. Simon lived to 
an impressive age and died rich. 

It was customary for the men in the family to remain on Simon’s homestead, 
Finch’s Landing, and make their living from cotton. The place was self-sufficient: 
modest in comparison with the empires around it, the Landing nevertheless 
produced everything required to sustain life except ice, wheat flour, and articles 
of clothing, supplied by river-boats from Mobile. 

Simon would have regarded with impotent fury the disturbance between the North 
and the South, as it left his descendants stripped of everything but their land, yet 
the tradition of living on the land remained unbroken until well into the twentieth 
century, when my father, Atticus Finch, went to Montgomery to read law, and his 
younger brother went to Boston to study medicine. Their sister Alexandra was the 
Finch who remained at the Landing: she married a taciturn man who spent most 
of his time lying in a hammock by the river wondering if his trot-lines were full. 

When my father was admitted to the bar, he returned to Maycomb and began his 
practice. Maycomb, some twenty miles east of Finch’s Landing, was the county 

seat of Maycomb County. Atticus’s office in the courthouse contained little more 
than a hat rack, a spittoon, a checkerboard and an unsullied Code of Alabama. His 
first two clients were the last two persons hanged in the Maycomb County jail. 
Atticus had urged them to accept the state’s generosity in allowing them to plead 
Guilty to second-degree murder and escape with their lives, but they were 
Haverfords, in Maycomb County a name synonymous with jackass. The 
Haverfords had dispatched Maycomb’ s leading blacksmith in a misunderstanding 
arising from the alleged wrongful detention of a mare, were imprudent enough to 
do it in the presence of three witnesses, and insisted that the-son-of-a-bitch-had-it- 
coming-to-him was a good enough defense for anybody. They persisted in 
pleading Not Guilty to first-degree murder, so there was nothing much Atticus 
could do for his clients except be present at their departure, an occasion that was 
probably the beginning of my father’s profound distaste for the practice of 
criminal law. 

During his first five years in Maycomb, Atticus practiced economy more than 
anything; for several years thereafter he invested his earnings in his brother’s 
education. John Hale Finch was ten years younger than my father, and chose to 
study medicine at a time when cotton was not worth growing; but after getting 
Uncle Jack started, Atticus derived a reasonable income from the law. He liked 
Maycomb, he was Maycomb County born and bred; he knew his people, they 
knew him, and because of Simon Finch’s industry, Atticus was related by blood 
or marriage to nearly every family in the town. 

Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In 
rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the 
courthouse sagged in the square. Somehow, it was hotter then: a black dog 
suffered on a summer’s day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in 
the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square. Men’s stiff collars wilted by 
nine in the morning. Ladies bathed before noon, after their three-o’clock naps, 
and by nightfall were like soft teacakes with frostings of sweat and sweet talcum. 

People moved slowly then. They ambled across the square, shuffled in and out of 
the stores around it, took their time about everything. A day was twenty-four 

hours long but seemed longer. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, 
nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries 
of May comb County. But it was a time of vague optimism for some of the people: 
Maycomb County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself. 

We lived on the main residential street in town — Atticus, Jem and I, plus 
Calpurnia our cook. Jem and I found our father satisfactory: he played with us, 
read to us, and treated us with courteous detachment. 

Calpurnia was something else again. She was all angles and bones; she was 
nearsighted; she squinted; her hand was wide as a bed slat and twice as hard. She 
was always ordering me out of the kitchen, asking me why I couldn’t behave as 
well as Jem when she knew he was older, and calling me home when I wasn’t 
ready to come. Our battles were epic and one-sided. Calpurnia always won, 
mainly because Atticus always took her side. She had been with us ever since Jem 
was born, and I had felt her tyrannical presence as long as I could remember. 

Our mother died when I was two, so I never felt her absence. She was a Graham 
from Montgomery; Atticus met her when he was first elected to the state 
legislature. He was middle-aged then, she was fifteen years his junior. Jem was 
the product of their first year of marriage; four years later I was born, and two 
years later our mother died from a sudden heart attack. They said it ran in her 
family. I did not miss her, but I think Jem did. He remembered her clearly, and 
sometimes in the middle of a game he would sigh at length, then go off and play 
by himself behind the car-house. When he was like that, I knew better than to 
bother him. 

When I was almost six and Jem was nearly ten, our summertime boundaries 
(within calling distance of Calpurnia) were Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose’s house 
two doors to the north of us, and the Radley Place three doors to the south. We 
were never tempted to break them. The Radley Place was inhabited by an 
unknown entity the mere description of whom was enough to make us behave for 
days on end; Mrs. Dubose was plain hell. 

That was the summer Dill came to us. 

Early one morning as we were beginning our day’s play in the back yard, Jem and 
I heard something next door in Miss Rachel Haverford’s collard patch. We went 

to the wire fence to see if there was a puppy — Miss Rachel’s rat terrier was 
expecting — instead we found someone sitting looking at us. Sitting down, he 
wasn’t much higher than the collards. We stared at him until he spoke: 


“Hey yourself,” said Jem pleasantly. 

“I’m Charles Baker Harris,” he said. “I can read.” 

“So what?” I said. 

“I just thought you’d like to know I can read. You got anything needs readin‘ I 
can do it...” 

“How old are you,” asked Jem, “four-and-a-half?” 

“Goin‘ on seven.” 

“Shoot no wonder, then,” said Jem, jerking his thumb at me. “Scout yonder’s 
been readin‘ ever since she was born, and she ain’t even started to school yet. You 
look right puny for goin’ on seven.” 

“I’m little but I’m old,” he said. 

Jem brushed his hair back to get a better look. “Why don’t you come over, 

Charles Baker Harris?” he said. “Lord, what a name.” 

“‘s not any funnier’n yours. Aunt Rachel says your name’s Jeremy Atticus Finch.” 

Jem scowled. “I’m big enough to fit mine,” he said. “Your name’s longer’n you 
are. Bet it’s a foot longer.” 

“Folks call me Dill,” said Dill, struggling under the fence. 

“Do better if you go over it instead of under it,” I said. “Where’d you come from?” 

Dill was from Meridian, Mississippi, was spending the summer with his aunt, 

Miss Rachel, and would be spending every summer in Maycomb from now on. 

His family was from Maycomb County originally, his mother worked for a 
photographer in Meridian, had entered his picture in a Beautiful Child contest and 
won five dollars. She gave the money to Dill, who went to the picture show 
twenty times on it. 

“Don’t have any picture shows here, except Jesus ones in the courthouse 
sometimes,” said Jem. “Ever see anything good?” 

Dill had seen Dracula, a revelation that moved Jem to eye him with the beginning 
of respect. “Tell it to us,” he said. 

Dill was a curiosity. He wore blue linen shorts that buttoned to his shirt, his hair 
was snow white and stuck to his head like duckfluff; he was a year my senior but 
I towered over him. As he told us the old tale his blue eyes would lighten and 
darken; his laugh was sudden and happy; he habitually pulled at a cowlick in the 
center of his forehead. 

When Dill reduced Dracula to dust, and Jem said the show sounded better than 
the book, I asked Dill where his father was: “You ain’t said anything about him.” 

“I haven’t got one.” 

“Is he dead?” 


“Then if he’s not dead you’ve got one, haven’t you?” 

Dill blushed and Jem told me to hush, a sure sign that Dill had been studied and 
found acceptable. Thereafter the summer passed in routine contentment. Routine 
contentment was: improving our treehouse that rested between giant twin 
chinaberry trees in the back yard, fussing, running through our list of dramas 
based on the works of Oliver Optic, Victor Appleton, and Edgar Rice Burroughs. 
In this matter we were lucky to have Dill. He played the character parts formerly 
thrust upon me — the ape in Tarzan, Mr. Crabtree in The Rover Boys, Mr. Damon 
in Tom Swift. Thus we came to know Dill as a pocket Merlin, whose head teemed 
with eccentric plans, strange longings, and quaint fancies. 

But by the end of August our repertoire was vapid from countless reproductions, 
and it was then that Dill gave us the idea of making Boo Radley come out. 

The Radley Place fascinated Dill. In spite of our warnings and explanations it 
drew him as the moon draws water, but drew him no nearer than the light-pole on 
the corner, a safe distance from the Radley gate. There he would stand, his arm 
around the fat pole, staring and wondering. 

The Radley Place jutted into a sharp curve beyond our house. Walking south, one 
faced its porch; the sidewalk turned and ran beside the lot. The house was low, 
was once white with a deep front porch and green shutters, but had long ago 

darkened to the color of the slate-gray yard around it. Rain-rotted shingles 
drooped over the eaves of the veranda; oak trees kept the sun away. The remains 
of a picket drunkenly guarded the front yard — a “swept” yard that was never 
swept — where johnson grass and rabbit-tobacco grew in abundance. 

Inside the house lived a malevolent phantom. People said he existed, but Jem and 
I had never seen him. People said he went out at night when the moon was down, 
and peeped in windows. When people’s azaleas froze in a cold snap, it was 
because he had breathed on them. Any stealthy small crimes committed in 
Maycomb were his work. Once the town was terrorized by a series of morbid 
nocturnal events: people’s chickens and household pets were found mutilated; 
although the culprit was Crazy Addie, who eventually drowned himself in 
Barker’ s Eddy, people still looked at the Radley Place, unwilling to discard their 
initial suspicions. A Negro would not pass the Radley Place at night, he would cut 
across to the sidewalk opposite and whistle as he walked. The Maycomb school 
grounds adjoined the back of the Radley lot; from the Radley chickenyard tall 
pecan trees shook their fruit into the schoolyard, but the nuts lay untouched by the 
children: Radley pecans would kill you. A baseball hit into the Radley yard was a 
lost ball and no questions asked. 

The misery of that house began many years before Jem and I were born. The 
Radleys, welcome anywhere in town, kept to themselves, a predilection 
unforgivable in Maycomb. They did not go to church, Maycomb’ s principal 
recreation, but worshiped at home; Mrs. Radley seldom if ever crossed the street 
for a mid-morning coffee break with her neighbors, and certainly never joined a 
missionary circle. Mr. Radley walked to town at eleven-thirty every morning and 
came back promptly at twelve, sometimes carrying a brown paper bag that the 
neighborhood assumed contained the family groceries. I never knew how old Mr. 
Radley made his living — Jem said he “bought cotton,” a polite term for doing 
nothing — but Mr. Radley and his wife had lived there with their two sons as long 
as anybody could remember. 

The shutters and doors of the Radley house were closed on Sundays, another 
thing alien to Maycomb ’s ways: closed doors meant illness and cold weather 
only. Of all days Sunday was the day for formal afternoon visiting: ladies wore 
corsets, men wore coats, children wore shoes. But to climb the Radley front steps 

and call, “He-y,” of a Sunday afternoon was something their neighbors never did. 
The Radley house had no screen doors. I once asked Atticus if it ever had any; 
Atticus said yes, but before I was born. 

According to neighborhood legend, when the younger Radley boy was in his 
teens he became acquainted with some of the Cunninghams from Old Sarum, an 
enormous and confusing tribe domiciled in the northern part of the county, and 
they formed the nearest thing to a gang ever seen in Maycomb. They did little, but 
enough to be discussed by the town and publicly warned from three pulpits: they 
hung around the barbershop; they rode the bus to Abbottsville on Sundays and 
went to the picture show; they attended dances at the county’s riverside gambling 
hell, the Dew-Drop Inn & Fishing Camp; they experimented with stumphole 
whiskey. Nobody in Maycomb had nerve enough to tell Mr. Radley that his boy 
was in with the wrong crowd. 

One night, in an excessive spurt of high spirits, the boys backed around the square 
in a borrowed flivver, resisted arrest by Maycomb’ s ancient beadle, Mr. Conner, 
and locked him in the courthouse outhouse. The town decided something had to 
be done; Mr. Conner said he knew who each and every one of them was, and he 
was bound and determined they wouldn’t get away with it, so the boys came 
before the probate judge on charges of disorderly conduct, disturbing the peace, 
assault and battery, and using abusive and profane language in the presence and 
hearing of a female. The judge asked Mr. Conner why he included the last charge; 
Mr. Conner said they cussed so loud he was sure every lady in Maycomb heard 
them. The judge decided to send the boys to the state industrial school, where 
boys were sometimes sent for no other reason than to provide them with food and 
decent shelter: it was no prison and it was no disgrace. Mr. Radley thought it was. 
If the judge released Arthur, Mr. Radley would see to it that Arthur gave no 
further trouble. Knowing that Mr. Radley’s word was his bond, the judge was 
glad to do so. 

The other boys attended the industrial school and received the best secondary 
education to be had in the state; one of them eventually worked his way through 
engineering school at Auburn. The doors of the Radley house were closed on 
weekdays as well as Sundays, and Mr. Radley’s boy was not seen again for 

fifteen years. 

But there came a day, barely within Jem’s memory, when Boo Radley was heard 
from and was seen by several people, but not by Jem. He said Atticus never talked 
much about the Radleys: when Jem would question him Atticus ’s only answer 
was for him to mind his own business and let the Radleys mind theirs, they had a 
right to; but when it happened Jem said Atticus shook his head and said, “Mm, 
mm, mm.” 

So Jem received most of his information from Miss Stephanie Crawford, a 
neighborhood scold, who said she knew the whole thing. According to Miss 
Stephanie, Boo was sitting in the livingroom cutting some items from The 
Maycomb Tribune to paste in his scrapbook. His father entered the room. As Mr. 
Radley passed by, Boo drove the scissors into his parent’s leg, pulled them out, 
wiped them on his pants, and resumed his activities. 

Mrs. Radley ran screaming into the street that Arthur was killing them all, but 
when the sheriff arrived he found Boo still sitting in the livingroom, cutting up the 
Tribune. He was thirty-three years old then. 

Miss Stephanie said old Mr. Radley said no Radley was going to any asylum, 
when it was suggested that a season in Tuscaloosa might be helpful to Boo. Boo 
wasn’t crazy, he was high-strung at times. It was all right to shut him up, Mr. 
Radley conceded, but insisted that Boo not be charged with anything: he was not 
a criminal. The sheriff hadn’t the heart to put him in jail alongside Negroes, so 
Boo was locked in the courthouse basement. 

Boo’s transition from the basement to back home was nebulous in Jem’s memory. 
Miss Stephanie Crawford said some of the town council told Mr. Radley that if he 
didn’t take Boo back, Boo would die of mold from the damp. Besides, Boo could 
not live forever on the bounty of the county. 

Nobody knew what form of intimidation Mr. Radley employed to keep Boo out of 
sight, but Jem figured that Mr. Radley kept him chained to the bed most of the 
time. Atticus said no, it wasn’t that sort of thing, that there were other ways of 
making people into ghosts. 

My memory came alive to see Mrs. Radley occasionally open the front door, walk 
to the edge of the porch, and pour water on her cannas. But every day Jem and I 

would see Mr. Radley walking to and from town. He was a thin leathery man with 
colorless eyes, so colorless they did not reflect light. His cheekbones were sharp 
and his mouth was wide, with a thin upper lip and a full lower lip. Miss Stephanie 
Crawford said he was so upright he took the word of God as his only law, and we 
believed her, because Mr. Radley’s posture was ramrod straight. 

He never spoke to us. When he passed we would look at the ground and say, 
“Good morning, sir,” and he would cough in reply. Mr. Radley’s elder son lived 
in Pensacola; he came home at Christmas, and he was one of the few persons we 
ever saw enter or leave the place. From the day Mr. Radley took Arthur home, 
people said the house died. 

But there came a day when Atticus told us he’d wear us out if we made any noise 
in the yard and commissioned Calpurnia to serve in his absence if she heard a 
sound out of us. Mr. Radley was dying. 

He took his time about it. Wooden sawhorses blocked the road at each end of the 
Radley lot, straw was put down on the sidewalk, traffic was diverted to the back 
street. Dr. Reynolds parked his car in front of our house and walked to the 
Radley’s every time he called. Jem and I crept around the yard for days. At last 
the sawhorses were taken away, and we stood watching from the front porch 
when Mr. Radley made his final journey past our house. 

“There goes the meanest man ever God blew breath into,” murmured Calpurnia, 
and she spat meditatively into the yard. We looked at her in surprise, for 
Calpurnia rarely commented on the ways of white people. 

The neighborhood thought when Mr. Radley went under Boo would come out, 
but it had another think coming: Boo’s elder brother returned from Pensacola and 
took Mr. Radley’s place. The only difference between him and his father was 
their ages. Jem said Mr. Nathan Radley “bought cotton,” too. Mr. Nathan would 
speak to us, however, when we said good morning, and sometimes we saw him 
coming from town with a magazine in his hand. 

The more we told Dill about the Radleys, the more he wanted to know, the longer 
he would stand hugging the light-pole on the corner, the more he would wonder. 

“Wonder what he does in there,” he would murmur. “Looks like he’d just stick 

his head out the door.” 

Jem said, “He goes out, all right, when it’s pitch dark. Miss Stephanie Crawford 
said she woke up in the middle of the night one time and saw him looking straight 
through the window at her. . . said his head was like a skull lookin‘ at her. Ain’t 
you ever waked up at night and heard him, Dill? He walks like this-” Jem slid his 
feet through the gravel. “Why do you think Miss Rachel locks up so tight at 
night? I’ve seen his tracks in our back yard many a mornin’, and one night I heard 
him scratching on the back screen, but he was gone time Atticus got there.” 

“Wonder what he looks like?” said Dill. 

Jem gave a reasonable description of Boo: Boo was about six-and-a-half feet tall, 
judging from his tracks; he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catch, 
that’s why his hands were bloodstained — if you ate an animal raw, you could 
never wash the blood off. There was a long jagged scar that ran across his face; 
what teeth he had were yellow and rotten; his eyes popped, and he drooled most 
of the time. 

“Let’s try to make him come out,” said Dill. “I’d like to see what he looks like.” 

Jem said if Dill wanted to get himself killed, all he had to do was go up and knock 
on the front door. 

Our first raid came to pass only because Dill bet Jem The Gray Ghost against two 
Tom Swifts that Jem wouldn’t get any farther than the Radley gate. In all his life, 
Jem had never declined a dare. 

Jem thought about it for three days. I suppose he loved honor more than his head, 
for Dill wore him down easily: “You’re scared,” Dill said, the first day. “Ain’t 
scared, just respectful,” Jem said. The next day Dill said, “You’re too scared even 
to put your big toe in the front yard.” Jem said he reckoned he wasn’t, he’d passed 
the Radley Place every school day of his life. 

“Always runnin‘,” I said. 

But Dill got him the third day, when he told Jem that folks in Meridian certainly 
weren’t as afraid as the folks in Maycomb, that he’d never seen such scary folks 
as the ones in Maycomb. 

This was enough to make Jem march to the corner, where he stopped and leaned 
against the light-pole, watching the gate hanging crazily on its homemade hinge. 

“I hope you’ve got it through your head that he’ll kill us each and every one, Dill 
Harris,” said Jem, when we joined him. “Don’t blame me when he gouges your 
eyes out. You started it, remember.” 

“You’re still scared,” murmured Dill patiently. 

Jem wanted Dill to know once and for all that he wasn’t scared of anything: “It’s 
just that I can’t think of a way to make him come out without him gettin‘ us.” 
Besides, Jem had his little sister to think of. 

When he said that, I knew he was afraid. Jem had his little sister to think of the 
time I dared him to jump off the top of the house: “If I got killed, what’d become 
of you?” he asked. Then he jumped, landed unhurt, and his sense of responsibility 
left him until confronted by the Radley Place. 

“You gonna run out on a dare?” asked Dill. “If you are, then-” 

“Dill, you have to think about these things,” Jem said. “Lemme think a minute. . . 
it’s sort of like making a turtle come out. 

“How’s that?” asked Dill. 

“Strike a match under him.” 

I told Jem if he set fire to the Radley house I was going to tell Atticus on him. 

Dill said striking a match under a turtle was hateful. 

“Ain’t hateful, just persuades him — ‘s not like you’d chunk him in the fire,” Jem 

“How do you know a match don’t hurt him?” 

“Turtles can’t feel, stupid,” said Jem. 

“Were you ever a turtle, huh?” 

“My stars, Dill! Now lemme think. . . reckon we can rock him. . .” 

Jem stood in thought so long that Dill made a mild concession: “I won’t say you 
ran out on a dare an‘ I’ll swap you The Gray Ghost if you just go up and touch the 

Jem brightened. “Touch the house, that all?” 

Dill nodded. 

“Sure that’s all, now? I don’t want you hollerin‘ something different the minute I 

get back.” 

“Yeah, that’s all,” said Dill. “He’ll probably come out after you when he sees you 
in the yard, then Scout’n 4 me’ll jump on him and hold him down till we can tell 
him we ain’t gonna hurt him.” 

We left the corner, crossed the side street that ran in front of the Radley house, 
and stopped at the gate. 

“Well go on,” said Dill, “Scout and me’s right behind you.” 

“I’m going,” said Jem, “don’t hurry me.” 

He walked to the corner of the lot, then back again, studying the simple terrain as 
if deciding how best to effect an entry, frowning and scratching his head. 

Then I sneered at him. 

Jem threw open the gate and sped to the side of the house, slapped it with his 
palm and ran back past us, not waiting to see if his foray was successful. Dill and 
I followed on his heels. Safely on our porch, panting and out of breath, we looked 

The old house was the same, droopy and sick, but as we stared down the street we 
thought we saw an inside shutter move. Flick. A tiny, almost invisible movement, 
and the house was still. 

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Chapter 2 

Dill left us early in September, to return to Meridian. We saw him off on the five 
o’clock bus and I was miserable without him until it occurred to me that I would 
be starting to school in a week. I never looked forward more to anything in my 
life. Hours of wintertime had found me in the treehouse, looking over at the 
schoolyard, spying on multitudes of children through a two-power telescope Jem 
had given me, learning their games, following Jem’s red jacket through wriggling 

circles of blind man’s buff, secretly sharing their misfortunes and minor victories. 
I longed to join them. 

Jem condescended to take me to school the first day, a job usually done by one’s 
parents, but Atticus had said Jem would be delighted to show me where my room 
was. I think some money changed hands in this transaction, for as we trotted 
around the corner past the Radley Place I heard an unfamiliar jingle in Jem’s 
pockets. When we slowed to a walk at the edge of the schoolyard, Jem was 
careful to explain that during school hours I was not to bother him, I was not to 
approach him with requests to enact a chapter of Tarzan and the Ant Men, to 
embarrass him with references to his private life, or tag along behind him at 
recess and noon. I was to stick with the first grade and he would stick with the 
fifth. In short, I was to leave him alone. 

“You mean we can’t play any more?” I asked. 

“We’ll do like we always do at home,” he said, “but you’ll see — school’s 

It certainly was. Before the first morning was over, Miss Caroline Fisher, our 
teacher, hauled me up to the front of the room and patted the palm of my hand 
with a ruler, then made me stand in the corner until noon. 

Miss Caroline was no more than twenty-one. She had bright auburn hair, pink 
cheeks, and wore crimson fingernail polish. She also wore high-heeled pumps and 
a red-and-white-striped dress. She looked and smelled like a peppermint drop. 

She boarded across the street one door down from us in Miss Maudie Atkinson’s 
upstairs front room, and when Miss Maudie introduced us to her, Jem was in a 
haze for days. 

Miss Caroline printed her name on the blackboard and said, “This says I am Miss 
Caroline Fisher. I am from North Alabama, from Winston County.” The class 
murmured apprehensively, should she prove to harbor her share of the 
peculiarities indigenous to that region. (When Alabama seceded from the Union 
on January 11, 1861, Winston County seceded from Alabama, and every child in 
Maycomb County knew it.) North Alabama was full of Liquor Interests, Big 
Mules, steel companies, Republicans, professors, and other persons of no 

Miss Caroline began the day by reading us a story about cats. The cats had long 
conversations with one another, they wore cunning little clothes and lived in a 
warm house beneath a kitchen stove. By the time Mrs. Cat called the drugstore for 
an order of chocolate malted mice the class was wriggling like a bucketful of 
catawba worms. Miss Caroline seemed unaware that the ragged, denim-shirted 
and flour sack- skirted first grade, most of whom had chopped cotton and fed hogs 
from the time they were able to walk, were immune to imaginative literature. 

Miss Caroline came to the end of the story and said, “Oh, my, wasn’t that nice?” 

Then she went to the blackboard and printed the alphabet in enormous square 
capitals, turned to the class and asked, “Does anybody know what these are?” 

Everybody did; most of the first grade had failed it last year. 

I suppose she chose me because she knew my name; as I read the alphabet a faint 
line appeared between her eyebrows, and after making me read most of My First 
Reader and the stock-market quotations from The Mobile Register aloud, she 
discovered that I was literate and looked at me with more than faint distaste. Miss 
Caroline told me to tell my father not to teach me any more, it would interfere 
with my reading. 

“Teach me?” I said in surprise. “He hasn’t taught me anything, Miss Caroline. 
Atticus ain’t got time to teach me anything,” I added, when Miss Caroline smiled 
and shook her head. “Why, he’s so tired at night he just sits in the livingroom and 

“If he didn’t teach you, who did?” Miss Caroline asked good-naturedly. 
“Somebody did. You weren’t born reading The Mobile Register .” 

“Jem says I was. He read in a book where I was a Bullfinch instead of a Finch. 
Jem says my name’s really Jean Louise Bullfinch, that I got swapped when I was 
born and I’m really a-” 

Miss Caroline apparently thought I was lying. “Let’s not let our imaginations run 
away with us, dear,” she said. “Now you tell your father not to teach you any 
more. It’s best to begin reading with a fresh mind. You tell him I’ll take over from 
here and try to undo the damage-” 


“Your father does not know how to teach. You can have a seat now.” 

I mumbled that I was sorry and retired meditating upon my crime. I never 
deliberately learned to read, but somehow I had been wallowing illicitly in the 
daily papers. In the long hours of church — was it then I learned? I could not 
remember not being able to read hymns. Now that I was compelled to think about 
it, reading was something that just came to me, as learning to fasten the seat of 
my union suit without looking around, or achieving two bows from a snarl of 
shoelaces. I could not remember when the lines above Atticus’s moving finger 
separated into words, but I had stared at them all the evenings in my memory, 
listening to the news of the day, Bills to Be Enacted into Laws, the diaries of 
Lorenzo Dow — anything Atticus happened to be reading when I crawled into his 
lap every night. Until I feared I would lose it, I never loved to read. One does not 
love breathing. 

I knew I had annoyed Miss Caroline, so I let well enough alone and stared out the 
window until recess when Jem cut me from the covey of first-graders in the 
schoolyard. He asked how I was getting along. I told him. 

“If I didn’t have to stay I’d leave. Jem, that damn lady says Atticus’s been 
teaching me to read and for him to stop it-” 

“Don’t worry, Scout,” Jem comforted me. “Our teacher says Miss Caroline’s 
introducing a new way of teaching. She learned about it in college. It’ll be in all 
the grades soon. You don’t have to learn much out of books that way — it’s like if 
you wanta learn about cows, you go milk one, see?” 

“Yeah Jem, but I don’t wanta study cows, I-” 

“Sure you do. You hafta know about cows, they’re a big part of life in Maycomb 

I contented myself with asking Jem if he’d lost his mind. 

“I’m just trying to tell you the new way they’re teachin‘ the first grade, stubborn. 
It’s the Dewey Decimal System.” 

Having never questioned Jem’s pronouncements, I saw no reason to begin now. 
The Dewey Decimal System consisted, in part, of Miss Caroline waving cards at 
us on which were printed “the,” “cat,” “rat,” “man,” and “you.” No comment 

seemed to be expected of us, and the class received these impressionistic 
revelations in silence. I was bored, so I began a letter to Dill. Miss Caroline 
caught me writing and told me to tell my father to stop teaching me. “Besides,” 
she said. “We don’t write in the first grade, we print. You won’t learn to write 
until you’re in the third grade.” 

Calpurnia was to blame for this. It kept me from driving her crazy on rainy days, I 
guess. She would set me a writing task by scrawling the alphabet firmly across the 
top of a tablet, then copying out a chapter of the Bible beneath. If I reproduced 
her penmanship satisfactorily, she rewarded me with an open-faced sandwich of 
bread and butter and sugar. In Calpurnia’ s teaching, there was no sentimentality: I 
seldom pleased her and she seldom rewarded me. 

“Everybody who goes home to lunch hold up your hands,” said Miss Caroline, 
breaking into my new grudge against Calpurnia. 

The town children did so, and she looked us over. 

“Everybody who brings his lunch put it on top of his desk.” 

Molasses buckets appeared from nowhere, and the ceiling danced with metallic 
light. Miss Caroline walked up and down the rows peering and poking into lunch 
containers, nodding if the contents pleased her, frowning a little at others. She 
stopped at Walter Cunningham’s desk. “Where’s yours?” she asked. 

Walter Cunningham’s face told everybody in the first grade he had hookworms. 
His absence of shoes told us how he got them. People caught hookworms going 
barefooted in barnyards and hog wallows. If Walter had owned any shoes he 
would have worn them the first day of school and then discarded them until mid- 
winter. He did have on a clean shirt and neatly mended overalls. 

“Did you forget your lunch this morning?” asked Miss Caroline. 

Walter looked straight ahead. I saw a muscle jump in his skinny jaw. 

“Did you forget it this morning?” asked Miss Caroline. Walter’s jaw twitched 

“Yeb’m,” he finally mumbled. 

Miss Caroline went to her desk and opened her purse. “Here’s a quarter,” she said 
to Walter. “Go and eat downtown today. You can pay me back tomorrow.” 

Walter shook his head. “Nome thank you ma’am,” he drawled softly. 

Impatience crept into Miss Caroline’s voice: “Here Walter, come get it.” 

Walter shook his head again. 

When Walter shook his head a third time someone whispered, “Go on and tell 
her, Scout.” 

I turned around and saw most of the town people and the entire bus delegation 
looking at me. Miss Caroline and I had conferred twice already, and they were 
looking at me in the innocent assurance that familiarity breeds understanding. 

I rose graciously on Walter’s behalf: “Ah — Miss Caroline?” 

“What is it, Jean Louise?” 

“Miss Caroline, he’s a Cunningham.” 

I sat back down. 

“What, Jean Louise?” 

I thought I had made things sufficiently clear. It was clear enough to the rest of 
us: Walter Cunningham was sitting there lying his head off. He didn’t forget his 
lunch, he didn’t have any. He had none today nor would he have any tomorrow or 
the next day. He had probably never seen three quarters together at the same time 
in his life. 

I tried again: “Walter’s one of the Cunninghams, Miss Caroline.” 

“I beg your pardon, Jean Louise?” 

“That’s okay, ma’am, you’ll get to know all the county folks after a while. The 
Cunninghams never took anything they can’t pay back — no church baskets and no 
scrip stamps. They never took anything off of anybody, they get along on what 
they have. They don’t have much, but they get along on it.” 

My special knowledge of the Cunningham tribe — one branch, that is — was gained 
from events of last winter. Walter’s father was one of Atticus’s clients. After a 
dreary conversation in our livingroom one night about his entailment, before Mr. 
Cunningham left he said, “Mr. Finch, I don’t know when I’ll ever be able to pay 

“Let that be the least of your worries, Walter,” Atticus said. 

When I asked Jem what entailment was, and Jem described it as a condition of 
having your tail in a crack, I asked Atticus if Mr. Cunningham would ever pay us. 

“Not in money,” Atticus said, “but before the year’s out I’ll have been paid. You 

We watched. One morning Jem and I found a load of stovewood in the back yard. 
Later, a sack of hickory nuts appeared on the back steps. With Christmas came a 
crate of smilax and holly. That spring when we found a crokersack full of turnip 
greens, Atticus said Mr. Cunningham had more than paid him. 

“Why does he pay you like that?” I asked. 

“Because that’s the only way he can pay me. He has no money.” 

“Are we poor, Atticus?” 

Atticus nodded. “We are indeed.” 

Jem’s nose wrinkled. “Are we as poor as the Cunninghams?” 

“Not exactly. The Cunninghams are country folks, farmers, and the crash hit them 

Atticus said professional people were poor because the farmers were poor. As 
Maycomb County was farm country, nickels and dimes were hard to come by for 
doctors and dentists and lawyers. Entailment was only a part of Mr. 

Cunningham’s vexations. The acres not entailed were mortgaged to the hilt, and 
the little cash he made went to interest. If he held his mouth right, Mr. 
Cunningham could get a WPA job, but his land would go to ruin if he left it, and 
he was willing to go hungry to keep his land and vote as he pleased. Mr. 
Cunningham, said Atticus, came from a set breed of men. 

As the Cunninghams had no money to pay a lawyer, they simply paid us with 
what they had. “Did you know,” said Atticus, “that Dr. Reynolds works the same 
way? He charges some folks a bushel of potatoes for delivery of a baby. Miss 
Scout, if you give me your attention I’ll tell you what entailment is. Jem’s 
definitions are very nearly accurate sometimes.” 

If I could have explained these things to Miss Caroline, I would have saved 
myself some inconvenience and Miss Caroline subsequent mortification, but it 
was beyond my ability to explain things as well as Atticus, so I said, “You’re 

shamin‘ him, Miss Caroline. Walter hasn’t got a quarter at home to bring you, and 
you can’t use any stovewood.” 

Miss Caroline stood stock still, then grabbed me by the collar and hauled me back 
to her desk. “Jean Louise, I’ve had about enough of you this morning,” she said. 
“You’re starting off on the wrong foot in every way, my dear. Hold out your 

I thought she was going to spit in it, which was the only reason anybody in 
Maycomb held out his hand: it was a time-honored method of sealing oral 
contracts. Wondering what bargain we had made, I turned to the class for an 
answer, but the class looked back at me in puzzlement. Miss Caroline picked up 
her ruler, gave me half a dozen quick little pats, then told me to stand in the 
corner. A storm of laughter broke loose when it finally occurred to the class that 
Miss Caroline had whipped me. 

When Miss Caroline threatened it with a similar fate the first grade exploded 
again, becoming cold sober only when the shadow of Miss Blount fell over them. 
Miss Blount, a native Maycombian as yet uninitiated in the mysteries of the 
Decimal System, appeared at the door hands on hips and announced: “If I hear 
another sound from this room I’ll burn up everybody in it. Miss Caroline, the 
sixth grade cannot concentrate on the pyramids for all this racket!” 

My sojourn in the corner was a short one. Saved by the bell, Miss Caroline 
watched the class file out for lunch. As I was the last to leave, I saw her sink 
down into her chair and bury her head in her arms. Had her conduct been more 
friendly toward me, I would have felt sorry for her. She was a pretty little thing. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 3 

Catching Walter Cunningham in the schoolyard gave me some pleasure, but when 
I was rubbing his nose in the dirt Jem came by and told me to stop. “You’re 

bigger’n he is,” he said. 

“He’s as old as you, nearly,” I said. “He made me start off on the wrong foot.” 
“Let him go, Scout. Why?” 

“He didn’t have any lunch,” I said, and explained my involvement in Walter’s 
dietary affairs. 

Walter had picked himself up and was standing quietly listening to Jem and me. 
His fists were half cocked, as if expecting an onslaught from both of us. I stomped 
at him to chase him away, but Jem put out his hand and stopped me. He examined 
Walter with an air of speculation. “Your daddy Mr. Walter Cunningham from Old 
Sarum?” he asked, and Walter nodded. 

Walter looked as if he had been raised on fish food: his eyes, as blue as Dill 
Harris’s, were red-rimmed and watery. There was no color in his face except at 
the tip of his nose, which was moistly pink. He fingered the straps of his overalls, 
nervously picking at the metal hooks. 

Jem suddenly grinned at him. “Come on home to dinner with us, Walter,” he said. 
“We’d be glad to have you.” 

Walter’s face brightened, then darkened. 

Jem said, “Our daddy’s a friend of your daddy’s. Scout here, she’s crazy — she 
won’t fight you any more.” 

“I wouldn’t be too certain of that,” I said. Jem’s free dispensation of my pledge 
irked me, but precious noontime minutes were ticking away. “Yeah Walter, I 
won’t jump on you again. Don’t you like butterbeans? Our Cal’s a real good 

Walter stood where he was, biting his lip. Jem and I gave up, and we were nearly 
to the Radley Place when Walter called, “Hey, I’m comin‘!” 

When Walter caught up with us, Jem made pleasant conversation with him. “A 
hain’t lives there,” he said cordially, pointing to the Radley house. “Ever hear 
about him, Walter?” 

“Reckon I have,” said Walter. “Almost died first year I come to school and et 
them pecans — folks say he pizened ‘em and put ’em over on the school side of the 

Jem seemed to have little fear of Boo Radley now that Walter and I walked beside 
him. Indeed, Jem grew boastful: “I went all the way up to the house once,” he said 
to Walter. 

“Anybody who went up to the house once oughta not to still run every time he 
passes it,” I said to the clouds above. 

“And who’s runnin‘, Miss Priss?” 

“You are, when ain’t anybody with you.” 

By the time we reached our front steps Walter had forgotten he was a 
Cunningham. Jem ran to the kitchen and asked Calpurnia to set an extra plate, we 
had company. Atticus greeted Walter and began a discussion about crops neither 
Jem nor I could follow. 

“Reason I can’t pass the first grade, Mr. Finch, is I’ve had to stay out ever 4 spring 
an’ help Papa with the choppin 4 , but there’s another’n at the house now that’s 
field size.” 

“Did you pay a bushel of potatoes for him?” I asked, but Atticus shook his head at 

While Walter piled food on his plate, he and Atticus talked together like two men, 
to the wonderment of Jem and me. Atticus was expounding upon farm problems 
when Walter interrupted to ask if there was any molasses in the house. Atticus 
summoned Calpurnia, who returned bearing the syrup pitcher. She stood waiting 
for Walter to help himself. Walter poured syrup on his vegetables and meat with a 
generous hand. He would probably have poured it into his milk glass had I not 
asked what the sam hill he was doing. 

The silver saucer clattered when he replaced the pitcher, and he quickly put his 
hands in his lap. Then he ducked his head. 

Atticus shook his head at me again. “But he’s gone and drowned his dinner in 
syrup,” I protested. “He’s poured it all over-” 

It was then that Calpurnia requested my presence in the kitchen. 

She was furious, and when she was furious Calpurnia’ s grammar became erratic. 
When in tranquility, her grammar was as good as anybody’s in Maycomb. Atticus 
said Calpurnia had more education than most colored folks. 

When she squinted down at me the tiny lines around her eyes deepened. “There’s 
some folks who don’t eat like us,” she whispered fiercely, “but you ain’t called on 
to contradict ‘em at the table when they don’t. That boy’s yo’ comp’ny and if he 
wants to eat up the table cloth you let him, you hear?” 

“He ain’t company, Cal, he’s just a Cunningham-” 

“Hush your mouth! Don’t matter who they are, anybody sets foot in this house’s 
yo‘ comp’ny, and don’t you let me catch you remarkin’ on their ways like you 
was so high and mighty! Yo‘ folks might be better’ n the Cunninghams but it 
don’t count for nothin’ the way you’re disgracnT ’em — if you can’t act fit to eat 
at the table you can just set here and eat in the kitchen!” 

Calpurnia sent me through the swinging door to the diningroom with a stinging 
smack. I retrieved my plate and finished dinner in the kitchen, thankful, though, 
that I was spared the humiliation of facing them again. I told Calpurnia to just 
wait, I’d fix her: one of these days when she wasn’t looking I’d go off and drown 
myself in Barker’s Eddy and then she’d be sorry. Besides, I added, she’d already 
gotten me in trouble once today: she had taught me to write and it was all her 
fault. “Hush your fussin‘,” she said. 

Jem and Walter returned to school ahead of me: staying behind to advise Atticus 
of Calpurnia’ s iniquities was worth a solitary sprint past the Radley Place. “She 
likes Jem better’n she likes me, anyway,” I concluded, and suggested that Atticus 
lose no time in packing her off. 

“Have you ever considered that Jem doesn’t worry her half as much?” Atticus’ s 
voice was flinty. “I’ve no intention of getting rid of her, now or ever. We couldn’t 
operate a single day without Cal, have you ever thought of that? You think about 
how much Cal does for you, and you mind her, you hear?” 

I returned to school and hated Calpurnia steadily until a sudden shriek shattered 
my resentments. I looked up to see Miss Caroline standing in the middle of the 
room, sheer horror flooding her face. Apparently she had revived enough to 
persevere in her profession. 

“It’s alive!” she screamed. 

The male population of the class rushed as one to her assistance. Lord, I thought, 

she’s scared of a mouse. Little Chuck Little, whose patience with all living things 
was phenomenal, said, “Which way did he go, Miss Caroline? Tell us where he 
went, quick! D.C.-” he turned to a boy behind him — “D.C., shut the door and 
we’ll catch him. Quick, ma’am, where’d he go?” 

Miss Caroline pointed a shaking finger not at the floor nor at a desk, but to a 
hulking individual unknown to me. Little Chuck’s face contracted and he said 
gently, “You mean him, ma’am? Yessum, he’s alive. Did he scare you some 

Miss Caroline said desperately, “I was just walking by when it crawled out of his 
hair. . . just crawled out of his hair-” 

Little Chuck grinned broadly. “There ain’t no need to fear a cootie, ma’am. Ain’t 
you ever seen one? Now don’t you be afraid, you just go back to your desk and 
teach us some more.” 

Little Chuck Little was another member of the population who didn’t know where 
his next meal was coming from, but he was a born gentleman. He put his hand 
under her elbow and led Miss Caroline to the front of the room. “Now don’t you 
fret, ma’am,” he said. “There ain’t no need to fear a cootie. I’ll just fetch you 
some cool water.” The cootie’s host showed not the faintest interest in the furor 
he had wrought. He searched the scalp above his forehead, located his guest and 
pinched it between his thumb and forefinger. 

Miss Caroline watched the process in horrid fascination. Little Chuck brought 
water in a paper cup, and she drank it gratefully. Finally she found her voice. 
“What is your name, son?” she asked softly. 

The boy blinked. “Who, me?” Miss Caroline nodded. 

“Burris Ewell.” 

Miss Caroline inspected her roll-book. “I have a Ewell here, but I don’t have a 
first name. . . would you spell your first name for me?” 

“Don’t know how. They call me Burris’t home.” 

“Well, Burris,” said Miss Caroline, “I think we’d better excuse you for the rest of 
the afternoon. I want you to go home and wash your hair.” 

From her desk she produced a thick volume, leafed through its pages and read for 

a moment. “A good home remedy for — Burris, I want you to go home and wash 
your hair with lye soap. When you’ve done that, treat your scalp with kerosene.” 

“What fer, missus?” 

“To get rid of the — er, cooties. You see, Burris, the other children might catch 
them, and you wouldn’t want that, would you?” 

The boy stood up. He was the filthiest human I had ever seen. His neck was dark 
gray, the backs of his hands were rusty, and his fingernails were black deep into 
the quick. He peered at Miss Caroline from a fist-sized clean space on his face. 

No one had noticed him, probably, because Miss Caroline and I had entertained 
the class most of the morning. 

“And Burris,” said Miss Caroline, “please bathe yourself before you come back 

The boy laughed rudely. “You ain’t sendin‘ me home, missus. I was on the verge 
of leavin’ — I done done my time for this year.” 

Miss Caroline looked puzzled. “What do you mean by that?” 

The boy did not answer. He gave a short contemptuous snort. 

One of the elderly members of the class answered her: “He’s one of the Ewells, 
ma’am,” and I wondered if this explanation would be as unsuccessful as my 
attempt. But Miss Caroline seemed willing to listen. “Whole school’s full of ‘em. 
They come first day every year and then leave. The truant lady gets ’em here 
‘cause she threatens ’em with the sheriff, but she’s give up tryin‘ to hold ’em. She 
reckons she’s carried out the law just gettin‘ their names on the roll and runnin’ 
‘em here the first day. You’re supposed to mark ’em absent the rest of the year. . .” 

“But what about their parents?” asked Miss Caroline, in genuine concern. 

“Ain’t got no mother,” was the answer, “and their paw’s right contentious.” 

Burris Ewell was flattered by the recital. “Been comin‘ to the first day o’ the first 
grade fer three year now,” he said expansively. “Reckon if I’m smart this year 
they’ll promote me to the second. . .” 

Miss Caroline said, “Sit back down, please, Burris,” and the moment she said it I 
knew she had made a serious mistake. The boy’s condescension flashed to anger. 

“You try and make me, missus.” 

Little Chuck Little got to his feet. “Let him go, ma’am,” he said. “He’s a mean 
one, a hard-down mean one. He’s liable to start somethin 4 , and there’s some little 
folks here.” 

He was among the most diminutive of men, but when Burris Ewell turned toward 
him, Little Chuck’s right hand went to his pocket. “Watch your step, Burris,” he 
said. “I’d soon’s kill you as look at you. Now go home.” 

Burris seemed to be afraid of a child half his height, and Miss Caroline took 
advantage of his indecision: “Burris, go home. If you don’t I’ll call the principal,” 
she said. “I’ll have to report this, anyway.” 

The boy snorted and slouched leisurely to the door. 

Safely out of range, he turned and shouted: “Report and be damned to ye! Ain’t 
no snot-nosed slut of a schoolteacher ever born c’n make me do nothin 4 ! You 
ain’t makin’ me go nowhere, missus. You just remember that, you ain’t makin 4 
me go nowhere!” 

He waited until he was sure she was crying, then he shuffled out of the building. 

Soon we were clustered around her desk, trying in our various ways to comfort 
her. He was a real mean one. . . below the belt. . . you ain’t called on to teach folks 
like that. . . them ain’t Maycomb’s ways, Miss Caroline, not really. . . now don’t 
you fret, ma’am. Miss Caroline, why don’t you read us a story? That cat thing 
was real fine this mornin 4 . . . 

Miss Caroline smiled, blew her nose, said, “Thank you, darlings,” dispersed us, 
opened a book and mystified the first grade with a long narrative about a toadfrog 
that lived in a hall. 

When I passed the Radley Place for the fourth time that day — twice at a full gallop 
— my gloom had deepened to match the house. If the remainder of the school year 
were as fraught with drama as the first day, perhaps it would be mildly 
entertaining, but the prospect of spending nine months refraining from reading 
and writing made me think of running away. 

By late afternoon most of my traveling plans were complete; when Jem and I 
raced each other up the sidewalk to meet Atticus coming home from work, I 
didn’t give him much of a race. It was our habit to run meet Atticus the moment 

we saw him round the post office comer in the distance. Atticus seemed to have 
forgotten my noontime fall from grace; he was full of questions about school. My 
replies were monosyllabic and he did not press me. 

Perhaps Calpurnia sensed that my day had been a grim one: she let me watch her 
fix supper. “Shut your eyes and open your mouth and I’ll give you a surprise,” she 

It was not often that she made crackling bread, she said she never had time, but 
with both of us at school today had been an easy one for her. She knew I loved 
crackling bread. 

“I missed you today,” she said. “The house got so lonesome ‘long about two 
o’clock I had to turn on the radio.” 

“Why? Jem’n me ain’t ever in the house unless it’s rainin‘.” 

“I know,” she said, “But one of you’s always in callin‘ distance. I wonder how 
much of the day I spend just callin’ after you. Well,” she said, getting up from the 
kitchen chair, “it’s enough time to make a pan of cracklhT bread, I reckon. You 
run along now and let me get supper on the table.” 

Calpurnia bent down and kissed me. I ran along, wondering what had come over 
her. She had wanted to make up with me, that was it. She had always been too 
hard on me, she had at last seen the error of her fractious ways, she was sorry and 
too stubborn to say so. I was weary from the day’s crimes. 

After supper, Atticus sat down with the paper and called, “Scout, ready to read?” 
The Lord sent me more than I could bear, and I went to the front porch. Atticus 
followed me. 

“Something wrong, Scout?” 

I told Atticus I didn’t feel very well and didn’t think I’d go to school any more if 
it was all right with him. 

Atticus sat down in the swing and crossed his legs. His fingers wandered to his 
watchpocket; he said that was the only way he could think. He waited in amiable 
silence, and I sought to reinforce my position: “You never went to school and you 
do all right, so I’ll just stay home too. You can teach me like Granddaddy taught 
you ‘n’ Uncle Jack.” 

“No I can’t,” said Atticus. “I have to make a living. Besides, they’d put me in jail 
if I kept you at home — dose of magnesia for you tonight and school tomorrow.” 

“I’m feeling all right, really.” 

“Thought so. Now what’s the matter?” 

Bit by bit, I told him the day’s misfortunes, “-and she said you taught me all 
wrong, so we can’t ever read any more, ever. Please don’t send me back, please 

Atticus stood up and walked to the end of the porch. When he completed his 
examination of the wisteria vine he strolled back to me. 

“First of all,” he said, “if you can learn a simple trick, Scout, you’ll get along a lot 
better with all kinds of folks. You never really understand a person until you 
consider things from his point of view-” 


“-until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.” 

Atticus said I had learned many things today, and Miss Caroline had learned 
several things herself. She had learned not to hand something to a Cunningham, 
for one thing, but if Walter and I had put ourselves in her shoes we’d have seen it 
was an honest mistake on her part. We could not expect her to learn all 
Maycomb’s ways in one day, and we could not hold her responsible when she 
knew no better. 

“I’ll be dogged,” I said. “I didn’t know no better than not to read to her, and she 
held me responsible — listen Atticus, I don’t have to go to school!” I was bursting 
with a sudden thought. “Burris Ewell, remember? He just goes to school the first 
day. The truant lady reckons she’s carried out the law when she gets his name on 
the roll-” “You can’t do that, Scout,” Atticus said. “Sometimes it’s better to bend 
the law a little in special cases. In your case, the law remains rigid. So to school 
you must go.” 

“I don’t see why I have to when he doesn’t.” 

“Then listen.” 

Atticus said the Ewells had been the disgrace of May comb for three generations. 
None of them had done an honest day’s work in his recollection. He said that 

some Christmas, when he was getting rid of the tree, he would take me with him 
and show me where and how they lived. They were people, but they lived like 
animals. “They can go to school any time they want to, when they show the 
faintest symptom of wanting an education,” said Atticus. “There are ways of 
keeping them in school by force, but it’ s silly to force people like the Ewells into 
a new environment-” 

“If I didn’t go to school tomorrow, you’d force me to.” 

“Let us leave it at this,” said Atticus dryly. “You, Miss Scout Finch, are of the 
common folk. You must obey the law.” He said that the Ewells were members of 
an exclusive society made up of Ewells. In certain circumstances the common 
folk judiciously allowed them certain privileges by the simple method of 
becoming blind to some of the Ewells’ activities. They didn’t have to go to 
school, for one thing. Another thing, Mr. Bob Ewell, Burris’s father, was 
permitted to hunt and trap out of season. 

“Atticus, that’s bad,” I said. In Maycomb County, hunting out of season was a 
misdemeanor at law, a capital felony in the eyes of the populace. 

“It’s against the law, all right,” said my father, “and it’s certainly bad, but when a 
man spends his relief checks on green whiskey his children have a way of crying 
from hunger pains. I don’t know of any landowner around here who begrudges 
those children any game their father can hit.” 

“Mr. Ewell shouldn’t do that-” 

“Of course he shouldn’t, but he’ll never change his ways. Are you going to take 
out your disapproval on his children?” 

“No sir,” I murmured, and made a final stand: “But if I keep on goin‘ to school, 
we can’t ever read any more. . .” 

“That’s really bothering you, isn’t it?” 

“Yes sir.” 

When Atticus looked down at me I saw the expression on his face that always 
made me expect something. “Do you know what a compromise is?” he asked. 

“Bending the law?” 

“No, an agreement reached by mutual concessions. It works this way,” he said. “If 

you’ll concede the necessity of going to school, we’ll go on reading every night 
just as we always have. Is it a bargain?” 

“Yes sir!” 

“We’ll consider it sealed without the usual formality,” Atticus said, when he saw 
me preparing to spit. 

As I opened the front screen door Atticus said, “By the way, Scout, you’d better 
not say anything at school about our agreement.” 

“Why not?” 

“I’m afraid our activities would be received with considerable disapprobation by 
the more learned authorities.” 

Jem and I were accustomed to our father’s last-will-and-testament diction, and we 
were at all times free to interrupt Atticus for a translation when it was beyond our 

“Huh, sir?” 

“I never went to school,” he said, “but I have a feeling that if you tell Miss 
Caroline we read every night she’ll get after me, and I wouldn’t want her after 

Atticus kept us in fits that evening, gravely reading columns of print about a man 
who sat on a flagpole for no discernible reason, which was reason enough for Jem 
to spend the following Saturday aloft in the treehouse. Jem sat from after 
breakfast until sunset and would have remained overnight had not Atticus severed 
his supply lines. I had spent most of the day climbing up and down, running 
errands for him, providing him with literature, nourishment and water, and was 
carrying him blankets for the night when Atticus said if I paid no attention to him, 
Jem would come down. Atticus was right. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 4 

The remainder of my schooldays were no more auspicious than the first. Indeed, 
they were an endless Project that slowly evolved into a Unit, in which miles of 
construction paper and wax crayon were expended by the State of Alabama in its 
well-meaning but fruitless efforts to teach me Group Dynamics. What Jem called 
the Dewey Decimal System was school- wide by the end of my first year, so I had 
no chance to compare it with other teaching techniques. I could only look around 
me: Atticus and my uncle, who went to school at home, knew everything — at 
least, what one didn’t know the other did. Furthermore, I couldn’t help noticing 
that my father had served for years in the state legislature, elected each time 
without opposition, innocent of the adjustments my teachers thought essential to 
the development of Good Citizenship. Jem, educated on a half-Decimal half- 
Duncecap basis, seemed to function effectively alone or in a group, but Jem was a 
poor example: no tutorial system devised by man could have stopped him from 
getting at books. As for me, I knew nothing except what I gathered from Time 
magazine and reading everything I could lay hands on at home, but as I inched 
sluggishly along the treadmill of the Maycomb County school system, I could not 
help receiving the impression that I was being cheated out of something. Out of 
what I knew not, yet I did not believe that twelve years of unrelieved boredom 
was exactly what the state had in mind for me. 

As the year passed, released from school thirty minutes before Jem, who had to 
stay until three o’clock, I ran by the Radley Place as fast as I could, not stopping 
until I reached the safety of our front porch. One afternoon as I raced by, 
something caught my eye and caught it in such a way that I took a deep breath, a 
long look around, and went back. 

Two live oaks stood at the edge of the Radley lot; their roots reached out into the 
side-road and made it bumpy. Something about one of the trees attracted my 

Some tinfoil was sticking in a knot-hole just above my eye level, winking at me in 
the afternoon sun. I stood on tiptoe, hastily looked around once more, reached 
into the hole, and withdrew two pieces of chewing gum minus their outer 

My first impulse was to get it into my mouth as quickly as possible, but I 
remembered where I was. I ran home, and on our front porch I examined my loot. 
The gum looked fresh. I sniffed it and it smelled all right. I licked it and waited 
for a while. When I did not die I crammed it into my mouth: Wrigley’s Double- 

When Jem came home he asked me where I got such a wad. I told him I found it. 
“Don’t eat things you find, Scout.” 

“This wasn’t on the ground, it was in a tree.” 

Jem growled. 

“Well it was,” I said. “It was sticking in that tree yonder, the one comin‘ from 

“Spit it out right now!” 

I spat it out. The tang was fading, anyway. “I’ve been chewin‘ it all afternoon and 
I ain’t dead yet, not even sick.” 

Jem stamped his foot. “Don’t you know you’re not supposed to even touch the 
trees over there? You’ll get killed if you do!” 

“You touched the house once!” 

“That was different! You go gargle — right now, you hear me?” 

“Ain’t neither, it’ll take the taste outa my mouth.” 

“You don’t ‘n’ I’ll tell Calpurnia on you!” 

Rather than risk a tangle with Calpurnia, I did as Jem told me. For some reason, 
my first year of school had wrought a great change in our relationship: 

Calpurnia’ s tyranny, unfairness, and meddling in my business had faded to gentle 
grumblings of general disapproval. On my part, I went to much trouble, 
sometimes, not to provoke her. 

Summer was on the way; Jem and I awaited it with impatience. Summer was our 
best season: it was sleeping on the back screened porch in cots, or trying to sleep 
in the treehouse; summer was everything good to eat; it was a thousand colors in a 
parched landscape; but most of all, summer was Dill. 

The authorities released us early the last day of school, and Jem and I walked 

home together. “Reckon old Dill’ll be coming home tomorrow,” I said. 

“Probably day after,” said Jem. “Mis’sippi turns ‘em loose a day later.” 

As we came to the live oaks at the Radley Place I raised my finger to point for the 
hundredth time to the knot-hole where I had found the chewing gum, trying to 
make Jem believe I had found it there, and found myself pointing at another piece 
of tinfoil. 

“I see it, Scout! I see it-” 

Jem looked around, reached up, and gingerly pocketed a tiny shiny package. We 
ran home, and on the front porch we looked at a small box patchworked with bits 
of tinfoil collected from chewing-gum wrappers. It was the kind of box wedding 
rings came in, purple velvet with a minute catch. Jem flicked open the tiny catch. 
Inside were two scrubbed and polished pennies, one on top of the other. Jem 
examined them. 

“Indian-heads,” he said. “Nineteen-six and Scout, one of em’s nineteen-hundred. 
These are real old.” 

“Nineteen-hundred,” I echoed. “Say-” 

“flush a minute, I’m thinkhT.” 

“Jem, you reckon that’s somebody’s hidin‘ place?” 

“Naw, don’t anybody much but us pass by there, unless it’s some grown 

“Grown folks don’t have hidin‘ places. You reckon we ought to keep ’em, Jem?” 

“I don’t know what we could do, Scout. Who’d we give ‘em back to? I know for a 
fact don’t anybody go by there — Cecil goes by the back street an’ all the way 
around by town to get home.” 

Cecil Jacobs, who lived at the far end of our street next door to the post office, 
walked a total of one mile per school day to avoid the Radley Place and old Mrs. 
Henry Lafayette Dubose. Mrs. Dubose lived two doors up the street from us; 
neighborhood opinion was unanimous that Mrs. Dubose was the meanest old 
woman who ever lived. Jem wouldn’t go by her place without Atticus beside him. 

“What you reckon we oughta do, Jem?” 

Finders were keepers unless title was proven. Plucking an occasional camellia, 
getting a squirt of hot milk from Miss Maudie Atkinson’s cow on a summer day, 
helping ourselves to someone’s scuppernongs was part of our ethical culture, but 
money was different. 

“Tell you what,” said Jem. “We’ll keep ‘em till school starts, then go around and 
ask everybody if they’re theirs. They’re some bus child’s, maybe — he was too 
taken up with gettin’ outa school today an‘ forgot ’em. These are somebody’s, I 
know that. See how they’ve been slicked up? They’ve been saved.” 

“Yeah, but why should somebody wanta put away chewing gum like that? You 
know it doesn’t last.” 

“I don’t know, Scout. But these are important to somebody. . .” 

“How’s that, Jem...?” 

“Well, Indian-heads — well, they come from the Indians. They’re real strong 
magic, they make you have good luck. Not like fried chicken when you’re not 
lookin‘ for it, but things like long life ’n‘ good health, ’n‘ passin’ six-weeks 
tests. . . these are real valuable to somebody. I’m gonna put em in my trunk.” 

Before Jem went to his room, he looked for a long time at the Radley Place. He 
seemed to be thinking again. 

Two days later Dill arrived in a blaze of glory: he had ridden the train by himself 
from Meridian to Maycomb Junction (a courtesy title — Maycomb Junction was in 
Abbott County) where he had been met by Miss Rachel in Maycomb’ s one taxi; 
he had eaten dinner in the diner, he had seen two twins hitched together get off 
the train in Bay St. Louis and stuck to his story regardless of threats. He had 
discarded the abominable blue shorts that were buttoned to his shirts and wore 
real short pants with a belt; he was somewhat heavier, no taller, and said he had 
seen his father. Dill’s father was taller than ours, he had a black beard (pointed), 
and was president of the L & N Railroad. 

“I helped the engineer for a while,” said Dill, yawning. 

“In a pig’s ear you did, Dill. Hush,” said Jem. “What’ll we play today?” 

“Tom and Sam and Dick,” said Dill. “Let’s go in the front yard.” Dill wanted the 
Rover Boys because there were three respectable parts. He was clearly tired of 

being our character man. 

“I’m tired of those,” I said. I was tired of playing Tom Rover, who suddenly lost 
his memory in the middle of a picture show and was out of the script until the 
end, when he was found in Alaska. 

“Make us up one, Jem,” I said. 

“I’m tired of makin‘ ’em up.” 

Our first days of freedom, and we were tired. I wondered what the summer would 

We had strolled to the front yard, where Dill stood looking down the street at the 
dreary face of the Radley Place. “I — smell — death,” he said. “I do, I mean it,” he 
said, when I told him to shut up. 

“You mean when somebody’s dyin‘ you can smell it?” 

“No, I mean I can smell somebody an‘ tell if they’re gonna die. An old lady 
taught me how.” Dill leaned over and sniffed me. “Jean — Louise — Finch, you are 
going to die in three days.” 

“Dill if you don’t hush I’ll knock you bowlegged. I mean it, now-” 

“Yawl hush,” growled Jem, “you act like you believe in Hot Steams.” 

“You act like you don’t,” I said. 

“What’s a Hot Steam?” asked Dill. 

“Haven’t you ever walked along a lonesome road at night and passed by a hot 
place?” Jem asked Dill. “A Hot Steam’s somebody who can’t get to heaven, just 
wallows around on lonesome roads an‘ if you walk through him, when you die 
you’ll be one too, an’ you’ll go around at night suckin‘ people’s breath-” 

“How can you keep from passing through one?” 

“You can’t,” said Jem. “Sometimes they stretch all the way across the road, but if 
you hafta go through one you say, ‘Angel-bright, life-in- death; get off the road, 
don’t suck my breath.’ That keeps ‘em from wrapping around you-” 

“Don’t you believe a word he says, Dill,” I said. “Calpurnia says that’s nigger- 

Jem scowled darkly at me, but said, “Well, are we gonna play anything or not?” 

“Let’s roll in the tire,” I suggested. 

Jem sighed. “You know I’m too big.” 

“You c’n push.” 

I ran to the back yard and pulled an old car tire from under the house. I slapped it 
up to the front yard. “I’m first,” I said. 

Dill said he ought to be first, he just got here. 

Jem arbitrated, awarded me first push with an extra time for Dill, and I folded 
myself inside the tire. 

Until it happened I did not realize that Jem was offended by my contradicting him 
on Hot Steams, and that he was patiently awaiting an opportunity to reward me. 
He did, by pushing the tire down the sidewalk with all the force in his body. 
Ground, sky and houses melted into a mad palette, my ears throbbed, I was 
suffocating. I could not put out my hands to stop, they were wedged between my 
chest and knees. I could only hope that Jem would outrun the tire and me, or that I 
would be stopped by a bump in the sidewalk. I heard him behind me, chasing and 

The tire bumped on gravel, skeetered across the road, crashed into a barrier and 
popped me like a cork onto pavement. Dizzy and nauseated, I lay on the cement 
and shook my head still, pounded my ears to silence, and heard Jem’s voice: 
“Scout, get away from there, come on!” 

I raised my head and stared at the Radley Place steps in front of me. I froze. 
“Come on, Scout, don’t just lie there!” Jem was screaming. “Get up, can’tcha?” 

I got to my feet, trembling as I thawed. 

“Get the tire!” Jem hollered. “Bring it with you! Ain’t you got any sense at all?” 

When I was able to navigate, I ran back to them as fast as my shaking knees 
would carry me. 

“Why didn’t you bring it?” Jem yelled. 

“Why don’t you get it?” I screamed. 

Jem was silent. 

“Go on, it ain’t far inside the gate. Why, you even touched the house once, 


Jem looked at me furiously, could not decline, ran down the sidewalk, treaded 
water at the gate, then dashed in and retrieved the tire. 

“See there?” Jem was scowling triumphantly. “Nothin 4 to it. I swear, Scout, 
sometimes you act so much like a girl it’s mortifyin’.” 

There was more to it than he knew, but I decided not to tell him. 

Calpurnia appeared in the front door and yelled, “Lemonade time! You all get in 
outa that hot sun ‘fore you fry alive!” Lemonade in the middle of the morning was 
a summertime ritual. Calpurnia set a pitcher and three glasses on the porch, then 
went about her business. Being out of Jem’s good graces did not worry me 
especially. Lemonade would restore his good humor. 

Jem gulped down his second glassful and slapped his chest. “I know what we are 
going to play,” he announced. “Something new, something different.” 

“What?” asked Dill. 

“Boo Radley.” 

Jem’s head at times was transparent: he had thought that up to make me 
understand he wasn’t afraid of Radleys in any shape or form, to contrast his own 
fearless heroism with my cowardice. 

“Boo Radley? How?” asked Dill. 

Jem said, “Scout, you can be Mrs. Radley-” 

“I declare if I will. I don’t think-” 

‘“Smatter?” said Dill. “Still scared?” 

“He can get out at night when we’re all asleep. . .” I said. 

Jem hissed. “Scout, how’s he gonna know what we’re doin‘? Besides, I don’t 
think he’s still there. He died years ago and they stuffed him up the chimney.” 

Dill said, “Jem, you and me can play and Scout can watch if she’s scared.” 

I was fairly sure Boo Radley was inside that house, but I couldn’t prove it, and 
felt it best to keep my mouth shut or I would be accused of believing in Hot 
Steams, phenomena I was immune to in the daytime. 

Jem parceled out our roles: I was Mrs. Radley, and all I had to do was come out 

and sweep the porch. Dill was old Mr. Radley: he walked up and down the 
sidewalk and coughed when Jem spoke to him. Jem, naturally, was Boo: he went 
under the front steps and shrieked and howled from time to time. 

As the summer progressed, so did our game. We polished and perfected it, added 
dialogue and plot until we had manufactured a small play upon which we rang 
changes every day. 

Dill was a villain’s villain: he could get into any character part assigned him, and 
appear tall if height was part of the devilry required. He was as good as his worst 
performance; his worst performance was Gothic. I reluctantly played assorted 
ladies who entered the script. I never thought it as much fun as Tarzan, and I 
played that summer with more than vague anxiety despite Jem’s assurances that 
Boo Radley was dead and nothing would get me, with him and Calpurnia there in 
the daytime and Atticus home at night. 

Jem was a born hero. 

It was a melancholy little drama, woven from bits and scraps of gossip and 
neighborhood legend: Mrs. Radley had been beautiful until she married Mr. 
Radley and lost all her money. She also lost most of her teeth, her hair, and her 
right forefinger (Dill’s contribution. Boo bit it off one night when he couldn’t find 
any cats and squirrels to eat.); she sat in the livingroom and cried most of the 
time, while Boo slowly whittled away all the furniture in the house. 

The three of us were the boys who got into trouble; I was the probate judge, for a 
change; Dill led Jem away and crammed him beneath the steps, poking him with 
the brushbroom. Jem would reappear as needed in the shapes of the sheriff, 
assorted townsfolk, and Miss Stephanie Crawford, who had more to say about the 
Radleys than anybody in Maycomb. 

When it was time to play Boo’s big scene, Jem would sneak into the house, steal 
the scissors from the sewing-machine drawer when Calpurnia’ s back was turned, 
then sit in the swing and cut up newspapers. Dill would walk by, cough at Jem, 
and Jem would fake a plunge into Dill’s thigh. From where I stood it looked real. 

When Mr. Nathan Radley passed us on his daily trip to town, we would stand still 
and silent until he was out of sight, then wonder what he would do to us if he 
suspected. Our activities halted when any of the neighbors appeared, and once I 

saw Miss Maudie Atkinson staring across the street at us, her hedge clippers 
poised in midair. 

One day we were so busily playing Chapter XXV, Book II of One Man’s Family, 
we did not see Atticus standing on the sidewalk looking at us, slapping a rolled 
magazine against his knee. The sun said twelve noon. 

“What are you all playing?” he asked. 

“Nothing,” said Jem. 

Jem’s evasion told me our game was a secret, so I kept quiet. 

“What are you doing with those scissors, then? Why are you tearing up that 
newspaper? If it’s today’s I’ll tan you.” 


“Nothing what?” said Atticus. 

“Nothing, sir.” 

“Give me those scissors,” Atticus said. “They’re no things to play with. Does this 
by any chance have anything to do with the Radleys?” 

“No sir,” said Jem, reddening. 

“I hope it doesn’t,” he said shortly, and went inside the house. 


“Shut up! He’s gone in the livingroom, he can hear us in there.” 

Safely in the yard, Dill asked Jem if we could play any more. 

“I don’t know. Atticus didn’t say we couldn’t-” 

“Jem,” I said, “I think Atticus knows it anyway.” 

“No he don’t. If he did he’d say he did.” 

I was not so sure, but Jem told me I was being a girl, that girls always imagined 
things, that’s why other people hated them so, and if I started behaving like one I 
could just go off and find some to play with. 

“All right, you just keep it up then,” I said. “You’ll find out.” 

Atticus ’s arrival was the second reason I wanted to quit the game. The first reason 
happened the day I rolled into the Radley front yard. Through all the head- 

shaking, quelling of nausea and Jem-yelling, I had heard another sound, so low I 
could not have heard it from the sidewalk. Someone inside the house was 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 5 

My nagging got the better of Jem eventually, as I knew it would, and to my relief 
we slowed down the game for a while. He still maintained, however, that Atticus 
hadn’t said we couldn’t, therefore we could; and if Atticus ever said we couldn’t, 
Jem had thought of a way around it: he would simply change the names of the 
characters and then we couldn’t be accused of playing anything. 

Dill was in hearty agreement with this plan of action. Dill was becoming 
something of a trial anyway, following Jem about. He had asked me earlier in the 
summer to marry him, then he promptly forgot about it. He staked me out, marked 
as his property, said I was the only girl he would ever love, then he neglected me. 

I beat him up twice but it did no good, he only grew closer to Jem. They spent 
days together in the treehouse plotting and planning, calling me only when they 
needed a third party. But I kept aloof from their more foolhardy schemes for a 
while, and on pain of being called a girl, I spent most of the remaining twilights 
that summer sitting with Miss Maudie Atkinson on her front porch. 

Jem and I had always enjoyed the free run of Miss Maudie’ s yard if we kept out 
of her azaleas, but our contact with her was not clearly defined. Until Jem and 
Dill excluded me from their plans, she was only another lady in the neighborhood, 
but a relatively benign presence. 

Our tacit treaty with Miss Maudie was that we could play on her lawn, eat her 
scuppernongs if we didn’t jump on the arbor, and explore her vast back lot, terms 
so generous we seldom spoke to her, so careful were we to preserve the delicate 
balance of our relationship, but Jem and Dill drove me closer to her with their 


Miss Maudie hated her house: time spent indoors was time wasted. She was a 
widow, a chameleon lady who worked in her flower beds in an old straw hat and 
men’s coveralls, but after her five o’clock bath she would appear on the porch and 
reign over the street in magisterial beauty. 

She loved everything that grew in God’s earth, even the weeds. With one 
exception. If she found a blade of nut grass in her yard it was like the Second 
Battle of the Marne: she swooped down upon it with a tin tub and subjected it to 
blasts from beneath with a poisonous substance she said was so powerful it’d kill 
us all if we didn’t stand out of the way. 

“Why can’t you just pull it up?” I asked, after witnessing a prolonged campaign 
against a blade not three inches high. 

“Pull it up, child, pull it up?” She picked up the limp sprout and squeezed her 
thumb up its tiny stalk. Microscopic grains oozed out. “Why, one sprig of nut 
grass can ruin a whole yard. Look here. When it comes fall this dries up and the 
wind blows it all over May comb County!” Miss Maudie ’s face likened such an 
occurrence unto an Old Testament pestilence. 

Her speech was crisp for a Maycomb County inhabitant. She called us by all our 
names, and when she grinned she revealed two minute gold prongs clipped to her 
eyeteeth. When I admired them and hoped I would have some eventually, she 
said, “Look here.” With a click of her tongue she thrust out her bridgework, a 
gesture of cordiality that cemented our friendship. 

Miss Maudie’ s benevolence extended to Jem and Dill, whenever they paused in 
their pursuits: we reaped the benefits of a talent Miss Maudie had hitherto kept 
hidden from us. She made the best cakes in the neighborhood. When she was 
admitted into our confidence, every time she baked she made a big cake and three 
little ones, and she would call across the street: “Jem Finch, Scout Finch, Charles 
Baker Harris, come here!” Our promptness was always rewarded. 

In summertime, twilights are long and peaceful. Often as not, Miss Maudie and I 
would sit silently on her porch, watching the sky go from yellow to pink as the 
sun went down, watching flights of martins sweep low over the neighborhood and 
disappear behind the schoolhouse rooftops. 

“Miss Maudie,” I said one evening, “do you think Boo Radley’s still alive?” 

“His name’s Arthur and he’s alive,” she said. She was rocking slowly in her big 
oak chair. “Do you smell my mimosa? It’s like angels’ breath this evening.” 

“Yessum. How do you know?” 

“Know what, child?” 

“That B — Mr. Arthur’s still alive?” 

“What a morbid question. But I suppose it’s a morbid subject. I know he’s alive, 
Jean Louise, because I haven’t seen him carried out yet.” 

“Maybe he died and they stuffed him up the chimney.” 

“Where did you get such a notion?” 

“That’s what Jem said he thought they did.” 

“S-ss-ss. He gets more like Jack Finch every day.” 

Miss Maudie had known Uncle Jack Finch, Atticus’s brother, since they were 
children. Nearly the same age, they had grown up together at Finch’s Landing. 
Miss Maudie was the daughter of a neighboring landowner, Dr. Frank Buford. Dr. 
Buford’s profession was medicine and his obsession was anything that grew in 
the ground, so he stayed poor. Uncle Jack Finch confined his passion for digging 
to his window boxes in Nashville and stayed rich. We saw Uncle Jack every 
Christmas, and every Christmas he yelled across the street for Miss Maudie to 
come marry him. Miss Maudie would yell back, “Call a little louder, Jack Finch, 
and they’ll hear you at the post office, I haven’t heard you yet!” Jem and I thought 
this a strange way to ask for a lady’s hand in marriage, but then Uncle Jack was 
rather strange. He said he was trying to get Miss Maudie’ s goat, that he had been 
trying unsuccessfully for forty years, that he was the last person in the world Miss 
Maudie would think about marrying but the first person she thought about teasing, 
and the best defense to her was spirited offense, all of which we understood 

“Arthur Radley just stays in the house, that’s all,” said Miss Maudie. “Wouldn’t 
you stay in the house if you didn’t want to come out?” 

“Yessum, but I’d wanta come out. Why doesn’t he?” 

Miss Maudie’s eyes narrowed. “You know that story as well as I do.” 

“I never heard why, though. Nobody ever told me why.” 

Miss Maudie settled her bridgework. “You know old Mr. Radley was a foot- 
washing Baptist-” 

“That’s what you are, ain’t it?” 

“My shell’s not that hard, child. I’m just a Baptist.” 

“Don’t you all believe in foot-washing?” 

“We do. At home in the bathtub.” 

“But we can’t have communion with you all-” 

Apparently deciding that it was easier to define primitive baptistry than closed 
communion, Miss Maudie said: “Foot-washers believe anything that’s pleasure is 
a sin. Did you know some of ‘em came out of the woods one Saturday and passed 
by this place and told me me and my flowers were going to hell?” 

“Your flowers, too?” 

“Yes ma’am. They’d burn right with me. They thought I spent too much time in 
God’s outdoors and not enough time inside the house reading the Bible.” 

My confidence in pulpit Gospel lessened at the vision of Miss Maudie stewing 
forever in various Protestant hells. True enough, she had an acid tongue in her 
head, and she did not go about the neighborhood doing good, as did Miss 
Stephanie Crawford. But while no one with a grain of sense trusted Miss 
Stephanie, Jem and I had considerable faith in Miss Maudie. She had never told 
on us, had never played cat-and-mouse with us, she was not at all interested in our 
private lives. She was our friend. How so reasonable a creature could live in peril 
of everlasting torment was incomprehensible. 

“That ain’t right, Miss Maudie. You’re the best lady I know.” 

Miss Maudie grinned. “Thank you ma’am. Thing is, foot-washers think women 
are a sin by definition. They take the Bible literally, you know.” 

“Is that why Mr. Arthur stays in the house, to keep away from women?” 

“I’ve no idea.” 

“It doesn’t make sense to me. Looks like if Mr. Arthur was hankerhT after heaven 

he’d come out on the porch at least. Atticus says God’s loving folks like you love 

Miss Maudie stopped rocking, and her voice hardened. “You are too young to 
understand it,” she said, “but sometimes the Bible in the hand of one man is worse 
than a whiskey bottle in the hand of — oh, of your father.” 

I was shocked. “Atticus doesn’t drink whiskey,” I said. “He never drunk a drop in 
his life — nome, yes he did. He said he drank some one time and didn’t like it.” 

Miss Maudie laughed. “Wasn’t talking about your father,” she said. “What I 
meant was, if Atticus Finch drank until he was drunk he wouldn’t be as hard as 
some men are at their best. There are just some kind of men who — who’re so 
busy worrying about the next world they’ve never learned to live in this one, and 
you can look down the street and see the results.” 

“Do you think they’re true, all those things they say about B — Mr. Arthur?” 

“What things?” 

I told her. 

“That is three-fourths colored folks and one-fourth Stephanie Crawford,” said 
Miss Maudie grimly. “Stephanie Crawford even told me once she woke up in the 
middle of the night and found him looking in the window at her. I said what did 
you do, Stephanie, move over in the bed and make room for him? That shut her 
up a while.” 

I was sure it did. Miss Maudie’ s voice was enough to shut anybody up. 

“No, child,” she said, “that is a sad house. I remember Arthur Radley when he 
was a boy. He always spoke nicely to me, no matter what folks said he did. Spoke 
as nicely as he knew how.” 

“You reckon he’s crazy?” 

Miss Maudie shook her head. “If he’s not he should be by now. The things that 
happen to people we never really know. What happens in houses behind closed 
doors, what secrets-” 

“Atticus don’t ever do anything to Jem and me in the house that he don’t do in the 
yard,” I said, feeling it my duty to defend my parent. 

“Gracious child, I was raveling a thread, wasn’t even thinking about your father, 

but now that I am I’ll say this: Atticus Finch is the same in his house as he is on 
the public streets. How’d you like some fresh poundcake to take home?” 

I liked it very much. 

Next morning when I awakened I found Jem and Dill in the back yard deep in 
conversation. When I joined them, as usual they said go away. 

“Will not. This yard’s as much mine as it is yours, Jem Finch. I got just as much 
right to play in it as you have.” 

Dill and Jem emerged from a brief huddle: “If you stay you’ve got to do what we 
tell you,” Dill warned. 

“We-11,” I said, “who’s so high and mighty all of a sudden?” 

“If you don’t say you’ll do what we tell you, we ain’t gonna tell you anything,” 
Dill continued. 

“Y ou act like you grew ten inches in the night ! All right, what is it?” 

Jem said placidly, “We are going to give a note to Boo Radley.” 

“Just how?” I was trying to fight down the automatic terror rising in me. It was all 
right for Miss Maudie to talk — she was old and snug on her porch. It was 
different for us. 

Jem was merely going to put the note on the end of a fishing pole and stick it 
through the shutters. If anyone came along, Dill would ring the bell. 

Dill raised his right hand. In it was my mother’s silver dinner-bell. 

“I’m goin‘ around to the side of the house,” said Jem. “We looked yesterday from 
across the street, and there’s a shutter loose. Think maybe I can make it stick on 
the window sill, at least.” 


“Now you’re in it and you can’t get out of it, you’ll just stay in it, Miss Priss!” 

“Okay, okay, but I don’t wanta watch. Jem, somebody was-” 

“Yes you will, you’ll watch the back end of the lot and Dill’s gonna watch the 
front of the house an‘ up the street, an’ if anybody comes he’ll ring the bell. That 


“All right then. What’d you write him?” 

Dill said, “We’re askin’ him real politely to come out sometimes, and tell us what 
he does in there — we said we wouldn’t hurt him and we’d buy him an ice cream.” 

“You all’ve gone crazy, he’ll kill us!” 

Dill said, “It’s my idea. I figure if he’d come out and sit a spell with us he might 
feel better.” 

“How do you know he don’t feel good?” 

“Well how’d you feel if you’d been shut up for a hundred years with nothin’ but 
cats to eat? I bet he’s got a beard down to here-” “Like your daddy’s?” 

“He ain’t got a beard, he-” Dill stopped, as if trying to remember. 

“Uh huh, caughtcha,” I said. “You said ‘fore you were off the train good your 
daddy had a black beard-” 

“If it’s all the same to you he shaved it off last summer! Yeah, an’ I’ve got the 
letter to prove it — he sent me two dollars, too!” 

“Keep on — I reckon he even sent you a mounted police uniform! That’n never 
showed up, did it? You just keep on tellin’ ’em, son-” 

Dill Harris could tell the biggest ones I ever heard. Among other things, he had 
been up in a mail plane seventeen times, he had been to Nova Scotia, he had seen 
an elephant, and his granddaddy was Brigadier General Joe Wheeler and left him 
his sword. 

“You all hush,” said Jem. He scuttled beneath the house and came out with a 
yellow bamboo pole. “Reckon this is long enough to reach from the sidewalk?” 

“Anybody who’s brave enough to go up and touch the house hadn’t oughta use a 
fishin’ pole,” I said. “Why don’t you just knock the front door down?” 

“This — is — different,” said Jem, “how many times do I have to tell you that?” 

Dill took a piece of paper from his pocket and gave it to Jem. The three of us 
walked cautiously toward the old house. Dill remained at the light-pole on the 
front corner of the lot, and Jem and I edged down the sidewalk parallel to the side 
of the house. I walked beyond Jem and stood where I could see around the curve. 

“All clear,” I said. “Not a soul in sight.” 

Jem looked up the sidewalk to Dill, who nodded. 

Jem attached the note to the end of the fishing pole, let the pole out across the 
yard and pushed it toward the window he had selected. The pole lacked several 
inches of being long enough, and Jem leaned over as far as he could. I watched 
him making jabbing motions for so long, I abandoned my post and went to him. 

“Can’t get it off the pole,” he muttered, “or if I got it off I can’t make it stay. G’on 
back down the street, Scout.” 

I returned and gazed around the curve at the empty road. Occasionally I looked 
back at Jem, who was patiently trying to place the note on the window sill. It 
would flutter to the ground and Jem would jab it up, until I thought if Boo Radley 
ever received it he wouldn’t be able to read it. I was looking down the street when 
the dinner-bell rang. 

Shoulder up, I reeled around to face Boo Radley and his bloody fangs; instead, I 
saw Dill ringing the bell with all his might in Atticus’s face. 

Jem looked so awful I didn’t have the heart to tell him I told him so. JJe trudged 
along, dragging the pole behind him on the sidewalk. 

Atticus said, “Stop ringing that bell.” 

Dill grabbed the clapper; in the silence that followed, I wished he’d start ringing it 
again. Atticus pushed his hat to the back of his head and put his hands on his hips. 
“Jem,” he said, “what were you doing?” 

“Nothin 4 , sir.” 

“I don’t want any of that. Tell me.” 

“I was — we were just tryin‘ to give somethin’ to Mr. Radley.” 

“What were you trying to give him?” 

“Just a letter.” 

“Let me see it.” 

Jem held out a filthy piece of paper. Atticus took it and tried to read it. “Why do 
you want Mr. Radley to come out?” 

Dill said, “We thought he might enjoy us. . .” and dried up when Atticus looked at 


“Son,” he said to Jem, “I’m going to tell you something and tell you one time: 
stop tormenting that man. That goes for the other two of you.” 

What Mr. Radley did was his own business. If he wanted to come out, he would. 

If he wanted to stay inside his own house he had the right to stay inside free from 
the attentions of inquisitive children, which was a mild term for the likes of us. 
How would we like it if Atticus barged in on us without knocking, when we were 
in our rooms at night? We were, in effect, doing the same thing to Mr. Radley. 
What Mr. Radley did might seem peculiar to us, but it did not seem peculiar to 
him. Furthermore, had it never occurred to us that the civil way to communicate 
with another being was by the front door instead of a side window? Lastly, we 
were to stay away from that house until we were invited there, we were not to 
play an asinine game he had seen us playing or make fun of anybody on this street 
or in this town- 

“We weren’t makin‘ fun of him, we weren’t laughin’ at him,” said Jem, “we were 

“So that was what you were doing, wasn’t it?” 

“Makin‘ fun of him?” 

“No,” said Atticus, “putting his life’s history on display for the edification of the 

Jem seemed to swell a little. “I didn’t say we were doin‘ that, I didn’t say it!” 

Atticus grinned dryly. “You just told me,” he said. “You stop this nonsense right 
now, every one of you.” 

Jem gaped at him. 

“You want to be a lawyer, don’t you?” Our father’s mouth was suspiciously firm, 
as if he were trying to hold it in line. 

Jem decided there was no point in quibbling, and was silent. When Atticus went 
inside the house to retrieve a file he had forgotten to take to work that morning, 
Jem finally realized that he had been done in by the oldest lawyer’s trick on 
record. He waited a respectful distance from the front steps, watched Atticus 
leave the house and walk toward town. When Atticus was out of earshot Jem 

yelled after him: “I thought I wanted to be a lawyer but I ain’t so sure now!” 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 6 

“Yes,” said our father, when Jem asked him if we could go over and sit by Miss 
Rachel’s fishpool with Dill, as this was his last night in Maycomb. “Tell him so 
long for me, and we’ll see him next summer.” 

We leaped over the low wall that separated Miss Rachel’s yard from our 
driveway. Jem whistled bob-white and Dill answered in the darkness. 

“Not a breath blowing,” said Jem. “Looka yonder.” 

JJe pointed to the east. A gigantic moon was rising behind Miss Maudie’s pecan 
trees. “That makes it seem hotter,” he said. 

“Cross in it tonight?” asked Dill, not looking up. He was constructing a cigarette 
from newspaper and string. 

“No, just the lady. Don’t light that thing, Dill, you’ll stink up this whole end of 

There was a lady in the moon in Maycomb. She sat at a dresser combing her hair. 
“We’re gonna miss you, boy,” I said. “Reckon we better watch for Mr. Avery?” 

Mr. Avery boarded across the street from Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose’s house. 
Besides making change in the collection plate every Sunday, Mr. Avery sat on the 
porch every night until nine o’clock and sneezed. One evening we were privileged 
to witness a performance by him which seemed to have been his positively last, 
for he never did it again so long as we watched. Jem and I were leaving Miss 
Rachel’s front steps one night when Dill stopped us: “Golly, looka yonder.” He 
pointed across the street. At first we saw nothing but a kudzu-covered front porch, 
but a closer inspection revealed an arc of water descending from the leaves and 
splashing in the yellow circle of the street light, some ten feet from source to 

earth, it seemed to us. Jem said Mr. Avery misfigured, Dill said he must drink a 
gallon a day, and the ensuing contest to determine relative distances and 
respective prowess only made me feel left out again, as I was untalented in this 

Dill stretched, yawned, and said altogether too casually. “I know what, let’s go for 
a walk.” 

He sounded fishy to me. Nobody in Maycomb just went for a walk. “Where to, 

Dill jerked his head in a southerly direction. 

Jem said, “Okay.” When I protested, he said sweetly, “You don’t have to come 
along, Angel May.” 

“You don’t have to go. Remember-” 

Jem was not one to dwell on past defeats: it seemed the only message he got from 
Atticus was insight into the art of cross examination. “Scout, we ain’t gonna do 
anything, we’re just goin‘ to the street light and back.” 

We strolled silently down the sidewalk, listening to porch swings creaking with 
the weight of the neighborhood, listening to the soft night-murmurs of the grown 
people on our street. Occasionally we heard Miss Stephanie Crawford laugh. 

“Well?” said Dill. 

“Okay,” said Jem. “Why don’t you go on home, Scout?” 

“What are you gonna do?” 

Dill and Jem were simply going to peep in the window with the loose shutter to 
see if they could get a look at Boo Radley, and if I didn’t want to go with them I 
could go straight home and keep my fat flopping mouth shut, that was all. 

“But what in the sam holy hill did you wait till tonight?” 

Because nobody could see them at night, because Atticus would be so deep in a 
book he wouldn’t hear the Kingdom coming, because if Boo Radley killed them 
they’d miss school instead of vacation, and because it was easier to see inside a 
dark house in the dark than in the daytime, did I understand? 

“Jem, please — ” 

“Scout, I’m tellin‘ you for the last time, shut your trap or go home — I declare to 
the Lord you’re gettin’ more like a girl every day!” 

With that, I had no option but to join them. We thought it was better to go under 
the high wire fence at the rear of the Radley lot, we stood less chance of being 
seen. The fence enclosed a large garden and a narrow wooden outhouse. 

Jem held up the bottom wire and motioned Dill under it. I followed, and held up 
the wire for Jem. It was a tight squeeze for him. “Don’t make a sound,” he 
whispered. “Don’t get in a row of collards whatever you do, they’ll wake the 

With this thought in mind, I made perhaps one step per minute. I moved faster 
when I saw Jem far ahead beckoning in the moonlight. We came to the gate that 
divided the garden from the back yard. Jem touched it. The gate squeaked. 

“Spit on it,” whispered Dill. 

“You’ve got us in a box, Jem,” I muttered. “We can’t get out of here so easy.” 
“Sh-h. Spit on it, Scout.” 

We spat ourselves dry, and Jem opened the gate slowly, lifting it aside and resting 
it on the fence. We were in the back yard. 

The back of the Radley house was less inviting than the front: a ramshackle porch 
ran the width of the house; there were two doors and two dark windows between 
the doors. Instead of a column, a rough two-by-four supported one end of the 
roof. An old Franklin stove sat in a corner of the porch; above it a hat-rack mirror 
caught the moon and shone eerily. 

“Ar-r,” said Jem softly, lifting his foot. 

“‘ Smaller?” 

“Chickens,” he breathed. 

That we would be obliged to dodge the unseen from all directions was confirmed 
when Dill ahead of us spelled G-o-d in a whisper. We crept to the side of the 
house, around to the window with the hanging shutter. The sill was several inches 
taller than Jem. 

“Give you a hand up,” he muttered to Dill. “Wait, though.” Jem grabbed his left 
wrist and my right wrist, I grabbed my left wrist and Jem’s right wrist, we 

crouched, and Dill sat on our saddle. We raised him and he caught the window sill. 
“Hurry,” Jem whispered, “we can’t last much longer.” 

Dill punched my shoulder, and we lowered him to the ground. 

“What’d you see?” 

“Nothing. Curtains. There’s a little teeny light way off somewhere, though.” 

“Let’s get away from here,” breathed Jem. “Let’s go ‘round in back again. Sh-h,” 
he warned me, as I was about to protest. 

“Let’s try the back window.” 

“Dill, nor I said. 

Dill stopped and let Jem go ahead. When Jem put his foot on the bottom step, the 
step squeaked. He stood still, then tried his weight by degrees. The step was 
silent. Jem skipped two steps, put his foot on the porch, heaved himself to it, and 
teetered a long moment. He regained his balance and dropped to his knees. He 
crawled to the window, raised his head and looked in. 

Then I saw the shadow. It was the shadow of a man with a hat on. At first I 
thought it was a tree, but there was no wind blowing, and tree-trunks never 
walked. The back porch was bathed in moonlight, and the shadow, crisp as toast, 
moved across the porch toward Jem. 

Dill saw it next. He put his hands to his face. 

When it crossed Jem, Jem saw it. He put his arms over his head and went rigid. 

The shadow stopped about a foot beyond Jem. Its arm came out from its side, 
dropped, and was still. Then it turned and moved back across Jem, walked along 
the porch and off the side of the house, returning as it had come. 

Jem leaped off the porch and galloped toward us. He flung open the gate, danced 
Dill and me through, and shooed us between two rows of swishing collards. 
Halfway through the collards I tripped; as I tripped the roar of a shotgun shattered 
the neighborhood. 

Dill and Jem dived beside me. Jem’s breath came in sobs: “Fence by the 
schoolyard! — hurry, Scout!” 

Jem held the bottom wire; Dill and I rolled through and were halfway to the 

shelter of the schoolyard’s solitary oak when we sensed that Jem was not with us. 
We ran back and found him struggling in the fence, kicking his pants off to get 
loose. He ran to the oak tree in his shorts. 

Safely behind it, we gave way to numbness, but Jem’s mind was racing: “We 
gotta get home, they’ll miss us.” 

We ran across the schoolyard, crawled under the fence to Deer’s Pasture behind 
our house, climbed our back fence and were at the back steps before Jem would 
let us pause to rest. 

Respiration normal, the three of us strolled as casually as we could to the front 
yard. We looked down the street and saw a circle of neighbors at the Radley front 

“We better go down there,” said Jem. “They’ll think it’s funny if we don’t show 

Mr. Nathan Radley was standing inside his gate, a shotgun broken across his arm. 
Atticus was standing beside Miss Maudie and Miss Stephanie Crawford. Miss 
Rachel and Mr. Avery were near by. None of them saw us come up. 

We eased in beside Miss Maudie, who looked around. “Where were you all, 
didn’t you hear the commotion?” 

“What happened?” asked Jem. 

“Mr. Radley shot at a Negro in his collard patch.” 

“Oh. Did he hit him?” 

“No,” said Miss Stephanie. “Shot in the air. Scared him pale, though. Says if 
anybody sees a white nigger around, that’s the one. Says he’s got the other barrel 
waitin‘ for the next sound he hears in that patch, an’ next time he won’t aim high, 
be it dog, nigger, or — Jem Finch!” 

“Ma’am?” asked Jem. 

Atticus spoke. “Where’re your pants, son?” 

“Pants, sir?” 


It was no use. In his shorts before God and everybody. I sighed. 

“Ah— Mr. Finch?” 

In the glare from the streetlight, I could see Dill hatching one: his eyes widened, 
his fat cherub face grew rounder. 

“What is it, Dill?” asked Atticus. 

“Ah — I won ‘em from him,” he said vaguely. 

“Won them? How?” 

Dill’s hand sought the back of his head. He brought it forward and across his 
forehead. “We were playin‘ strip poker up yonder by the fishpool,” he said. 

Jem and I relaxed. The neighbors seemed satisfied: they all stiffened. But what 
was strip poker? 

We had no chance to find out: Miss Rachel went off like the town fire siren: “Do- 
o-o Jee-sus, Dill Harris! GamblhT by my fishpool? I’ll strip-poker you, sir!” 

Atticus saved Dill from immediate dismemberment. “Just a minute, Miss Rachel,” 
he said. “I’ve never heard of ‘em doing that before. Were you all playing cards?” 

Jem fielded Dill’s fly with his eyes shut: “No sir, just with matches.” 

I admired my brother. Matches were dangerous, but cards were fatal. 

“Jem, Scout,” said Atticus, “I don’t want to hear of poker in any form again. Go 
by Dill’s and get your pants, Jem. Settle it yourselves.” 

“Don’t worry, Dill,” said Jem, as we trotted up the sidewalk, “she ain’t gonna get 
you. He’ll talk her out of it. That was fast thinkhT, son. Listen. . . you hear?” 

We stopped, and heard Atticus ’s voice: “. . .not serious. . . they all go through it, 
Miss Rachel...” 

Dill was comforted, but Jem and I weren’t. There was the problem of Jem 
showing up some pants in the morning. 

“‘d give you some of mine,” said Dill, as we came to Miss Rachel’s steps. Jem 
said he couldn’t get in them, but thanks anyway. We said good-bye, and Dill went 
inside the house. He evidently remembered he was engaged to me, for he ran back 
out and kissed me swiftly in front of Jem. “Yawl write, hear?” he bawled after us. 

Had Jem’s pants been safely on him, we would not have slept much anyway. 

Every night-sound I heard from my cot on the back porch was magnified three- 
fold; every scratch of feet on gravel was Boo Radley seeking revenge, every 
passing Negro laughing in the night was Boo Radley loose and after us; insects 
splashing against the screen were Boo Radley’s insane fingers picking the wire to 
pieces; the chinaberry trees were malignant, hovering, alive. I lingered between 
sleep and wakefulness until I heard Jem murmur. 

“Sleep, Little Three-Eyes?” 

“Are you crazy?” 

“Sh-h. Atticus’s light’s out.” 

In the waning moonlight I saw Jem swing his feet to the floor. 

“I’m goin‘ after ’em,” he said. 

I sat upright. “You can’t. I won’t let you.” 

He was struggling into his shirt. “I’ve got to.” 

“You do an‘ I’ll wake up Atticus.” 

“You do and I’ll kill you.” 

I pulled him down beside me on the cot. I tried to reason with him. “Mr. Nathan’s 
gonna find ‘em in the morning, Jem. He knows you lost ’em. When he shows ‘em 
to Atticus it’ll be pretty bad, that’s all there is to it. Go’n back to bed.” 

“That’s what I know,” said Jem. “That’s why I’m goin‘ after ’em.” 

I began to feel sick. Going back to that place by himself — I remembered Miss 
Stephanie: Mr. Nathan had the other barrel waiting for the next sound he heard, 
be it nigger, dog. . . Jem knew that better than I. 

I was desperate: “Look, it ain’t worth it, Jem. A lickin 4 hurts but it doesn’t last. 
You’ll get your head shot off, Jem. Please. . .” 

He blew out his breath patiently. “I — it’s like this, Scout,” he muttered. “Atticus 
ain’t ever whipped me since I can remember. I wanta keep it that way.” 

This was a thought. It seemed that Atticus threatened us every other day. “You 
mean he’s never caught you at anything.” 

“Maybe so, but — I just wanta keep it that way, Scout. We shouldn’a done that 

tonight, Scout.” 

It was then, I suppose, that Jem and I first began to part company. Sometimes I 
did not understand him, but my periods of bewilderment were short-lived. This 
was beyond me. “Please,” I pleaded, “can’tcha just think about it for a minute — 
by yourself on that place — ” 

“Shut up!” 

“It’s not like he’d never speak to you again or somethin 4 . . .I’m gonna wake him 
up, Jem, I swear I am — ” 

Jem grabbed my pajama collar and wrenched it tight. “Then I’m goin‘ with you 
— ” I choked. 

“No you ain’t, you’ll just make noise.” 

It was no use. I unlatched the back door and held it while he crept down the steps. 
It must have been two o’clock. The moon was setting and the lattice-work 
shadows were fading into fuzzy nothingness. Jem’s white shirt-tail dipped and 
bobbed like a small ghost dancing away to escape the coming morning. A faint 
breeze stirred and cooled the sweat running down my sides. 

He went the back way, through Deer’s Pasture, across the schoolyard and around 
to the fence, I thought — at least that was the way he was headed. It would take 
longer, so it was not time to worry yet. I waited until it was time to worry and 
listened for Mr. Radley’s shotgun. Then I thought I heard the back fence squeak. 

It was wishful thinking. 

Then I heard Atticus cough. I held my breath. Sometimes when we made a 
midnight pilgrimage to the bathroom we would find him reading. He said he often 
woke up during the night, checked on us, and read himself back to sleep. I waited 
for his light to go on, straining my eyes to see it flood the hall. It stayed off, and I 
breathed again. The night-crawlers had retired, but ripe chinaberries drummed on 
the roof when the wind stirred, and the darkness was desolate with the barking of 
distant dogs. 

There he was, returning to me. His white shirt bobbed over the back fence and 
slowly grew larger. He came up the back steps, latched the door behind him, and 
sat on his cot. Wordlessly, he held up his pants. He lay down, and for a while I 
heard his cot trembling. Soon he was still. I did not hear him stir again. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 7 

Jem stayed moody and silent for a week. As Atticus had once advised me to do, I 
tried to climb into Jem’s skin and walk around in it: if I had gone alone to the 
Radley Place at two in the morning, my funeral would have been held the next 
afternoon. So I left Jem alone and tried not to bother him. 

School started. The second grade was as bad as the first, only worse — they still 
flashed cards at you and wouldn’t let you read or write. Miss Caroline’s progress 
next door could be estimated by the frequency of laughter; however, the usual 
crew had flunked the first grade again, and were helpful in keeping order. The 
only thing good about the second grade was that this year I had to stay as late as 
Jem, and we usually walked home together at three o’clock. 

One afternoon when we were crossing the schoolyard toward home, Jem suddenly 
said: “There’s something I didn’t tell you.” 

As this was his first complete sentence in several days, I encouraged him: “About 

“About that night.” 

“You’ve never told me anything about that night,” I said. 

Jem waved my words away as if fanning gnats, fie was silent for a while, then he 
said, “When I went back for my breeches — they were all in a tangle when I was 
gettin‘ out of ’em, I couldn’t get ‘em loose. When I went back — ” Jem took a 
deep breath. “When I went back, they were folded across the fence. . . like they 
were expectin’ me.” 

“Across — ” 

“And something else — ” Jem’s voice was flat. “Show you when we get home. 
They’d been sewed up. Not like a lady sewed ‘em, like somethin’ I’d try to do. 

All crooked. It’s almost like — ” 

“ — somebody knew you were comin‘ back for ’em.” 

Jem shuddered. “Like somebody was readin‘ my mind... like somebody could tell 
what I was gonna do. Can’t anybody tell what I’m gonna do lest they know me, 
can they, Scout?” 

Jem’s question was an appeal. I reassured him: “Can’t anybody tell what you’re 
gonna do lest they live in the house with you, and even I can’t tell sometimes.” 

We were walking past our tree. In its knot-hole rested a ball of gray twine. 

“Don’t take it, Jem,” I said. “This is somebody’s hidin‘ place.” 

“I don’t think so, Scout.” 

“Yes it is. Somebody like Walter Cunningham comes down here every recess and 
hides his things — and we come along and take ‘em away from him. Listen, let’s 
leave it and wait a couple of days. If it ain’t gone then, we’ll take it, okay?” 

“Okay, you might be right,” said Jem. “It must be some little kid’s place — hides 
his things from the bigger folks. You know it’s only when school’s in that we’ve 
found things.” 

“Yeah,” I said, “but we never go by here in the summertime.” 

We went home. Next morning the twine was where we had left it. When it was 
still there on the third day, Jem pocketed it. From then on, we considered 
everything we found in the knot-hole our property. - 

The second grade was grim, but Jem assured me that the older I got the better 
school would be, that he started off the same way, and it was not until one 
reached the sixth grade that one learned anything of value. The sixth grade 
seemed to please him from the beginning: he went through a brief Egyptian 
Period that baffled me — he tried to walk flat a great deal, sticking one arm in 
front of him and one in back of him, putting one foot behind the other. He 
declared Egyptians walked that way; I said if they did I didn’t see how they got 
anything done, but Jem said they accomplished more than the Americans ever 
did, they invented toilet paper and perpetual embalming, and asked where would 
we be today if they hadn’t? Atticus told me to delete the adjectives and I’d have 

the facts. 

There are no clearly defined seasons in South Alabama; summer drifts into 
autumn, and autumn is sometimes never followed by winter, but turns to a days- 
old spring that melts into summer again. That fall was a long one, hardly cool 
enough for a light jacket. Jem and I were trotting in our orbit one mild October 
afternoon when our knot-hole stopped us again. Something white was inside this 

Jem let me do the honors: I pulled out two small images carved in soap. One was 
the figure of a boy, the other wore a crude dress. Before I remembered that there 
was no such thing as hoo-dooing, I shrieked and threw them down. 

Jem snatched them up. “What’s the matter with you?” he yelled. He rubbed the 
figures free of red dust. “These are good,” he said. “I’ve never seen any these 

He held them down to me. They were almost perfect miniatures of two children. 
The boy had on shorts, and a shock of soapy hair fell to his eyebrows. I looked up 
at Jem. A point of straight brown hair kicked downwards from his part. I had 
never noticed it before. Jem looked from the girl-doll to me. The girl-doll wore 
bangs. So did I. 

“These are us,” he said. 

“Who did ‘em, you reckon?” 

“Who do we know around here who whittles?” he asked. 

“Mr. Avery.” 

“Mr. Avery just does like this. I mean carves.” 

Mr. Avery averaged a stick of stovewood per week; he honed it down to a 
toothpick and chewed it. 

“There’s old Miss Stephanie Crawford’s sweetheart,” I said. 

“He carves all right, but he lives down the country. When would he ever pay any 
attention to us?” 

“Maybe he sits on the porch and looks at us instead of Miss Stephanie. If I was 

him, I would.” 

Jem stared at me so long I asked what was the matter, but got Nothing, Scout for 
an answer. When we went home, Jem put the dolls in his trunk. 

Less than two weeks later we found a whole package of chewing gum, which we 
enjoyed, the fact that everything on the Radley Place was poison having slipped 
Jem’s memory. 

The following week the knot-hole yielded a tarnished medal. Jem showed it to 
Atticus, who said it was a spelling medal, that before we were born the Maycomb 
County schools had spelling contests and awarded medals to the winners. Atticus 
said someone must have lost it, and had we asked around? Jem camel-kicked me 
when I tried to say where we had found it. Jem asked Atticus if he remembered 
anybody who ever won one, and Atticus said no. 

Our biggest prize appeared four days later. It was a pocket watch that wouldn’t 
run, on a chain with an aluminum knife. 

“You reckon it’s white gold, Jem?” 

“Don’t know. I’ll show it to Atticus.” 

Atticus said it would probably be worth ten dollars, knife, chain and all, if it were 
new. “Did you swap with somebody at school?” he asked. 

“Oh, no sir!” Jem pulled out his grandfather’s watch that Atticus let him carry 
once a week if Jem were careful with it. On the days he carried the watch, Jem 
walked on eggs. “Atticus, if it’s all right with you, I’d rather have this one instead. 
Maybe I can fix it.” 

When the new wore off his grandfather’s watch, and carrying it became a day’s 
burdensome task, Jem no longer felt the necessity of ascertaining the hour every 
five minutes. 

He did a fair job, only one spring and two tiny pieces left over, but the watch 
would not run. “Oh-h,” he sighed, “it’ll never go. Scout — ?” 


“You reckon we oughta write a letter to whoever’ s leaving us these things?” 
“That’d be right nice, Jem, we can thank ‘em — what’s wrong?” 

Jem was holding his ears, shaking his head from side to side. “I don’t get it, I just 
don’t get it — I don’t know why, Scout. . .” He looked toward the livingroom. “I’ve 

gotta good mind to tell Atticus — no, I reckon not.” 

“I’ll tell him for you.” 

“No, don’t do that, Scout. Scout?” 


He had been on the verge of telling me something all evening; his face would 
brighten and he would lean toward me, then he would change his mind. He 
changed it again. “Oh, nothin 4 .” 

“Here, let’s write a letter.” I pushed a tablet and pencil under his nose. 

“Okay. Dear Mister. . .” 

“How do you know it’s a man? I bet it’s Miss Maudie — been bettin 4 that for a 
long time.” 

“Ar-r, Miss Maudie can’t chew gum — ” Jem broke into a grin. “You know, she 
can talk real pretty sometimes. One time I asked her to have a chew and she said 
no thanks, that — chewing gum cleaved to her palate and rendered her speechless,” 
said Jem carefully. “Doesn’t that sound nice?” 

“Yeah, she can say nice things sometimes. She wouldn’t have a watch and chain 

“Dear sir,” said Jem. “We appreciate the — no, we appreciate everything which 
you have put into the tree for us. Yours very truly, Jeremy Atticus Finch.” 

“He won’t know who you are if you sign it like that, Jem.” 

Jem erased his name and wrote, “Jem Finch.” I signed, “Jean Louise Finch 
(Scout),” beneath it. Jem put the note in an envelope. 

Next morning on the way to school he ran ahead of me and stopped at the tree. 
Jem was facing me when he looked up, and I saw him go stark white. 


I ran to him. 

Someone had filled our knot-hole with cement. 

“Don’t you cry, now, Scout. . . don’t cry now, don’t you worry-” he muttered at 
me all the way to school. 

When we went home for dinner Jem bolted his food, ran to the porch and stood on 
the steps. I followed him. “Hasn’t passed by yet,” he said. 

Next day Jem repeated his vigil and was rewarded. 

“Hidy do, Mr. Nathan,” he said. 

“Morning Jem, Scout,” said Mr. Radley, as he went by. 

“Mr. Radley,” said Jem. 

Mr. Radley turned around. 

“Mr. Radley, ah — did you put cement in that hole in that tree down yonder?” 
“Yes,” he said. “I filled it up.” 

“Why’d you do it, sir?” 

“Tree’s dying. You plug ‘em with cement when they’re sick. You ought to know 
that, Jem.” 

Jem said nothing more about it until late afternoon. When we passed our tree he 
gave it a meditative pat on its cement, and remained deep in thought. He seemed 
to be working himself into a bad humor, so I kept my distance. 

As usual, we met Atticus coming home from work that evening. When we were at 
our steps Jem said, “Atticus, look down yonder at that tree, please sir.” 

“What tree, son?” 

“The one on the corner of the Radley lot comin‘ from school.” 


“Is that tree dyin‘?” 

“Why no, son, I don’t think so. Look at the leaves, they’re all green and full, no 
brown patches anywhere — ” 

“It ain’t even sick?” 

“That tree’s as healthy as you are, Jem. Why?” 

“Mr. Nathan Radley said it was dyin‘.” 

“Well maybe it is. I’m sure Mr. Radley knows more about his trees than we do.” 

Atticus left us on the porch. Jem leaned on a pillar, rubbing his shoulders against 

“Do you itch, Jem?” I asked as politely as I could. He did not answer. “Come on 
in, Jem,” I said. 

“After while.” 

He stood there until nightfall, and I waited for him. When we went in the house I 
saw he had been crying; his face was dirty in the right places, but I thought it odd 
that I had not heard him. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 8 

For reasons unfathomable to the most experienced prophets in Maycomb County, 
autumn turned to winter that year. We had two weeks of the coldest weather since 
1885, Atticus said. Mr. Avery said it was written on the Rosetta Stone that when 
children disobeyed their parents, smoked cigarettes and made war on each other, 
the seasons would change: Jem and I were burdened with the guilt of contributing 
to the aberrations of nature, thereby causing unhappiness to our neighbors and 
discomfort to ourselves. 

Old Mrs. Radley died that winter, but her death caused hardly a ripple — the 
neighborhood seldom saw her, except when she watered her cannas. Jem and I 
decided that Boo had got her at last, but when Atticus returned from the Radley 
house he said she died of natural causes, to our disappointment. 

“Ask him,” Jem whispered. 

“You ask him, you’re the oldest.” 

“That’s why you oughta ask him.” 

“Atticus,” I said, “did you see Mr. Arthur?” 

Atticus looked sternly around his newspaper at me: “I did not.” 

Jem restrained me from further questions. He said Atticus was still touchous 
about us and the Radleys and it wouldn’t do to push him any. Jem had a notion 

that Atticus thought our activities that night last summer were not solely confined 
to strip poker. Jem had no firm basis for his ideas, he said it was merely a twitch. 

Next morning I awoke, looked out the window and nearly died of fright. My 
screams brought Atticus from his bathroom half-shaven. 

“The world’s endin‘, Atticus! Please do something — !” I dragged him to the 
window and pointed. 

“No it’s not,” he said. “It’s snowing.” 

Jem asked Atticus would it keep up. Jem had never seen snow either, but he knew 
what it was. Atticus said he didn’t know any more about snow than Jem did. “I 
think, though, if it’s watery like that, it’ll turn to rain.” 

The telephone rang and Atticus left the breakfast table to answer it. “That was 
Eula May,” he said when he returned. “I quote — ‘As it has not snowed in 
Maycomb County since 1885, there will be no school today.’” 

Eula May was Maycomb’ s leading telephone operator. She was entrusted with 
issuing public announcements, wedding invitations, setting off the fire siren, and 
giving first-aid instructions when Dr. Reynolds was away. 

When Atticus finally called us to order and bade us look at our plates instead of 
out the windows, Jem asked, “How do you make a snowman?” 

“I haven’t the slightest idea,” said Atticus. “I don’t want you all to be 
disappointed, but I doubt if there’ll be enough snow for a snowball, even.” 

Calpurnia came in and said she thought it was sticking. When we ran to the back 
yard, it was covered with a feeble layer of soggy snow. 

“We shouldn’t walk about in it,” said Jem. “Look, every step you take’s wasting 

I looked back at my mushy footprints. Jem said if we waited until it snowed some 
more we could scrape it all up for a snowman. I stuck out my tongue and caught a 
fat flake. It burned. 

“Jem, it’s hot!” 

“No it ain’t, it’s so cold it burns. Now don’t eat it, Scout, you’re wasting it. Let it 

come down.” 

“But I want to walk in it.” 

“I know what, we can go walk over at Miss Maudie’s.” 

Jem hopped across the front yard. I followed in his tracks. When we were on the 
sidewalk in front of Miss Maudie’s, Mr. Avery accosted us. He had a pink face 
and a big stomach below his belt. 

“See what you’ve done?” he said. “Hasn’t snowed in Maycomb since 
Appomattox. It’s bad children like you makes the seasons change.” 

I wondered if Mr. Avery knew how hopefully we had watched last summer for 
him to repeat his performance, and reflected that if this was our reward, there was 
something to say for sin. I did not wonder where Mr. Avery gathered his 
meteorological statistics: they came straight from the Rosetta Stone. 

“Jem Finch, you Jem Finch!” 

“Miss Maudie’s callin‘ you, Jem.” 

“You all stay in the middle of the yard. There’s some thrift buried under the snow 
near the porch. Don’t step on it!” 

“Yessum!” called Jem. “It’s beautiful, ain’t it, Miss Maudie?” 

“Beautiful my hind foot! If it freezes tonight it’ll carry off all my azaleas!” 

Miss Maudie’s old sunhat glistened with snow crystals. She was bending over 
some small bushes, wrapping them in burlap bags. Jem asked her what she was 
doing that for. 

“Keep ‘em warm,” she said. 

“How can flowers keep warm? They don’t circulate.” 

“I cannot answer that question, Jem Finch. All I know is if it freezes tonight these 
plants’ll freeze, so you cover ‘em up. Is that clear?” 

“Yessum. Miss Maudie?” 

“What, sir?” 

“Could Scout and me borrow some of your snow?” 

“Heavens alive, take it all! There’s an old peach basket under the house, haul it 
off in that.” Miss Maudie’s eyes narrowed. “Jem Finch, what are you going to do 
with my snow?” 

“You’ll see,” said Jem, and we transferred as much snow as we could from Miss 
Maudie’s yard to ours, a slushy operation. 

“What are we gonna do, Jem?” I asked. 

“You’ll see,” he said. “Now get the basket and haul all the snow you can rake up 
from the back yard to the front. Walk back in your tracks, though,” he cautioned. 

“Are we gonna have a snow baby, Jem?” 

“No, a real snowman. Gotta work hard, now.” 

Jem ran to the back yard, produced the garden hoe and began digging quickly 
behind the woodpile, placing any worms he found to one side. JJe went in the 
house, returned with the laundry hamper, filled it with earth and carried it to the 
front yard. 

When we had five baskets of earth and two baskets of snow, Jem said we were 
ready to begin. 

“Don’t you think this is kind of a mess?” I asked. 

“Looks messy now, but it won’t later,” he said. 

Jem scooped up an armful of dirt, patted it into a mound on which he added 
another load, and another until he had constructed a torso. 

“Jem, I ain’t ever heard of a nigger snowman,” I said. 

“JJe won’t be black long,” he grunted. 

Jem procured some peachtree switches from the back yard, plaited them, and bent 
them into bones to be covered with dirt. 

“He looks like Stephanie Crawford with her hands on her hips,” I said. “Fat in the 
middle and little-bitty arms.” 

“I’ll make ‘em bigger.” Jem sloshed water over the mud man and added more 
dirt. He looked thoughtfully at it for a moment, then he molded a big stomach 
below the figure’s waistline. Jem glanced at me, his eyes twinkling: “Mr. Avery’s 
sort of shaped like a snowman, ain’t he?” 

Jem scooped up some snow and began plastering it on. He permitted me to cover 
only the back, saving the public parts for himself. Gradually Mr. Avery turned 

Using bits of wood for eyes, nose, mouth, and buttons, Jem succeeded in making 
Mr. Avery look cross. A stick of stovewood completed the picture. Jem stepped 
back and viewed his creation. 

“It’s lovely, Jem,” I said. “Looks almost like he’d talk to you.” 

“It is, ain’t it?” he said shyly. 

We could not wait for Atticus to come home for dinner, but called and said we 
had a big surprise for him. JJe seemed surprised when he saw most of the back 
yard in the front yard, but he said we had done a jim-dandy job. “I didn’t know 
how you were going to do it,” he said to Jem, “but from now on I’ll never worry 
about what’ll become of you, son, you’ll always have an idea.” 

Jem’s ears reddened from Atticus ’s compliment, but he looked up sharply when 
he saw Atticus stepping back. Atticus squinted at the snowman a while. He 
grinned, then laughed. “Son, I can’t tell what you’re going to be — an engineer, a 
lawyer, or a portrait painter. You’ve perpetrated a near libel here in the front yard. 
We’ve got to disguise this fellow.” 

Atticus suggested that Jem hone down his creation’s front a little, swap a broom 
for the stovewood, and put an apron on him. 

Jem explained that if he did, the snowman would become muddy and cease to be 
a snowman. 

“I don’t care what you do, so long as you do something,” said Atticus. “You can’t 
go around making caricatures of the neighbors.” 

“Ain’t a characterture,” said Jem. “It looks just like him.” 

“Mr. Avery might not think so.” 

“I know what!” said Jem. He raced across the street, disappeared into Miss 
Maudie’s back yard and returned triumphant. He stuck her sunhat on the 
snowman’s head and jammed her hedge-clippers into the crook of his arm. 

Atticus said that would be fine. 

Miss Maudie opened her front door and came out on the porch. She looked across 
the street at us. Suddenly she grinned. “Jem Finch,” she called. “You devil, bring 
me back my hat, sir!” 

Jem looked up at Atticus, who shook his head. “She’s just fussing,” he said. 

“She’s really impressed with your — accomplishments.” 

Atticus strolled over to Miss Maudie’s sidewalk, where they engaged in an arm- 
waving conversation, the only phrase of which I caught was . .erected an 
absolute morphodite in that yard! Atticus, you’ll never raise ‘em!” 

The snow stopped in the afternoon, the temperature dropped, and by nightfall Mr. 
Avery’s direst predictions came true: Calpurnia kept every fireplace in the house 
blazing, but we were cold. When Atticus came home that evening he said we 
were in for it, and asked Calpurnia if she wanted to stay with us for the night. 
Calpurnia glanced up at the high ceilings and long windows and said she thought 
she’d be warmer at her house. Atticus drove her home in the car. 

Before I went to sleep Atticus put more coal on the fire in my room. He said the 
thermometer registered sixteen, that it was the coldest night in his memory, and 
that our snowman outside was frozen solid. 

Minutes later, it seemed, I was awakened by someone shaking me. Atticus’ s 
overcoat was spread across me. “Is it morning already?” 

“Baby, get up.” 

Atticus was holding out my bathrobe and coat. “Put your robe on first,” he said. 

Jem was standing beside Atticus, groggy and tousled. He was holding his 
overcoat closed at the neck, his other hand was jammed into his pocket. He 
looked strangely overweight. 

“Hurry, hon,” said Atticus. “Here’re your shoes and socks.” 

Stupidly, I put them on. “Is it morning?” 

“No, it’s a little after one. Hurry now.” 

That something was wrong finally got through to me. “What’s the matter?” 

By then he did not have to tell me. Just as the birds know where to go when it 
rains, I knew when there was trouble in our street. Soft taffeta-like sounds and 
muffled scurrying sounds filled me with helpless dread. 

“Whose is it?” 

“Miss Maudie’s, hon,” said Atticus gently. 

At the front door, we saw fire spewing from Miss Maudie’s diningroom windows. 

As if to confirm what we saw, the town fire siren wailed up the scale to a treble 
pitch and remained there, screaming. 

“It’s gone, ain’t it?” moaned Jem. 

“I expect so,” said Atticus. “Now listen, both of you. Go down and stand in front 
of the Radley Place. Keep out of the way, do you hear? See which way the wind’s 

“Oh,” said Jem. “Atticus, reckon we oughta start moving the furniture out?” 

“Not yet, son. Do as I tell you. Run now. Take care of Scout, you hear? Don’t let 
her out of your sight.” 

With a push, Atticus started us toward the Radley front gate. We stood watching 
the street fill with men and cars while fire silently devoured Miss Maudie’s house. 
“Why don’t they hurry, why don’t they hurry. . .” muttered Jem. 

We saw why. The old fire truck, killed by the cold, was being pushed from town 
by a crowd of men. When the men attached its hose to a hydrant, the hose burst 
and water shot up, tinkling down on the pavement. 

“Oh-h Lord, Jem...” 

Jem put his arm around me. “Hush, Scout,” he said. “It ain’t time to worry yet. I’ll 
let you know when.” 

The men of Maycomb, in all degrees of dress and undress, took furniture from 
Miss Maudie’s house to a yard across the street. I saw Atticus carrying Miss 
Maudie’s heavy oak rocking chair, and thought it sensible of him to save what she 
valued most. 

Sometimes we heard shouts. Then Mr. Avery’s face appeared in an upstairs 
window. He pushed a mattress out the window into the street and threw down 
furniture until men shouted, “Come down from there, Dick! The stairs are going! 
Get outta there, Mr. Avery!” 

Mr. Avery began climbing through the window. 

“Scout, he’s stuck...” breathed Jem. “Oh God...” 

Mr. Avery was wedged tightly. I buried my head under Jem’s arm and didn’t look 
again until Jem cried, “He’s got loose, Scout! He’s all right!” 

I looked up to see Mr. Avery cross the upstairs porch. He swung his legs over the 
railing and was sliding down a pillar when he slipped. He fell, yelled, and hit 
Miss Maudie’s shrubbery. 

Suddenly I noticed that the men were backing away from Miss Maudie’s house, 
moving down the street toward us. They were no longer carrying furniture. The 
fire was well into the second floor and had eaten its way to the roof: window 
frames were black against a vivid orange center. 

“Jem, it looks like a pumpkin — ” 

“Scout, look!” 

Smoke was rolling off our house and Miss Rachel’s house like fog off a 
riverbank, and men were pulling hoses toward them. Behind us, the fire truck 
from Abbottsville screamed around the curve and stopped in front of our house. 

“That book...” I said. 

“What?” said Jem. 

“That Tom Swift book, it ain’t mine, it’s Dill’s. . .” 

“Don’t worry, Scout, it ain’t time to worry yet,” said Jem. He pointed. “Looka 

In a group of neighbors, Atticus was standing with his hands in his overcoat 
pockets. He might have been watching a football game. Miss Maudie was beside 

“See there, he’s not worried yet,” said Jem. 

“Why ain’t he on top of one of the houses?” 

“He’s too old, he’d break his neck.” 

“Y ou think we oughta make him get our stuff out?” 

“Let’s don’t pester him, he’ll know when it’s time,” said Jem. 

The Abbottsville fire truck began pumping water on our house; a man on the roof 
pointed to places that needed it most. I watched our Absolute Morphodite go 
black and crumble; Miss Maudie’s sunhat settled on top of the heap. I could not 
see her hedge-clippers. In the heat between our house, Miss Rachel’s and Miss 
Maudie’s, the men had long ago shed coats and bathrobes. They worked in 

pajama tops and nightshirts stuffed into their pants, but I became aware that I was 
slowly freezing where I stood. Jem tried to keep me warm, but his arm was not 
enough. I pulled free of it and clutched my shoulders. By dancing a little, I could 
feel my feet. 

Another fire truck appeared and stopped in front of Miss Stephanie Crawford’s. 
There was no hydrant for another hose, and the men tried to soak her house with 
hand extinguishers. 

Miss Maudie’s tin roof quelled the flames. Roaring, the house collapsed; fire 
gushed everywhere, followed by a flurry of blankets from men on top of the 
adjacent houses, beating out sparks and burning chunks of wood. 

It was dawn before the men began to leave, first one by one, then in groups. They 
pushed the Maycomb fire truck back to town, the Abbottsville truck departed, the 
third one remained. We found out next day it had come from Clark’s Ferry, sixty 
miles away. 

Jem and I slid across the street. Miss Maudie was staring at the smoking black 
hole in her yard, and Atticus shook his head to tell us she did not want to talk. He 
led us home, holding onto our shoulders to cross the icy street. He said Miss 
Maudie would stay with Miss Stephanie for the time being. 

“Anybody want some hot chocolate?” he asked. I shuddered when Atticus started 
a fire in the kitchen stove. 

As we drank our cocoa I noticed Atticus looking at me, first with curiosity, then 
with sternness. “I thought I told you and Jem to stay put,” he said. 

“Why, we did. We stayed — ” 

“Then whose blanket is that?” 


“Yes ma’am, blanket. It isn’t ours.” 

I looked down and found myself clutching a brown woolen blanket I was wearing 
around my shoulders, squaw-fashion. 

“Atticus, I don’t know, sir... I — ” 

I turned to Jem for an answer, but Jem was even more bewildered than I. He said 
he didn’t know how it got there, we did exactly as Atticus had told us, we stood 

down by the Radley gate away from everybody, we didn’t move an inch — Jem 

“Mr. Nathan was at the fire,” he babbled, “I saw him, I saw him, he was tuggin‘ 
that mattress — Atticus, I swear. . .” 

“That’s all right, son.” Atticus grinned slowly. “Looks like all of Maycomb was 
out tonight, in one way or another. Jem, there’s some wrapping paper in the 
pantry, I think. Go get it and we’ll — ” 

“Atticus, no sir!” 

Jem seemed to have lost his mind. He began pouring out our secrets right and left 
in total disregard for my safety if not for his own, omitting nothing, knot-hole, 
pants and all. 

“. . .Mr. Nathan put cement in that tree, Atticus, an‘ he did it to stop us findin’ 
things — he’s crazy, I reckon, like they say, but Atticus, I swear to God he ain’t 
ever harmed us, he ain’t ever hurt us, he coulda cut my throat from ear to ear that 
night but he tried to mend my pants instead. . . he ain’t ever hurt us, Atticus — ” 

Atticus said, “Whoa, son,” so gently that I was greatly heartened. It was obvious 
that he had not followed a word Jem said, for all Atticus said was, “You’re right. 
We’d better keep this and the blanket to ourselves. Someday, maybe, Scout can 
thank him for covering her up.” 

“Thank who?” I asked. 

“Boo Radley. You were so busy looking at the fire you didn’t know it when he 
put the blanket around you.” 

My stomach turned to water and I nearly threw up when Jem held out the blanket 
and crept toward me. “He sneaked out of the house — turn ‘round — sneaked up, 
an’ went like this!” 

Atticus said dryly, “Do not let this inspire you to further glory, Jeremy.” 

Jem scowled, “I ain’t gonna do anything to him,” but I watched the spark of fresh 
adventure leave his eyes. “Just think, Scout,” he said, “if you’d just turned 
around, you’ da seen him.” 

Calpurnia woke us at noon. Atticus had said we need not go to school that day, 
we’d learn nothing after no sleep. Calpurnia said for us to try and clean up the 

front yard. 

Miss Maudie’s sunhat was suspended in a thin layer of ice, like a fly in amber, 
and we had to dig under the dirt for her hedge-clippers. We found her in her back 
yard, gazing at her frozen charred azaleas. “We’re bringing back your things, 

Miss Maudie,” said Jem. “We’re awful sorry.” 

Miss Maudie looked around, and the shadow of her old grin crossed her face. 
“Always wanted a smaller house, Jem Finch. Gives me more yard. Just think, I’ll 
have more room for my azaleas now!” 

“You ain’t grievin 4 , Miss Maudie?” I asked, surprised. Atticus said her house was 
nearly all she had. 

“Grieving, child? Why, I hated that old cow barn. Thought of settin 4 fire to it a 
hundred times myself, except they’d lock me up.” 


“Don’t you worry about me, Jean Louise Finch. There are ways of doing things 
you don’t know about. Why, I’ll build me a little house and take me a couple of 
roomers and — gracious, I’ll have the finest yard in Alabama. Those 
Bellingraths’ll look plain puny when I get started!” 

Jem and I looked at each other. “How’d it catch, Miss Maudie?” he asked. 

“I don’t know, Jem. Probably the flue in the kitchen. I kept a fire in there last 
night for my potted plants. Hear you had some unexpected company last night, 
Miss Jean Louise.” 

“How’d you know?” 

“Atticus told me on his way to town this morning. Tell you the truth, I’d like 
to’ve been with you. And I’d‘ve had sense enough to turn around, too.” 

Miss Maudie puzzled me. With most of her possessions gone and her beloved 
yard a shambles, she still took a lively and cordial interest in Jem’s and my affairs. 

She must have seen my perplexity. She said, “Only thing I worried about last 
night was all the danger and commotion it caused. This whole neighborhood 
could have gone up. Mr. Avery’ll be in bed for a week — he’s right stove up. He’s 
too old to do things like that and I told him so. Soon as I can get my hands clean 
and when Stephanie Crawford’s not looking, I’ll make him a Lane cake. That 

Stephanie’s been after my recipe for thirty years, and if she thinks I’ll give it to 
her just because I’m staying with her she’s got another think coming.” 

I reflected that if Miss Maudie broke down and gave it to her, Miss Stephanie 
couldn’t follow it anyway. Miss Maudie had once let me see it: among other 
things, the recipe called for one large cup of sugar. 

It was a still day. The air was so cold and clear we heard the courthouse clock 
clank, rattle and strain before it struck the hour. Miss Maudie’ s nose was a color I 
had never seen before, and I inquired about it. 

“I’ve been out here since six o’clock,” she said. “Should be frozen by now.” She 
held up her hands. A network of tiny lines crisscrossed her palms, brown with dirt 
and dried blood. 

“You’ve ruined ‘em,” said Jem. “Why don’t you get a colored man?” There was 
no note of sacrifice in his voice when he added, “Or Scout’n’me, we can help 

Miss Maudie said, “Thank you sir, but you’ve got a job of your own over there.” 
She pointed to our yard. 

“You mean the Morphodite?” I asked. “Shoot, we can rake him up in a jiffy.” 

Miss Maudie stared down at me, her lips moving silently. Suddenly she put her 
hands to her head and whooped. When we left her, she was still chuckling. 

Jem said he didn’t know what was the matter with her — that was just Miss 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 9 

“You can just take that back, boy!” 

This order, given by me to Cecil Jacobs, was the beginning of a rather thin time 

for Jem and me. My fists were clenched and I was ready to let fly. Atticus had 
promised me he would wear me out if he ever heard of me fighting any more; I 
was far too old and too big for such childish things, and the sooner I learned to 
hold in, the better off everybody would be. I soon forgot. 

Cecil Jacobs made me forget. He had announced in the schoolyard the day before 
that Scout Finch’s daddy defended niggers. I denied it, but told Jem. 

“What’d he mean sayin‘ that?” I asked. 

“Nothing,” Jem said. “Ask Atticus, he’ll tell you.” 

“Do you defend niggers, Atticus?” I asked him that evening. 

“Of course I do. Don’t say nigger, Scout. That’s common.” 

“‘s what everybody at school says.” 

“From now on it’ll be everybody less one — ” 

“Well if you don’t want me to grow up talkin‘ that way, why do you send me to 

My father looked at me mildly, amusement in his eyes. Despite our compromise, 
my campaign to avoid school had continued in one form or another since my first 
day’s dose of it: the beginning of last September had brought on sinking spells, 
dizziness, and mild gastric complaints. I went so far as to pay a nickel for the 
privilege of rubbing my head against the head of Miss Rachel’s cook’s son, who 
was afflicted with a tremendous ringworm. It didn’t take. 

But I was worrying another bone. “Do all lawyers defend n-Negroes, Atticus?” 
“Of course they do, Scout.” 

“Then why did Cecil say you defended niggers? He made it sound like you were 
runnin‘ a still.” 

Atticus sighed. “I’m simply defending a Negro — his name’s Tom Robinson. He 
lives in that little settlement beyond the town dump. He’s a member of 
Calpurnia’s church, and Cal knows his family well. She says they’re clean-living 
folks. Scout, you aren’t old enough to understand some things yet, but there’s 
been some high talk around town to the effect that I shouldn’t do much about 
defending this man. It’s a peculiar case — it won’t come to trial until summer 
session. John Taylor was kind enough to give us a postponement. . .” 

“If you shouldn’t be defendhT him, then why are you doin’ it?” 

“For a number of reasons,” said Atticus. “The main one is, if I didn’t I couldn’t 
hold up my head in town, I couldn’t represent this county in the legislature, I 
couldn’t even tell you or Jem not to do something again.” 

“You mean if you didn’t defend that man, Jem and me wouldn’t have to mind you 
any more?” 

“That’s about right.” 


“Because I could never ask you to mind me again. Scout, simply by the nature of 
the work, every lawyer gets at least one case in his lifetime that affects him 
personally. This one’s mine, I guess. You might hear some ugly talk about it at 
school, but do one thing for me if you will: you just hold your head high and keep 
those fists down. No matter what anybody says to you, don’t you let ‘em get your 
goat. Try fighting with your head for a change. . . it’s a good one, even if it does 
resist learning.” 

“Atticus, are we going to win it?” 

“No, honey.” 

“Then why—” 

“Simply because we were licked a hundred years before we started is no reason 
for us not to try to win,” Atticus said. 

“You sound like Cousin Ike Finch,” I said. Cousin Ike Finch was Maycomb 
County’s sole surviving Confederate veteran. He wore a General Hood type beard 
of which he was inordinately vain. At least once a year Atticus, Jem and I called 
on him, and I would have to kiss him. It was horrible. Jem and I would listen 
respectfully to Atticus and Cousin Ike rehash the war. “Tell you, Atticus,” Cousin 
Ike would say, “the Missouri Compromise was what licked us, but if I had to go 
through it agin I’d walk every step of the way there an‘ every step back jist like I 
did before an’ furthermore we’d whip ‘em this time... now in 1864, when 
Stonewall Jackson came around by — I beg your pardon, young folks. OF Blue 
Light was in heaven then, God rest his saintly brow. . .” 

“Come here, Scout,” said Atticus. I crawled into his lap and tucked my head 

under his chin. He put his arms around me and rocked me gently. “It’s different 
this time,” he said. “This time we aren’t fighting the Yankees, we’re fighting our 
friends. But remember this, no matter how bitter things get, they’re still our 
friends and this is still our home.” 

With this in mind, I faced Cecil Jacobs in the schoolyard next day: “You gonna 
take that back, boy?” 

“You gotta make me first!” he yelled. “My folks said your daddy was a disgrace 
an‘ that nigger oughta hang from the water-tank!” 

I drew a bead on him, remembered what Atticus had said, then dropped my fists 
and walked away, “Scout’s a cow — ward!” ringing in my ears. It was the first 
time I ever walked away from a fight. 

Somehow, if I fought Cecil I would let Atticus down. Atticus so rarely asked Jem 
and me to do something for him, I could take being called a coward for him. I felt 
extremely noble for having remembered, and remained noble for three weeks. 
Then Christmas came and disaster struck. 

Jem and I viewed Christmas with mixed feelings. The good side was the tree and 
Uncle Jack Finch. Every Christmas Eve day we met Uncle Jack at Maycomb 
Junction, and he would spend a week with us. 

A flip of the coin revealed the uncompromising lineaments of Aunt Alexandra 
and Francis. 

I suppose I should include Uncle Jimmy, Aunt Alexandra’s husband, but as he 
never spoke a word to me in my life except to say, “Get off the fence,” once, I 
never saw any reason to take notice of him. Neither did Aunt Alexandra. Long 
ago, in a burst of friendliness, Aunty and Uncle Jimmy produced a son named 
Henry, who left home as soon as was humanly possible, married, and produced 
Francis. Henry and his wife deposited Francis at his grandparents’ every 
Christmas, then pursued their own pleasures. 

No amount of sighing could induce Atticus to let us spend Christmas day at home. 
We went to Finch’s Landing every Christmas in my memory. The fact that Aunty 
was a good cook was some compensation for being forced to spend a religious 

holiday with Francis Hancock. He was a year older than I, and I avoided him on 
principle: he enjoyed everything I disapproved of, and disliked my ingenuous 

Aunt Alexandra was Atticus’s sister, but when Jem told me about changelings and 
siblings, I decided that she had been swapped at birth, that my grandparents had 
perhaps received a Crawford instead of a Finch. Had I ever harbored the mystical 
notions about mountains that seem to obsess lawyers and judges, Aunt Alexandra 
would have been analogous to Mount Everest: throughout my early life, she was 
cold and there. 

When Uncle Jack jumped down from the train Christmas Eve day, we had to wait 
for the porter to hand him two long packages. Jem and I always thought it funny 
when Uncle Jack pecked Atticus on the cheek; they were the only two men we 
ever saw kiss each other. Uncle Jack shook hands with Jem and swung me high, 
but not high enough: Uncle Jack was a head shorter than Atticus; the baby of the 
family, he was younger than Aunt Alexandra. He and Aunty looked alike, but 
Uncle Jack made better use of his face: we were never wary of his sharp nose and 

He was one of the few men of science who never terrified me, probably because 
he never behaved like a doctor. Whenever he performed a minor service for Jem 
and me, as removing a splinter from a foot, he would tell us exactly what he was 
going to do, give us an estimation of how much it would hurt, and explain the use 
of any tongs he employed. One Christmas I lurked in corners nursing a twisted 
splinter in my foot, permitting no one to come near me. When Uncle Jack caught 
me, he kept me laughing about a preacher who hated going to church so much 
that every day he stood at his gate in his dressing-gown, smoking a hookah and 
delivering five-minute sermons to any passers-by who desired spiritual comfort. I 
interrupted to make Uncle Jack let me know when he would pull it out, but he 
held up a bloody splinter in a pair of tweezers and said he yanked it while I was 
laughing, that was what was known as relativity. 

“What’s in those packages?” I asked him, pointing to the long thin parcels the 
porter had given him. 

“None of your business,” he said. 

Jem said, “How’s Rose Aylmer?” 

Rose Aylmer was Uncle Jack’s cat. She was a beautiful yellow female Uncle Jack 
said was one of the few women he could stand permanently. He reached into his 
coat pocket and brought out some snapshots. We admired them. 

“She’s gettin‘ fat,” I said. 

“I should think so. She eats all the leftover fingers and ears from the hospital.” 
“Aw, that’s a damn story,” I said. 

“I beg your pardon?” 

Atticus said, “Don’t pay any attention to her, Jack. She’s trying you out. Cal says 
she’s been cussing fluently for a week, now.” Uncle Jack raised his eyebrows and 
said nothing. I was proceeding on the dim theory, aside from the innate 
attractiveness of such words, that if Atticus discovered I had picked them up at 
school he wouldn’t make me go. 

But at supper that evening when I asked him to pass the damn ham, please, Uncle 
Jack pointed at me. “See me afterwards, young lady,” he said. 

When supper was over, Uncle Jack went to the livingroom and sat down. He 
slapped his thighs for me to come sit on his lap. I liked to smell him: he was like a 
bottle of alcohol and something pleasantly sweet. He pushed back my bangs and 
looked at me. “You’re more like Atticus than your mother,” he said. “You’re also 
growing out of your pants a little.” 

“I reckon they fit all right.” 

“You like words like damn and hell now, don’t you?” 

I said I reckoned so. 

“Well I don’t,” said Uncle Jack, “not unless there’s extreme provocation 
connected with ‘em. I’ll be here a week, and I don’t want to hear any words like 
that while I’m here. Scout, you’ll get in trouble if you go around saying things 
like that. You want to grow up to be a lady, don’t you?” 

I said not particularly. 

“Of course you do. Now let’s get to the tree.” 

We decorated the tree until bedtime, and that night I dreamed of the two long 

packages for Jem and me. Next morning Jem and I dived for them: they were 
from Atticus, who had written Uncle Jack to get them for us, and they were what 
we had asked for. 

“Don’t point them in the house,” said Atticus, when Jem aimed at a picture on the 

“You’ll have to teach ‘em to shoot,” said Uncle Jack. 

“That’s your job,” said Atticus. “I merely bowed to the inevitable.” 

It took Atticus ’s courtroom voice to drag us away from the tree. He declined to let 
us take our air rifles to the Landing (I had already begun to think of shooting 
Francis) and said if we made one false move he’d take them away from us for 

Finch’s Landing consisted of three hundred and sixty-six steps down a high bluff 
and ending in a jetty. Farther down stream, beyond the bluff, were traces of an old 
cotton landing, where Finch Negroes had loaded bales and produce, unloaded 
blocks of ice, flour and sugar, farm equipment, and feminine apparel. A two-rut 
road ran from the riverside and vanished among dark trees. At the end of the road 
was a two-storied white house with porches circling it upstairs and downstairs. In 
his old age, our ancestor Simon Finch had built it to please his nagging wife; but 
with the porches all resemblance to ordinary houses of its era ended. The internal 
arrangements of the Finch house were indicative of Simon’s guilelessness and the 
absolute trust with which he regarded his offspring. 

There were six bedrooms upstairs, four for the eight female children, one for 
Welcome Finch, the sole son, and one for visiting relatives. Simple enough; but 
the daughters’ rooms could be reached only by one staircase, Welcome’s room 
and the guestroom only by another. The Daughters’ Staircase was in the ground- 
floor bedroom of their parents, so Simon always knew the hours of his daughters’ 
nocturnal comings and goings. 

There was a kitchen separate from the rest of the house, tacked onto it by a 
wooden catwalk; in the back yard was a rusty bell on a pole, used to summon 
field hands or as a distress signal; a widow’s walk was on the roof, but no widows 
walked there — from it, Simon oversaw his overseer, watched the river-boats, and 
gazed into the lives of surrounding landholders. 

There went with the house the usual legend about the Yankees: one Finch female, 
recently engaged, donned her complete trousseau to save it from raiders in the 
neighborhood; she became stuck in the door to the Daughters’ Staircase but was 
doused with water and finally pushed through. When we arrived at the Landing, 
Aunt Alexandra kissed Uncle Jack, Francis kissed Uncle Jack, Uncle Jimmy 
shook hands silently with Uncle Jack, Jem and I gave our presents to Francis, who 
gave us a present. Jem felt his age and gravitated to the adults, leaving me to 
entertain our cousin. Francis was eight and slicked back his hair. 

“What’d you get for Christmas?” I asked politely. 

“Just what I asked for,” he said. Francis had requested a pair of knee-pants, a red 
leather booksack, five shirts and an untied bow tie. 

“That’s nice,” I lied. “Jem and me got air rifles, and Jem got a chemistry set — ” 

“A toy one, I reckon.” 

“No, a real one. He’s gonna make me some invisible ink, and I’m gonna write to 
Dill in it.” 

Francis asked what was the use of that. 

“Well, can’t you just see his face when he gets a letter from me with nothing in it? 
It’ll drive him nuts.” 

Talking to Francis gave me the sensation of settling slowly to the bottom of the 
ocean. He was the most boring child I ever met. As he lived in Mobile, he could 
not inform on me to school authorities, but he managed to tell everything he knew 
to Aunt Alexandra, who in turn unburdened herself to Atticus, who either forgot it 
or gave me hell, whichever struck his fancy. But the only time I ever heard 
Atticus speak sharply to anyone was when I once heard him say, “Sister, I do the 
best I can with them!” It had something to do with my going around in overalls. 

Aunt Alexandra was fanatical on the subject of my attire. I could not possibly 
hope to be a lady if I wore breeches; when I said I could do nothing in a dress, she 
said I wasn’t supposed to be doing things that required pants. Aunt Alexandra’s 
vision of my deportment involved playing with small stoves, tea sets, and wearing 
the Add-A-Pearl necklace she gave me when I was born; furthermore, I should be 
a ray of sunshine in my father’s lonely life. I suggested that one could be a ray of 

sunshine in pants just as well, but Aunty said that one had to behave like a 
sunbeam, that I was born good but had grown progressively worse every year. 

She hurt my feelings and set my teeth permanently on edge, but when I asked 
Atticus about it, he said there were already enough sunbeams in the family and to 
go on about my business, he didn’t mind me much the way I was. 

At Christmas dinner, I sat at the little table in the diningroom; Jem and Francis sat 
with the adults at the dining table. Aunty had continued to isolate me long after 
Jem and Francis graduated to the big table. I often wondered what she thought I’d 
do, get up and throw something? I sometimes thought of asking her if she would 
let me sit at the big table with the rest of them just once, I would prove to her how 
civilized I could be; after all, I ate at home every day with no major mishaps. 
When I begged Atticus to use his influence, he said he had none — we were 
guests, and we sat where she told us to sit. He also said Aunt Alexandra didn’t 
understand girls much, she’d never had one. 

But her cooking made up for everything: three kinds of meat, summer vegetables 
from her pantry shelves; peach pickles, two kinds of cake and ambrosia 
constituted a modest Christmas dinner. Afterwards, the adults made for the 
livingroom and sat around in a dazed condition. Jem lay on the floor, and I went 
to the back yard. “Put on your coat,” said Atticus dreamily, so I didn’t hear him. 

Francis sat beside me on the back steps. “That was the best yet,” I said. 
“Grandma’s a wonderful cook,” said Francis. “She’s gonna teach me how.” 

“Boys don’t cook.” I giggled at the thought of Jem in an apron. 

“Grandma says all men should learn to cook, that men oughta be careful with 
their wives and wait on ‘em when they don’t feel good,” said my cousin. 

“I don’t want Dill waitin‘ on me,” I said. “I’d rather wait on him.” 




“Yeah. Don’t say anything about it yet, but we’re gonna get married as soon as 
we’re big enough. He asked me last summer.” 

Francis hooted. 

“What’s the matter with him?” I asked. “Ain’t anything the matter with him.” 
“You mean that little runt Grandma says stays with Miss Rachel every summer?” 

“That’s exactly who I mean.” 

“I know all about him,” said Francis. 

“What about him?” 

“Grandma says he hasn’t got a home — ” 

“Has too, he lives in Meridian.” 

“ — he just gets passed around from relative to relative, and Miss Rachel keeps 
him every summer.” 

“Francis, that’s not so!” 

Francis grinned at me. “You’re mighty dumb sometimes, Jean Louise. Guess you 
don’t know any better, though.” 

“What do you mean?” 

“If Uncle Atticus lets you run around with stray dogs, that’s his own business, 
like Grandma says, so it ain’t your fault. I guess it ain’t your fault if Uncle Atticus 
is a nigger-lover besides, but I’m here to tell you it certainly does mortify the rest 
of the family — ” 

“Francis, what the hell do you mean?” 

“Just what I said. Grandma says it’s bad enough he lets you all run wild, but now 
he’s turned out a nigger-lover we’ll never be able to walk the streets of Maycomb 
agin. He’s ruinin‘ the family, that’s what he’s doin’.” 

Francis rose and sprinted down the catwalk to the old kitchen. At a safe distance 
he called, “He’s nothin 4 but a nigger-lover!” 

“He is not!” I roared. “I don’t know what you’re talkin 4 about, but you better cut 
it out this red hot minute!” 

I leaped off the steps and ran down the catwalk. It was easy to collar Francis. I 
said take it back quick. 

Francis jerked loose and sped into the old kitchen. “Nigger-lover!” he yelled. 

When stalking one’s prey, it is best to take one’s time. Say nothing, and as sure as 
eggs he will become curious and emerge. Francis appeared at the kitchen door. 
“You still mad, Jean Louise?” he asked tentatively. 

“Nothing to speak of,” I said. 

Francis came out on the catwalk. 

“You gonna take it back, Fra — ancis?” But I was too quick on the draw. Francis 
shot back into the kitchen, so I retired to the steps. I could wait patiently. I had sat 
there perhaps five minutes when I heard Aunt Alexandra speak: “Where’s 

“He’s out yonder in the kitchen.” 

“He knows he’s not supposed to play in there.” 

Francis came to the door and yelled, “Grandma, she’s got me in here and she 
won’t let me out!” 

“What is all this, Jean Louise?” 

I looked up at Aunt Alexandra. “I haven’t got him in there, Aunty, I ain’t holdin‘ 

“Yes she is,” shouted Francis, “she won’t let me out!” 

“Have you all been fussing?” 

“Jean Louise got mad at me, Grandma,” called Francis. 

“Francis, come out of there! Jean Louise, if I hear another word out of you I’ll tell 
your father. Did I hear you say hell a while ago?” 


“I thought I did. I’d better not hear it again.” 

Aunt Alexandra was a back-porch listener. The moment she was out of sight 
Francis came out head up and grinning. “Don’t you fool with me,” he said. 

He jumped into the yard and kept his distance, kicking tufts of grass, turning 
around occasionally to smile at me. Jem appeared on the porch, looked at us, and 
went away. Francis climbed the mimosa tree, came down, put his hands in his 
pockets and strolled around the yard. “Hah!” he said. I asked him who he thought 
he was, Uncle Jack? Francis said he reckoned I got told, for me to just sit there 
and leave him alone. 

“I ain’t botherhT you,” I said. 

Francis looked at me carefully, concluded that I had been sufficiently subdued, 
and crooned softly, “Nigger-lover...” 

This time, I split my knuckle to the bone on his front teeth. My left impaired, I 
sailed in with my right, but not for long. Uncle Jack pinned my arms to my sides 
and said, “Stand still!” 

Aunt Alexandra ministered to Francis, wiping his tears away with her 
handkerchief, rubbing his hair, patting his cheek. Atticus, Jem, and Uncle Jimmy 
had come to the back porch when Francis started yelling. 

“Who started this?” said Uncle Jack. 

Francis and I pointed at each other. “Grandma,” he bawled, “she called me a 
whore-lady and jumped on me!” 

“Is that true, Scout?” said Uncle Jack. 

“I reckon so.” 

When Uncle Jack looked down at me, his features were like Aunt Alexandra’s. 
“You know I told you you’d get in trouble if you used words like that? I told you, 
didn’t I?” 

“Yes sir, but—” 

“Well, you’re in trouble now. Stay there.” 

I was debating whether to stand there or run, and tarried in indecision a moment 
too long: I turned to flee but Uncle Jack was quicker. I found myself suddenly 
looking at a tiny ant struggling with a bread crumb in the grass. 

“I’ll never speak to you again as long as I live! I hate you an‘ despise you an’ 
hope you die tomorrow!” A statement that seemed to encourage Uncle Jack, more 
than anything. I ran to Atticus for comfort, but he said I had it coming and it was 
high time we went home. I climbed into the back seat of the car without saying 
good-bye to anyone, and at home I ran to my room and slammed the door. Jem 
tried to say something nice, but I wouldn’t let him. 

When I surveyed the damage there were only seven or eight red marks, and I was 
reflecting upon relativity when someone knocked on the door. I asked who it was; 
Uncle Jack answered. 

“Go away!” 

Uncle Jack said if I talked like that he’d lick me again, so I was quiet. When he 

entered the room I retreated to a corner and turned my back on him. “Scout,” he 
said, “do you still hate me?” 

“Go on, please sir.” 

“Why, I didn’t think you’d hold it against me,” he said. “I’m disappointed in you 
— you had that coming and you know it.” 

“Didn’t either.” 

“Honey, you can’t go around calling people — ” 

“You ain’t fair,” I said, “you ain’t fair.” 

Uncle Jack’s eyebrows went up. “Not fair? How not?” 

“You’re real nice, Uncle Jack, an‘ I reckon I love you even after what you did, but 
you don’t understand children much.” 

Uncle Jack put his hands on his hips and looked down at me. “And why do I not 
understand children, Miss Jean Louise? Such conduct as yours required little 
understanding. It was obstreperous, disorderly and abusive — ” 

“You gonna give me a chance to tell you? I don’t mean to sass you, I’m just tryin‘ 
to tell you.” 

Uncle Jack sat down on the bed. His eyebrows came together, and he peered up at 
me from under them. “Proceed,” he said. 

I took a deep breath. “Well, in the first place you never stopped to gimme a 
chance to tell you my side of it — you just lit right into me. When Jem an‘ I fuss 
Atticus doesn’t ever just listen to Jem’s side of it, he hears mine too, an’ in the 
second place you told me never to use words like that except in ex-extreme 
provocation, and Francis provocated me enough to knock his block off — ” 

Uncle Jack scratched his head. “What was your side of it, Scout?” 

“Francis called Atticus somethin 4 , an’ I wasn’t about to take it off him.” 

“What did Francis call him?” 

“A nigger-lover. I ain’t very sure what it means, but the way Francis said it — tell 
you one thing right now, Uncle Jack, I’ll be — I swear before God if I’ll sit there 
and let him say somethin 4 about Atticus.” 

“He called Atticus that?” 

“Yes sir, he did, an‘ a lot more. Said Atticus’d be the ruination of the family an’ 
he let Jem an me run wild. ..” 

From the look on Uncle Jack’s face, I thought I was in for it again. When he said, 
“We’ll see about this,” I knew Francis was in for it. “I’ve a good mind to go out 
there tonight.” 

“Please sir, just let it go. Please.” 

“I’ve no intention of letting it go,” he said. “Alexandra should know about this. 
The idea of — wait’ll I get my hands on that boy . . .” 

“Uncle Jack, please promise me somethin 4 , please sir. Promise you won’t tell 
Atticus about this. He — he asked me one time not to let anything I heard about 
him make me mad, an’ I’d ruther him think we were fightin 4 about somethin’ else 
instead. Please promise...” 

“But I don’t like Francis getting away with something like that — ” 

“He didn’t. You reckon you could tie up my hand? It’s still bleedin 4 some.” 

“Of course I will, baby. I know of no hand I would be more delighted to tie up. 
Will you come this way?” 

Uncle Jack gallantly bowed me to the bathroom. While he cleaned and bandaged 
my knuckles, he entertained me with a tale about a funny nearsighted old 
gentleman who had a cat named Hodge, and who counted all the cracks in the 
sidewalk when he went to town. “There now,” he said. “You’ll have a very 
unladylike scar on your wedding-ring finger.” 

“Thank you sir. Uncle Jack?” 


“What’s a whore-lady?” 

Uncle Jack plunged into another long tale about an old Prime Minister who sat in 
the House of Commons and blew feathers in the air and tried to keep them there 
when all about him men were losing their heads. I guess he was trying to answer 
my question, but he made no sense whatsoever. 

Later, when I was supposed to be in bed, I went down the hall for a drink of water 
and heard Atticus and Uncle Jack in the livingroom: 

“I shall never marry, Atticus.” 


“I might have children.” 

Atticus said, “You’ve a lot to learn, Jack.” 

“I know. Your daughter gave me my first lessons this afternoon. She said I didn’t 
understand children much and told me why. She was quite right. Atticus, she told 
me how I should have treated her — oh dear, I’m so sorry I romped on her.” 

Atticus chuckled. “She earned it, so don’t feel too remorseful.” 

I waited, on tenterhooks, for Uncle Jack to tell Atticus my side of it. But he 
didn’t. He simply murmured, “Her use of bathroom invective leaves nothing to 
the imagination. But she doesn’t know the meaning of half she says — she asked 
me what a whore-lady was. . .” 

“Did you tell her?” 

“No, I told her about Lord Melbourne.” 

“Jack! When a child asks you something, answer him, for goodness’ sake. But 
don’t make a production of it. Children are children, but they can spot an evasion 
quicker than adults, and evasion simply muddles ‘em. No,” my father mused, 

“you had the right answer this afternoon, but the wrong reasons. Bad language is 
a stage all children go through, and it dies with time when they learn they’re not 
attracting attention with it. Hotheadedness isn’t. Scout’s got to learn to keep her 
head and learn soon, with what’s in store for her these next few months. She’s 
coming along, though. Jem’s getting older and she follows his example a good bit 
now. All she needs is assistance sometimes.” 

“Atticus, you’ve never laid a hand on her.” 

“I admit that. So far I’ve been able to get by with threats. Jack, she minds me as 
well as she can. Doesn’t come up to scratch half the time, but she tries.” 

“That’s not the answer,” said Uncle Jack. 

“No, the answer is she knows I know she tries. That’s what makes the difference. 
What bothers me is that she and Jem will have to absorb some ugly things pretty 
soon. I’m not worried about Jem keeping his head, but Scout’d just as soon jump 
on someone as look at him if her pride’s at stake. . .” 

I waited for Uncle Jack to break his promise. He still didn’t. 

“Atticus, how bad is this going to be? You haven’t had too much chance to 
discuss it.” 

“It couldn’t be worse, Jack. The only thing we’ve got is a black man’s word 
against the Ewells? The evidence boils down to you-did — I-didn’t. The jury 
couldn’t possibly be expected to take Tom Robinson’s word against the Ewells’ — 
are you acquainted with the Ewells?” 

Uncle Jack said yes, he remembered them. He described them to Atticus, but 
Atticus said, “You’re a generation off. The present ones are the same, though.” 

“What are you going to do, then?” 

“Before I’m through, I intend to jar the jury a bit — I think we’ll have a reasonable 
chance on appeal, though. I really can’t tell at this stage, Jack. You know, I’d 
hoped to get through life without a case of this kind, but John Taylor pointed at 
me and said, ‘You’re It.’” 

“Let this cup pass from you, eh?” 

“Right. But do you think I could face my children otherwise? You know what’s 
going to happen as well as I do, Jack, and I hope and pray I can get Jem and Scout 
through it without bitterness, and most of all, without catching Maycomb’s usual 
disease. Why reasonable people go stark raving mad when anything involving a 
Negro comes up, is something I don’t pretend to understand. . . I just hope that 
Jem and Scout come to me for their answers instead of listening to the town. I 
hope they trust me enough. . . Jean Louise?” 

My scalp jumped. I stuck my head around the corner. “Sir?” 

“Go to bed.” 

I scurried to my room and went to bed. Uncle Jack was a prince of a fellow not to 
let me down. But I never figured out how Atticus knew I was listening, and it was 
not until many years later that I realized he wanted me to hear every word he said. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 10 

Atticus was feeble: he was nearly fifty. When Jem and I asked him why he was so 
old, he said he got started late, which we felt reflected upon his abilities and 
manliness. He was much older than the parents of our school contemporaries, and 
there was nothing Jem or I could say about him when our classmates said, “My 

Jem was football crazy. Atticus was never too tired to play keep-away, but when 
Jem wanted to tackle him Atticus would say, “I’m too old for that, son.” 

Our father didn’t do anything. He worked in an office, not in a drugstore. Atticus 
did not drive a dump-truck for the county, he was not the sheriff, he did not farm, 
work in a garage, or do anything that could possibly arouse the admiration of 

Besides that, he wore glasses. He was nearly blind in his left eye, and said left 
eyes were the tribal curse of the Finches. Whenever he wanted to see something 
well, he turned his head and looked from his right eye. 

He did not do the things our schoolmates’ fathers did: he never went hunting, he 
did not play poker or fish or drink or smoke. He sat in the livingroom and read. 

With these attributes, however, he would not remain as inconspicuous as we 
wished him to: that year, the school buzzed with talk about him defending Tom 
Robinson, none of which was complimentary. After my bout with Cecil Jacobs 
when I committed myself to a policy of cowardice, word got around that Scout 
Finch wouldn’t fight any more, her daddy wouldn’t let her. This was not entirely 
correct: I wouldn’t fight publicly for Atticus, but the family was private ground. I 
would fight anyone from a third cousin upwards tooth and nail. Francis Hancock, 
for example, knew that. 

When he gave us our air-rifles Atticus wouldn’t teach us to shoot. Uncle Jack 
instructed us in the rudiments thereof; he said Atticus wasn’t interested in guns. 
Atticus said to Jem one day, “I’d rather you shot at tin cans in the back yard, but I 

know you’ll go after birds. Shoot all the bluejays you want, if you can hit ‘em, but 
remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” 

That was the only time I ever heard Atticus say it was a sin to do something, and I 
asked Miss Maudie about it. 

“Your father’s right,” she said. “Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music 
for us to enjoy. They don’t eat up people’s gardens, don’t nest in corncribs, they 
don’t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a 

“Miss Maudie, this is an old neighborhood, ain’t it?” 

“Been here longer than the town.” 

“Nome, I mean the folks on our street are all old. Jem and me’s the only children 
around here. Mrs. Dubose is close on to a hundred and Miss Rachel’s old and so 
are you and Atticus.” 

“I don’t call fifty very old,” said Miss Maudie tartly. “Not being wheeled around 
yet, am I? Neither’ s your father. But I must say Providence was kind enough to 
burn down that old mausoleum of mine, I’m too old to keep it up — maybe you’re 
right, Jean Louise, this is a settled neighborhood. You’ve never been around 
young folks much, have you?” 

“Yessum, at school.” 

“I mean young grown-ups. You’re lucky, you know. You and Jem have the 
benefit of your father’s age. If your father was thirty you’d find life quite 

“I sure would. Atticus can’t do anything...” 

“You’d be surprised,” said Miss Maudie. “There’s life in him yet.” 

“What can he do?” 

“Well, he can make somebody’s will so airtight can’t anybody meddle with it.” 

“Well, did you know he’s the best checker-player in this town? Why, down at the 
Landing when we were coming up, Atticus Finch could beat everybody on both 
sides of the river.” 

“Good Lord, Miss Maudie, Jem and me beat him all the time.” 

“It’s about time you found out it’s because he lets you. Did you know he can play 
a Jew’s JJarp?” 

This modest accomplishment served to make me even more ashamed of him. 
“Well...” she said. 

“Well, what, Miss Maudie?” 

“Well nothing. Nothing — it seems with all that you’d be proud of him. Can’t 
everybody play a Jew’s JJarp. Now keep out of the way of the carpenters. You’d 
better go home, I’ll be in my azaleas and can’t watch you. Plank might hit you.” 

I went to the back yard and found Jem plugging away at a tin can, which seemed 
stupid with all the bluejays around. I returned to the front yard and busied myself 
for two hours erecting a complicated breastworks at the side of the porch, 
consisting of a tire, an orange crate, the laundry hamper, the porch chairs, and a 
small U.S. flag Jem gave me from a popcorn box. 

When Atticus came home to dinner he found me crouched down aiming across 
the street. “What are you shooting at?” 

“Miss Maudie’ s rear end.” 

Atticus turned and saw my generous target bending over her bushes. He pushed 
his hat to the back of his head and crossed the street. “Maudie,” he called, “I 
thought I’d better warn you. You’re in considerable peril.” 

Miss Maudie straightened up and looked toward me. She said, “Atticus, you are a 
devil from hell.” 

When Atticus returned he told me to break camp. “Don’t you ever let me catch 
you pointing that gun at anybody again,” he said. 

I wished my father was a devil from hell. I sounded out Calpurnia on the subject. 
“Mr. Finch? Why, he can do lots of things.” 

“Like what?” I asked. 

Calpurnia scratched her head. “Well, I don’t rightly know,” she said. 

Jem underlined it when he asked Atticus if he was going out for the Methodists 
and Atticus said he’d break his neck if he did, he was just too old for that sort of 

thing. The Methodists were trying to pay off their church mortgage, and had 
challenged the Baptists to a game of touch football. Everybody in town’s father 
was playing, it seemed, except Atticus. Jem said he didn’t even want to go, but he 
was unable to resist football in any form, and he stood gloomily on the sidelines 
with Atticus and me watching Cecil Jacobs’s father make touchdowns for the 

One Saturday Jem and I decided to go exploring with our air-rifles to see if we 
could find a rabbit or a squirrel. We had gone about five hundred yards beyond 
the Radley Place when I noticed Jem squinting at something down the street. JJe 
had turned his head to one side and was looking out of the corners of his eyes. 

“Whatcha looking at?” 

“That old dog down yonder,” he said. 

“That’s old Tim Johnson, ain’t it?” 


Tim Johnson was the property of Mr. JJarry Johnson who drove the Mobile bus 
and lived on the southern edge of town. Tim was a liver-colored bird dog, the pet 
of Maycomb. 

“What’s he doing?” 

“I don’t know, Scout. We better go home.” 

“Aw Jem, it’s February.” 

“I don’t care, I’m gonna tell Cal.” 

We raced home and ran to the kitchen. 

“Cal,” said Jem, “can you come down the sidewalk a minute?” 

“What for, Jem? I can’t come down the sidewalk every time you want me.” 
“There’s somethin 4 wrong with an old dog down yonder.” 

Calpurnia sighed. “I can’t wrap up any dog’s foot now. There’s some gauze in the 
bathroom, go get it and do it yourself.” 

Jem shook his head. “He’s sick, Cal. Something’s wrong with him.” 

“What’s he doin‘, trying to catch his tail?” 

“No, he’s doin‘ like this.” 

Jem gulped like a goldfish, hunched his shoulders and twitched his torso. “He’s 
goin‘ like that, only not like he means to.” 

“Are you telling me a story, Jem Finch?” Calpurnia’s voice hardened. 

“No Cal, I swear I’m not.” 

“Was he runnin‘?” 

“No, he’s just moseyin‘ along, so slow you can’t hardly tell it. He’s cornin’ this 

Calpurnia rinsed her hands and followed Jem into the yard. “I don’t see any dog,” 
she said. 

She followed us beyond the Radley Place and looked where Jem pointed. Tim 
Johnson was not much more than a speck in the distance, but he was closer to us. 
He walked erratically, as if his right legs were shorter than his left legs. He 
reminded me of a car stuck in a sandbed. 

“He’s gone lopsided,” said Jem. 

Calpurnia stared, then grabbed us by the shoulders and ran us home. She shut the 
wood door behind us, went to the telephone and shouted, “Gimme Mr. Finch’s 

“Mr. Finch!” she shouted. “This is Cal. I swear to God there’s a mad dog down 
the street a piece — he’s comin‘ this way, yes sir, he’s — Mr. Finch, I declare he is 
— old Tim Johnson, yes sir. . . yessir. . . yes — ” 

She hung up and shook her head when we tried to ask her what Atticus had said. 
She rattled the telephone hook and said, “Miss Eula May — now ma’am, I’m 
through talkin‘ to Mr. Finch, please don’t connect me no more — listen, Miss Eula 
May, can you call Miss Rachel and Miss Stephanie Crawford and whoever’ s got a 
phone on this street and tell ’em a mad dog’s comin‘? Please ma’am!” 

Calpurnia listened. “I know it’s February, Miss Eula May, but I know a mad dog 
when I see one. Please ma’am hurry!” 

Calpurnia asked Jem, “Radleys got a phone?” 

Jem looked in the book and said no. “They won’t come out anyway, Cal.” 

“I don’t care, I’m gonna tell ‘em.” 

She ran to the front porch, Jem and I at her heels. “You stay in that house!” she 

Calpurnia’s message had been received by the neighborhood. Every wood door 
within our range of vision was closed tight. We saw no trace of Tim Johnson. We 
watched Calpurnia running toward the Radley Place, holding her skirt and apron 
above her knees. She went up to the front steps and banged on the door. She got 
no answer, and she shouted, “Mr. Nathan, Mr. Arthur, mad dog’s comin‘1 Mad 
dog’s cornin’!” 

“She’s supposed to go around in back,” I said. 

Jem shook his head. “Don’t make any difference now,” he said. 

Calpurnia pounded on the door in vain. No one acknowledged her warning; no 
one seemed to have heard it. 

As Calpurnia sprinted to the back porch a black Ford swung into the driveway. 
Atticus and Mr. Heck Tate got out. 

Mr. Heck Tate was the sheriff of Maycomb County. He was as tall as Atticus, but 
thinner. He was long-nosed, wore boots with shiny metal eye-holes, boot pants 
and a lumber jacket. His belt had a row of bullets sticking in it. He carried a heavy 
rifle. When he and Atticus reached the porch, Jem opened the door. 

“Stay inside, son,” said Atticus. “Where is he, Cal?” 

“He oughta be here by now,” said Calpurnia, pointing down the street. 

“Not running is he?” asked Mr. Tate. 

“Naw sir, he’s in the twitchin‘ stage, Mr. Heck.” 

“Should we go after him, Heck?” asked Atticus. 

“We better wait, Mr. Finch. They usually go in a straight line, but you never can 
tell. He might follow the curve — hope he does or he’ll go straight in the Radley 
back yard. Fet’s wait a minute.” 

“Don’t think he’ll get in the Radley yard,” said Atticus. “Fence’ll stop him. He’ll 
probably follow the road. . .” 

I thought mad dogs foamed at the mouth, galloped, leaped and lunged at throats, 
and I thought they did it in August. Had Tim Johnson behaved thus, I would have 

been less frightened. 

Nothing is more deadly than a deserted, waiting street. The trees were still, the 
mockingbirds were silent, the carpenters at Miss Maudie’s house had vanished. I 
heard Mr. Tate sniff, then blow his nose. I saw him shift his gun to the crook of 
his arm. I saw Miss Stephanie Crawford’s face framed in the glass window of her 
front door. Miss Maudie appeared and stood beside her. Atticus put his foot on 
the rung of a chair and rubbed his hand slowly down the side of his thigh. 

“There he is,” he said softly. 

Tim Johnson came into sight, walking dazedly in the inner rim of the curve 
parallel to the Radley house. 

“Look at him,” whispered Jem. “Mr. Heck said they walked in a straight line. He 
can’t even stay in the road.” 

“He looks more sick than anything,” I said. 

“Let anything get in front of him and he’ll come straight at it.” 

Mr. Tate put his hand to his forehead and leaned forward. “He’s got it all right, 

Mr. Finch.” 

Tim Johnson was advancing at a snail’s pace, but he was not playing or sniffing at 
foliage: he seemed dedicated to one course and motivated by an invisible force 
that was inching him toward us. We could see him shiver like a horse shedding 
flies; his jaw opened and shut; he was alist, but he was being pulled gradually 
toward us. 

“He’s lookin‘ for a place to die,” said Jem. 

Mr. Tate turned around. “He’s far from dead, Jem, he hasn’t got started yet.” 

Tim Johnson reached the side street that ran in front of the Radley Place, and 
what remained of his poor mind made him pause and seem to consider which road 
he would take. He made a few hesitant steps and stopped in front of the Radley 
gate; then he tried to turn around, but was having difficulty. 

Atticus said, “He’s within range, Heck. You better get him before he goes down 
the side street — Lord knows who’s around the corner. Go inside, Cal.” 

Calpurnia opened the screen door, latched it behind her, then unlatched it and held 
onto the hook. She tried to block Jem and me with her body, but we looked out 

from beneath her arms. 

“Take him, Mr. Finch.” Mr. Tate handed the rifle to Atticus; Jem and I nearly 

“Don’t waste time, Heck,” said Atticus. “Go on.” 

“Mr. Finch, this is a one-shot job.” 

Atticus shook his head vehemently: “Don’t just stand there, Heck! He won’t wait 
all day for you — ” 

“For God’s sake, Mr. Finch, look where he is! Miss and you’ll go straight into the 
Radley house! I can’t shoot that well and you know it!” 

“I haven’t shot a gun in thirty years — ” 

Mr. Tate almost threw the rifle at Atticus. “I’d feel mighty comfortable if you did 
now,” he said. 

In a fog, Jem and I watched our father take the gun and walk out into the middle 
of the street. He walked quickly, but I thought he moved like an underwater 
swimmer: time had slowed to a nauseating crawl. 

When Atticus raised his glasses Calpurnia murmured, “Sweet Jesus help him,” 
and put her hands to her cheeks. 

Atticus pushed his glasses to his forehead; they slipped down, and he dropped 
them in the street. In the silence, I heard them crack. Atticus rubbed his eyes and 
chin; we saw him blink hard. 

In front of the Radley gate, Tim Johnson had made up what was left of his mind. 
He had finally turned himself around, to pursue his original course up our street. 

He made two steps forward, then stopped and raised his head. We saw his body 
go rigid. 

With movements so swift they seemed simultaneous, Atticus’ s hand yanked a ball- 
tipped lever as he brought the gun to his shoulder. 

The rifle cracked. Tim Johnson leaped, flopped over and crumpled on the 
sidewalk in a brown-and-white heap. He didn’t know what hit him. 

Mr. Tate jumped off the porch and ran to the Radley Place. He stopped in front of 
the dog, squatted, turned around and tapped his finger on his forehead above his 

left eye. “You were a little to the right, Mr. Finch,” he called. 

“Always was,” answered Atticus. “If I had my ‘druthers I’d take a shotgun.” 

He stooped and picked up his glasses, ground the broken lenses to powder under 
his heel, and went to Mr. Tate and stood looking down at Tim Johnson. 

Doors opened one by one, and the neighborhood slowly came alive. Miss Maudie 
walked down the steps with Miss Stephanie Crawford. 

Jem was paralyzed. I pinched him to get him moving, but when Atticus saw us 
coming he called, “Stay where you are.” 

When Mr. Tate and Atticus returned to the yard, Mr. Tate was smiling. “Til have 
Zeebo collect him,” he said. “You haven’t forgot much, Mr. Finch. They say it 
never leaves you.” 

Atticus was silent. 

“Atticus?” said Jem. 


“Nothin 4 .” 

“I saw that, One-Shot Finch!” 

Atticus wheeled around and faced Miss Maudie. They looked at one another 
without saying anything, and Atticus got into the sheriff’s car. “Come here,” he 
said to Jem. “Don’t you go near that dog, you understand? Don’t go near him, 
he’s just as dangerous dead as alive.” 

“Yes sir,” said Jem. “Atticus — ” 

“What, son?” 


“What’s the matter with you, boy, can’t you talk?” said Mr. Tate, grinning at Jem. 
“Didn’t you know your daddy’s — ” 

“Hush, Heck,” said Atticus, “let’s go back to town.” 

When they drove away, Jem and I went to Miss Stephanie’s front steps. We sat 
waiting for Zeebo to arrive in the garbage truck. 

Jem sat in numb confusion, and Miss Stephanie said, “Uh, uh, uh, who ’da thought 
of a mad dog in February? Maybe he wadn’t mad, maybe he was just crazy. I’d 

hate to see Harry Johnson’s face when he gets in from the Mobile run and finds 
Atticus Finch’s shot his dog. Bet he was just full of fleas from somewhere — ” 

Miss Maudie said Miss Stephanie’d be singing a different tune if Tim Johnson 
was still coming up the street, that they’d find out soon enough, they’d send his 
head to Montgomery. 

Jem became vaguely articulate: ‘“d you see him, Scout? ’d you see him just 
standhT there?. . . ’n‘ all of a sudden he just relaxed all over, an’ it looked like that 
gun was a part of him. . . an‘ he did it so quick, like. . . I hafta aim for ten minutes 
’fore I can hit somethin 4 . . .” 

Miss Maudie grinned wickedly. “Well now, Miss Jean Louise,” she said, “still 
think your father can’t do anything? Still ashamed of him?” 

“Nome,” I said meekly. 

“Forgot to tell you the other day that besides playing the Jew’s Harp, Atticus 
Finch was the deadest shot in Maycomb County in his time.” 

“Dead shot. . .” echoed Jem. 

“That’s what I said, Jem Finch. Guess you’ll change your tune now. The very 
idea, didn’t you know his nickname was OT One-Shot when he was a boy? Why, 
down at the Landing when he was coming up, if he shot fifteen times and hit 
fourteen doves he’d complain about wasting ammunition.” 

“He never said anything about that,” Jem muttered. 

“Never said anything about it, did he?” 

“No ma’am.” 

“Wonder why he never goes huntin 4 now,” I said. 

“Maybe I can tell you,” said Miss Maudie. “If your father’s anything, he’s 
civilized in his heart. Marksmanship’s a gift of God, a talent — oh, you have to 
practice to make it perfect, but shootin’s different from playing the piano or the 
like. I think maybe he put his gun down when he realized that God had given him 
an unfair advantage over most living things. I guess he decided he wouldn’t shoot 
till he had to, and he had to today.” 

“Looks like he’d be proud of it,” I said. 

“People in their right minds never take pride in their talents,” said Miss Maudie. 

We saw Zeebo drive up. He took a pitchfork from the back of the garbage truck 
and gingerly lifted Tim Johnson. He pitched the dog onto the truck, then poured 
something from a gallon jug on and around the spot where Tim fell. “Don’t yawl 
come over here for a while,” he called. 

When we went home I told Jem we’d really have something to talk about at 
school on Monday. Jem turned on me. 

“Don’t say anything about it, Scout,” he said. 

“What? I certainly am. Ain’t everybody’s daddy the deadest shot in Maycomb 

Jem said, “I reckon if he’d wanted us to know it, he’da told us. If he was proud of 
it, he’da told us.” 

“Maybe it just slipped his mind,” I said. 

“Naw, Scout, it’s something you wouldn’t understand. Atticus is real old, but I 
wouldn’t care if he couldn’t do anything — I wouldn’t care if he couldn’t do a 
blessed thing.” 

Jem picked up a rock and threw it jubilantly at the carhouse. Running after it, he 
called back: “Atticus is a gentleman, just like me!” 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 1 1 

When we were small, Jem and I confined our activities to the southern 
neighborhood, but when I was well into the second grade at school and 
tormenting Boo Radley became passe, the business section of Maycomb drew us 
frequently up the street past the real property of Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose. It 
was impossible to go to town without passing her house unless we wished to walk 
a mile out of the way. Previous minor encounters with her left me with no desire 

for more, but Jem said I had to grow up some time. 

Mrs. Dubose lived alone except for a Negro girl in constant attendance, two doors 
up the street from us in a house with steep front steps and a dog-trot hall. She was 
very old; she spent most of each day in bed and the rest of it in a wheelchair. It 
was rumored that she kept a CSA pistol concealed among her numerous shawls 
and wraps. 

Jem and I hated her. If she was on the porch when we passed, we would be raked 
by her wrathful gaze, subjected to ruthless interrogation regarding our behavior, 
and given a melancholy prediction on what we would amount to when we grew 
up, which was always nothing. We had long ago given up the idea of walking past 
her house on the opposite side of the street; that only made her raise her voice and 
let the whole neighborhood in on it. 

We could do nothing to please her. If I said as sunnily as I could, “Hey, Mrs. 
Dubose,” I would receive for an answer, “Don’t you say hey to me, you ugly girl! 
You say good afternoon, Mrs. Dubose!” 

She was vicious. Once she heard Jem refer to our father as “Atticus” and her 
reaction was apoplectic. Besides being the sassiest, most disrespectful mutts who 
ever passed her way, we were told that it was quite a pity our father had not 
remarried after our mother’s death. A lovelier lady than our mother never lived, 
she said, and it was heartbreaking the way Atticus Finch let her children run wild. 
I did not remember our mother, but Jem did — he would tell me about her 
sometimes — and he went livid when Mrs. Dubose shot us this message. 

Jem, having survived Boo Radley, a mad dog and other terrors, had concluded 
that it was cowardly to stop at Miss Rachel’s front steps and wait, and had 
decreed that we must run as far as the post office corner each evening to meet 
Atticus coming from work. Countless evenings Atticus would find Jem furious at 
something Mrs. Dubose had said when we went by. 

“Easy does it, son,” Atticus would say. “She’s an old lady and she’s ill. You just 
hold your head high and be a gentleman. Whatever she says to you, it’s your job 
not to let her make you mad.” Jem would say she must not be very sick, she 
hollered so. When the three of us came to her house, Atticus would sweep off his 
hat, wave gallantly to her and say, “Good evening, Mrs. Dubose! You look like a 

picture this evening.” 

I never heard Atticus say like a picture of what. He would tell her the courthouse 
news, and would say he hoped with all his heart she’d have a good day tomorrow. 
He would return his hat to his head, swing me to his shoulders in her very 
presence, and we would go home in the twilight. It was times like these when I 
thought my father, who hated guns and had never been to any wars, was the 
bravest man who ever lived. 

The day after Jem’s twelfth birthday his money was burning up his pockets, so we 
headed for town in the early afternoon. Jem thought he had enough to buy a 
miniature steam engine for himself and a twirling baton for me. 

I had long had my eye on that baton: it was at V. J. Elmore’s, it was bedecked 
with sequins and tinsel, it cost seventeen cents. It was then my burning ambition 
to grow up and twirl with the Maycomb County High School band. Having 
developed my talent to where I could throw up a stick and almost catch it coming 
down, I had caused Calpurnia to deny me entrance to the house every time she 
saw me with a stick in my hand. I felt that I could overcome this defect with a real 
baton, and I thought it generous of Jem to buy one for me. 

Mrs. Dubose was stationed on her porch when we went by. 

“Where are you two going at this time of day?” she shouted. “Playing hooky, I 
suppose. I’ll just call up the principal and tell him!” She put her hands on the 
wheels of her chair and executed a perfect right face. 

“Aw, it’s Saturday, Mrs. Dubose,” said Jem. 

“Makes no difference if it’s Saturday,” she said obscurely. “I wonder if your 
father knows where you are?” 

“Mrs. Dubose, we’ve been goin‘ to town by ourselves since we were this high.” 
Jem placed his hand palm down about two feet above the sidewalk. 

“Don’t you lie to me!” she yelled. “Jeremy Finch, Maudie Atkinson told me you 
broke down her scuppernong arbor this morning. She’s going to tell your father 
and then you’ll wish you never saw the light of day! If you aren’t sent to the 
reform school before next week, my name’s not Dubose!” 

Jem, who hadn’t been near Miss Maudie’ s scuppernong arbor since last summer, 

and who knew Miss Maudie wouldn’t tell Atticus if he had, issued a general 

“Don’t you contradict me!” Mrs. Dubose bawled. “And you — ” she pointed an 
arthritic finger at me — “what are you doing in those overalls? You should be in a 
dress and camisole, young lady! You’ll grow up waiting on tables if somebody 
doesn’t change your ways — a Finch waiting on tables at the O.K. Cafe — hah!” 

I was terrified. The O.K. Cafe was a dim organization on the north side of the 
square. I grabbed Jem’s hand but he shook me loose. 

“Come on, Scout,” he whispered. “Don’t pay any attention to her, just hold your 
head high and be a gentleman.” 

But Mrs. Dubose held us: “Not only a Finch waiting on tables but one in the 
courthouse lawing for niggers!” 

Jem stiffened. Mrs. Dubose’s shot had gone home and she knew it: 

“Yes indeed, what has this world come to when a Finch goes against his raising? 
I’ll tell you!” She put her hand to her mouth. When she drew it away, it trailed a 
long silver thread of saliva. “Your father’s no better than the niggers and trash he 
works for!” 

Jem was scarlet. I pulled at his sleeve, and we were followed up the sidewalk by a 
philippic on our family’s moral degeneration, the major premise of which was 
that half the Finches were in the asylum anyway, but if our mother were living we 
would not have come to such a state. 

I wasn’t sure what Jem resented most, but I took umbrage at Mrs. Dubose’s 
assessment of the family’s mental hygiene. I had become almost accustomed to 
hearing insults aimed at Atticus. But this was the first one coming from an adult. 
Except for her remarks about Atticus, Mrs. Dubose’s attack was only routine. 
There was a hint of summer in the air — in the shadows it was cool, but the sun 
was warm, which meant good times coming: no school and Dill. 

Jem bought his steam engine and we went by Elmore’s for my baton. Jem took no 
pleasure in his acquisition; he jammed it in his pocket and walked silently beside 
me toward home. On the way home I nearly hit Mr. Link Deas, who said, “Look 
out now, Scout!” when I missed a toss, and when we approached Mrs. Dubose’s 

house my baton was grimy from having picked it up out of the dirt so many times. 
She was not on the porch. 

In later years, I sometimes wondered exactly what made Jem do it, what made 
him break the bonds of “You just be a gentleman, son,” and the phase of self- 
conscious rectitude he had recently entered. Jem had probably stood as much guff 
about Atticus lawing for niggers as had I, and I took it for granted that he kept his 
temper — he had a naturally tranquil disposition and a slow fuse. At the time, 
however, I thought the only explanation for what he did was that for a few 
minutes he simply went mad. 

What Jem did was something I’d do as a matter of course had I not been under 
Atticus’s interdict, which I assumed included not fighting horrible old ladies. We 
had just come to her gate when Jem snatched my baton and ran flailing wildly up 
the steps into Mrs. Dubose’s front yard, forgetting everything Atticus had said, 
forgetting that she packed a pistol under her shawls, forgetting that if Mrs. 

Dubose missed, her girl Jessie probably wouldn’t. 

He did not begin to calm down until he had cut the tops off every camellia bush 
Mrs. Dubose owned, until the ground was littered with green buds and leaves. He 
bent my baton against his knee, snapped it in two and threw it down. 

By that time I was shrieking. Jem yanked my hair, said he didn’t care, he’d do it 
again if he got a chance, and if I didn’t shut up he’d pull every hair out of my 
head. I didn’t shut up and he kicked me. I lost my balance and fell on my face. 
Jem picked me up roughly but looked like he was sorry. There was nothing to say. 

We did not choose to meet Atticus coming home that evening. We skulked 
around the kitchen until Calpurnia threw us out. By some voo-doo system 
Calpurnia seemed to know all about it. She was a less than satisfactory source of 
palliation, but she did give Jem a hot biscuit-and-butter which he tore in half and 
shared with me. It tasted like cotton. 

We went to the livingroom. I picked up a football magazine, found a picture of 
Dixie Howell, showed it to Jem and said, “This looks like you.” That was the 
nicest thing I could think to say to him, but it was no help. He sat by the windows, 
hunched down in a rocking chair, scowling, waiting. Daylight faded. 

Two geological ages later, we heard the soles of Atticus’s shoes scrape the front 

steps. The screen door slammed, there was a pause — Atticus was at the hat rack in 
the hall — and we heard him call, “Jem!” His voice was like the winter wind. 

Atticus switched on the ceiling light in the livingroom and found us there, frozen 
still. He carried my baton in one hand; its filthy yellow tassel trailed on the rug. 

He held out his other hand; it contained fat camellia buds. 

“Jem,” he said, “are you responsible for this?” 

“Yes sir.” 

“Why’d you do it?” 

Jem said softly, “She said you lawed for niggers and trash.” 

“You did this because she said that?” 

Jem’s lips moved, but his, “Yes sir,” was inaudible. 

“Son, I have no doubt that you’ve been annoyed by your contemporaries about 
me lawing for niggers, as you say, but to do something like this to a sick old lady 
is inexcusable. I strongly advise you to go down and have a talk with Mrs. 
Dubose,” said Atticus. “Come straight home afterward.” 

Jem did not move. 

“Go on, I said.” 

I followed Jem out of the livingroom. “Come back here,” Atticus said to me. I 
came back. 

Atticus picked up the Mobile Press and sat down in the rocking chair Jem had 
vacated. For the life of me, I did not understand how he could sit there in cold 
blood and read a newspaper when his only son stood an excellent chance of being 
murdered with a Confederate Army relic. Of course Jem antagonized me 
sometimes until I could kill him, but when it came down to it he was all I had. 
Atticus did not seem to realize this, or if he did he didn’t care. 

I hated him for that, but when you are in trouble you become easily tired: soon I 
was hiding in his lap and his arms were around me. 

“You’re mighty big to be rocked,” he said. 

“You don’t care what happens to him,” I said. “You just send him on to get shot 
at when all he was doin‘ was standin’ up for you.” 

Atticus pushed my head under his chin. “It’s not time to worry yet,” he said. “I 
never thought Jem’d be the one to lose his head over this — thought I’d have more 
trouble with you.” 

I said I didn’t see why we had to keep our heads anyway, that nobody I knew at 
school had to keep his head about anything. 

“Scout,” said Atticus, “when summer comes you’ll have to keep your head about 
far worse things. . . it’s not fair for you and Jem, I know that, but sometimes we 
have to make the best of things, and the way we conduct ourselves when the chips 
are down — well, all I can say is, when you and Jem are grown, maybe you’ll look 
back on this with some compassion and some feeling that I didn’t let you down. 
This case, Tom Robinson’s case, is something that goes to the essence of a man’s 
conscience — Scout, I couldn’t go to church and worship God if I didn’t try to help 
that man.” 

“Atticus, you must be wrong. . .” 

“How’s that?” 

“Well, most folks seem to think they’re right and you’re wrong. . .” 

“They’re certainly entitled to think that, and they’re entitled to full respect for 
their opinions,” said Atticus, “but before I can live with other folks I’ve got to live 
with myself. The one thing that doesn’t abide by majority rule is a person’s 

When Jem returned, he found me still in Atticus’ s lap, “Well, son?” said Atticus. 
He set me on my feet, and I made a secret reconnaissance of Jem. He seemed to 
be all in one piece, but he had a queer look on his face. Perhaps she had given him 
a dose of calomel. 

“I cleaned it up for her and said I was sorry, but I ain’t, and that I’d work on ‘em 
ever Saturday and try to make ’em grow back out.” 

“There was no point in saying you were sorry if you aren’t,” said Atticus. “Jem, 
she’s old and ill. You can’t hold her responsible for what she says and does. Of 
course, I’d rather she’d have said it to me than to either of you, but we can’t 
always have our ‘druthers.” 

Jem seemed fascinated by a rose in the carpet. “Atticus,” he said, “she wants me 

to read to her.” 

“Read to her?” 

“Yes sir. She wants me to come every afternoon after school and Saturdays and 
read to her out loud for two hours. Atticus, do I have to?” 


“But she wants me to do it for a month.” 

“Then you’ll do it for a month.” 

Jem planted his big toe delicately in the center of the rose and pressed it in. 
Finally he said, “Atticus, it’s all right on the sidewalk but inside it’s — it’s all dark 
and creepy. There’s shadows and things on the ceiling...” 

Atticus smiled grimly. “That should appeal to your imagination. Just pretend 
you’re inside the Radley house.” 

The following Monday afternoon Jem and I climbed the steep front steps to Mrs. 
Dubose’s house and padded down the open hallway. Jem, armed with Ivanhoe 
and full of superior knowledge, knocked at the second door on the left. 

“Mrs. Dubose?” he called. 

Jessie opened the wood door and unlatched the screen door. 

“Is that you, Jem Finch?” she said. “You got your sister with you. I don’t know — ” 

“Let ‘em both in, Jessie,” said Mrs. Dubose. Jessie admitted us and went off to the 

An oppressive odor met us when we crossed the threshold, an odor I had met 
many times in rain-rotted gray houses where there are coal-oil lamps, water 
dippers, and unbleached domestic sheets. It always made me afraid, expectant, 

In the corner of the room was a brass bed, and in the bed was Mrs. Dubose. I 
wondered if Jem’s activities had put her there, and for a moment I felt sorry for 
her. She was lying under a pile of quilts and looked almost friendly. 

There was a marble-topped washstand by her bed; on it were a glass with a 
teaspoon in it, a red ear syringe, a box of absorbent cotton, and a steel alarm clock 

standing on three tiny legs. 

“So you brought that dirty little sister of yours, did you?” was her greeting. 

Jem said quietly, “My sister ain’t dirty and I ain’t scared of you,” although I 
noticed his knees shaking. 

I was expecting a tirade, but all she said was, “ Y ou may commence reading, 

Jem sat down in a cane-bottom chair and opened Ivanhoe. I pulled up another one 
and sat beside him. 

“Come closer,” said Mrs. Dubose. “Come to the side of the bed.” 

We moved our chairs forward. This was the nearest I had ever been to her, and 
the thing I wanted most to do was move my chair back again. 

She was horrible. JJer face was the color of a dirty pillowcase, and the corners of 
her mouth glistened with wet, which inched like a glacier down the deep grooves 
enclosing her chin. Old-age liver spots dotted her cheeks, and her pale eyes had 
black pinpoint pupils. Her hands were knobby, and the cuticles were grown up 
over her fingernails. Her bottom plate was not in, and her upper lip protruded; 
from time to time she would draw her nether lip to her upper plate and carry her 
chin with it. This made the wet move faster. 

I didn’t look any more than I had to. Jem reopened Ivanhoe and began reading. I 
tried to keep up with him, but he read too fast. When Jem came to a word he 
didn’t know, he skipped it, but Mrs. Dubose would catch him and make him spell 
it out. Jem read for perhaps twenty minutes, during which time I looked at the 
soot-stained mantelpiece, out the window, anywhere to keep from looking at her. 
As he read along, I noticed that Mrs. Dubose’s corrections grew fewer and farther 
between, that Jem had even left one sentence dangling in mid-air. She was not 

I looked toward the bed. 

Something had happened to her. She lay on her back, with the quilts up to her 
chin. Only her head and shoulders were visible. Her head moved slowly from side 
to side. From time to time she would open her mouth wide, and I could see her 
tongue undulate faintly. Cords of saliva would collect on her lips; she would draw 

them in, then open her mouth again. Her mouth seemed to have a private 
existence of its own. It worked separate and apart from the rest of her, out and in, 
like a clam hole at low tide. Occasionally it would say, “Pt,” like some viscous 
substance coming to a boil. 

I pulled Jem’s sleeve. 

He looked at me, then at the bed. Her head made its regular sweep toward us, and 
Jem said, “Mrs. Dubose, are you all right?” She did not hear him. 

The alarm clock went off and scared us stiff. A minute later, nerves still tingling, 
Jem and I were on the sidewalk headed for home. We did not run away, Jessie 
sent us: before the clock wound down she was in the room pushing Jem and me 
out of it. 

“Shoo,” she said, “you all go home.” 

Jem hesitated at the door. 

“It’s time for her medicine,” Jessie said. As the door swung shut behind us I saw 
Jessie walking quickly toward Mrs. Dubose’s bed. 

It was only three forty-five when we got home, so Jem and I drop-kicked in the 
back yard until it was time to meet Atticus. Atticus had two yellow pencils for me 
and a football magazine for Jem, which I suppose was a silent reward for our first 
day’s session with Mrs. Dubose. Jem told him what happened. 

“Did she frighten you?” asked Atticus. 

“No sir,” said Jem, “but she’s so nasty. She has fits or somethin 4 . She spits a lot.” 
“She can’t help that. When people are sick they don’t look nice sometimes.” 

“She scared me,” I said. 

Atticus looked at me over his glasses. “You don’t have to go with Jem, you 

The next afternoon at Mrs. Dubose’s was the same as the first, and so was the 
next, until gradually a pattern emerged: everything would begin normally — that 
is, Mrs. Dubose would hound Jem for a while on her favorite subjects, her 
camellias and our father’s nigger-loving propensities; she would grow 
increasingly silent, then go away from us. The alarm clock would ring, Jessie 
would shoo us out, and the rest of the day was ours. 

“Atticus,” I said one evening, “what exactly is a nigger-lover?” 

Atticus’s face was grave. “Has somebody been calling you that?” 

“No sir, Mrs. Dubose calls you that. She warms up every afternoon calling you 
that. Francis called me that last Christmas, that’s where I first heard it.” 

“Is that the reason you jumped on him?” asked Atticus. 

“Yes sir...” 

“Then why are you asking me what it means?” 

I tried to explain to Atticus that it wasn’t so much what Francis said that had 
infuriated me as the way he had said it. “It was like he’d said snot-nose or 
somethin 4 .” 

“Scout,” said Atticus, “nigger-lover is just one of those terms that don’t mean 
anything — like snot-nose. It’s hard to explain — ignorant, trashy people use it 
when they think somebody’s favoring Negroes over and above themselves. It’s 
slipped into usage with some people like ourselves, when they want a common, 
ugly term to label somebody.” 

“You aren’t really a nigger-lover, then, are you?” 

“I certainly am. I do my best to love everybody. . . I’m hard put, sometimes — 
baby, it’s never an insult to be called what somebody thinks is a bad name. It just 
shows you how poor that person is, it doesn’t hurt you. So don’t let Mrs. Dubose 
get you down. She has enough troubles of her own.” 

One afternoon a month later Jem was ploughing his way through Sir Walter 
Scout, as Jem called him, and Mrs. Dubose was correcting him at every turn, 
when there was a knock on the door. “Come in!” she screamed. 

Atticus came in. He went to the bed and took Mrs. Dubose’s hand. “I was coming 
from the office and didn’t see the children,” he said. “I thought they might still be 

Mrs. Dubose smiled at him. For the life of me I could not figure out how she 
could bring herself to speak to him when she seemed to hate him so. “Do you 
know what time it is, Atticus?” she said. “Exactly fourteen minutes past five. The 
alarm clock’s set for five-thirty. I want you to know that.” 

It suddenly came to me that each day we had been staying a little longer at Mrs. 
Dubose’s, that the alarm clock went off a few minutes later every day, and that 
she was well into one of her fits by the time it sounded. Today she had 
antagonized Jem for nearly two hours with no intention of having a fit, and I felt 
hopelessly trapped. The alarm clock was the signal for our release; if one day it 
did not ring, what would we do? 

“I have a feeling that Jem’s reading days are numbered,” said Atticus. 

“Only a week longer, I think,” she said, “just to make sure. . .” 

Jem rose. “But — ” 

Atticus put out his hand and Jem was silent. On the way home, Jem said he had to 
do it just for a month and the month was up and it wasn’t fair. 

“Just one more week, son,” said Atticus. 

“No,” said Jem. “Yes,” said Atticus. 

The following week found us back at Mrs. Dubose’s. The alarm clock had ceased 
sounding, but Mrs. Dubose would release us with, “That’ll do,” so late in the 
afternoon Atticus would be home reading the paper when we returned. Although 
her fits had passed off, she was in every other way her old self: when Sir Walter 
Scott became involved in lengthy descriptions of moats and castles, Mrs. Dubose 
would become bored and pick on us: 

“Jeremy Finch, I told you you’d live to regret tearing up my camellias. You regret 
it now, don’t you?” 

Jem would say he certainly did. 

“Thought you could kill my Snow-on-the-Mountain, did you? Well, Jessie says 
the top’s growing back out. Next time you’ll know how to do it right, won’t you? 
You’ll pull it up by the roots, won’t you?” 

Jem would say he certainly would. 

“Don’t you mutter at me, boy! You hold up your head and say yes ma’am. Don’t 
guess you feel like holding it up, though, with your father what he is.” 

Jem’s chin would come up, and he would gaze at Mrs. Dubose with a face devoid 
of resentment. Through the weeks he had cultivated an expression of polite and 
detached interest, which he would present to her in answer to her most blood- 

curdling inventions. 

At last the day came. When Mrs. Dubose said, “That’ll do,” one afternoon, she 
added, “And that’s all. Good-day to you.” 

It was over. We bounded down the sidewalk on a spree of sheer relief, leaping 
and howling. 

That spring was a good one: the days grew longer and gave us more playing time. 
Jem’s mind was occupied mostly with the vital statistics of every college football 
player in the nation. Every night Atticus would read us the sports pages of the 
newspapers. Alabama might go to the Rose Bowl again this year, judging from its 
prospects, not one of whose names we could pronounce. Atticus was in the 
middle of Windy Seaton’s column one evening when the telephone rang. 

He answered it, then went to the hat rack in the hall. “I’m going down to Mrs. 
Dubose’s for a while,” he said. “I won’t be long.” 

But Atticus stayed away until long past my bedtime. When he returned he was 
carrying a candy box. Atticus sat down in the livingroom and put the box on the 
floor beside his chair. 

“What’d she want?” asked Jem. 

We had not seen Mrs. Dubose for over a month. She was never on the porch any 
more when we passed. 

“She’s dead, son,” said Atticus. “She died a few minutes ago.” 

“Oh,” said Jem. “Well.” 

“Well is right,” said Atticus. “She’s not suffering any more. She was sick for a 
long time. Son, didn’t you know what her fits were?” 

Jem shook his head. 

“Mrs. Dubose was a morphine addict,” said Atticus. “She took it as a pain-killer 
for years. The doctor put her on it. She’d have spent the rest of her life on it and 
died without so much agony, but she was too contrary — ” 

“Sir?” said Jem. 

Atticus said, “Just before your escapade she called me to make her will. Dr. 
Reynolds told her she had only a few months left. Her business affairs were in 

perfect order but she said, ‘There’s still one thing out of order.’” 

“What was that?” Jem was perplexed. 

“She said she was going to leave this world beholden to nothing and nobody. Jem, 
when you’re sick as she was, it’s all right to take anything to make it easier, but it 
wasn’t all right for her. She said she meant to break herself of it before she died, 
and that’s what she did.” 

Jem said, “You mean that’s what her fits were?” 

“Yes, that’s what they were. Most of the time you were reading to her I doubt if 
she heard a word you said. JJer whole mind and body were concentrated on that 
alarm clock. If you hadn’t fallen into her hands, I’d have made you go read to her 
anyway. It may have been some distraction. There was another reason — ” 

“Did she die free?” asked Jem. 

“As the mountain air,” said Atticus. “She was conscious to the last, almost. 
Conscious,” he smiled, “and cantankerous. She still disapproved heartily of my 
doings, and said I’d probably spend the rest of my life bailing you out of jail. She 
had Jessie fix you this box — ” 

Atticus reached down and picked up the candy box. He handed it to Jem. 

Jem opened the box. Inside, surrounded by wads of damp cotton, was a white, 
waxy, perfect camellia. It was a Snow-on-the-Mountain. 

Jem’s eyes nearly popped out of his head. “Old hell-devil, old hell-devil!” he 
screamed, flinging it down. “Why can’t she leave me alone?” 

In a flash Atticus was up and standing over him. Jem buried his face in Atticus ’s 
shirt front. “Sh-h,” he said. “I think that was her way of telling you — everything’s 
all right now, Jem, everything’s all right. You know, she was a great lady.” 

“A lady?” Jem raised his head. His face was scarlet. “After all those things she 
said about you, a lady?” 

“She was. She had her own views about things, a lot different from mine, 
maybe. . . son, I told you that if you hadn’t lost your head I’d have made you go 
read to her. I wanted you to see something about her — I wanted you to see what 
real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his 
hand. It’s when you know you’re licked before you begin but you begin anyway 

and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do. 
Mrs. Dubose won, all ninety-eight pounds of her. According to her views, she 
died beholden to nothing and nobody. She was the bravest person I ever knew.” 

Jem picked up the candy box and threw it in the fire. He picked up the camellia, 
and when I went off to bed I saw him fingering the wide petals. Atticus was 
reading the paper. 


Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 12 

Jem was twelve. He was difficult to live with, inconsistent, moody. His appetite 
was appalling, and he told me so many times to stop pestering him I consulted 
Atticus: “Reckon he’s got a tapeworm?” Atticus said no, Jem was growing. I must 
be patient with him and disturb him as little as possible. 

This change in Jem had come about in a matter of weeks. Mrs. Dubose was not 
cold in her grave — Jem had seemed grateful enough for my company when he 
went to read to her. Overnight, it seemed, Jem had acquired an alien set of values 
and was trying to impose them on me: several times he went so far as to tell me 
what to do. After one altercation when Jem hollered, “It’s time you started bein‘ a 
girl and acting right!” I burst into tears and fled to Calpurnia. 

“Don’t you fret too much over Mister Jem — ” she began. 

“Mister Jem?” 

“Yeah, he’s just about Mister Jem now.” 

“He ain’t that old,” I said. “All he needs is somebody to beat him up, and I ain’t 
big enough.” 

“Baby,” said Calpurnia, “I just can’t help it if Mister Jem’s growin‘ up. He’s 

gonna want to be off to himself a lot now, doin’ whatever boys do, so you just 
come right on in the kitchen when you feel lonesome. We’ll find lots of things to 
do in here.” 

The beginning of that summer boded well: Jem could do as he pleased; Calpurnia 
would do until Dill came. She seemed glad to see me when I appeared in the 
kitchen, and by watching her I began to think there was some skill involved in 
being a girl. 

But summer came and Dill was not there. I received a letter and a snapshot from 
him. The letter said he had a new father whose picture was enclosed, and he 
would have to stay in Meridian because they planned to build a fishing boat. His 
father was a lawyer like Atticus, only much younger. Dill’s new father had a 
pleasant face, which made me glad Dill had captured him, but I was crushed. Dill 
concluded by saying he would love me forever and not to worry, he would come 
get me and marry me as soon as he got enough money together, so please write. 

The fact that I had a permanent fiance was little compensation for his absence: I 
had never thought about it, but summer was Dill by the fishpool smoking string, 
Dill’s eyes alive with complicated plans to make Boo Radley emerge; summer 
was the swiftness with which Dill would reach up and kiss me when Jem was not 
looking, the longings we sometimes felt each other feel. With him, life was 
routine; without him, life was unbearable. I stayed miserable for two days. 

As if that were not enough, the state legislature was called into emergency session 
and Atticus left us for two weeks. The Governor was eager to scrape a few 
barnacles off the ship of state; there were sit-down strikes in Birmingham; bread 
lines in the cities grew longer, people in the country grew poorer. But these were 
events remote from the world of Jem and me. 

We were surprised one morning to see a cartoon in the Montgomery Advertiser 
above the caption, “Maycomb’s Finch.” It showed Atticus barefooted and in short 
pants, chained to a desk: he was diligently writing on a slate while some frivolous- 
looking girls yelled, “Yoo-hoo!” at him. 

“That’s a compliment,” explained Jem. “He spends his time doin‘ things that 
wouldn’t get done if nobody did ’em.” 


In addition to Jem’s newly developed characteristics, he had acquired a 
maddening air of wisdom. 

“Oh, Scout, it’s like reorganizing the tax systems of the counties and things. That 
kind of thing’s pretty dry to most men.” 

“How do you know?” 

“Oh, go on and leave me alone. I’m readin‘ the paper.” 

Jem got his wish. I departed for the kitchen. 

While she was shelling peas, Calpumia suddenly said, “What am I gonna do 
about you all’s church this Sunday?” 

“Nothing, I reckon. Atticus left us collection.” 

Calpurnia’s eyes narrowed and I could tell what was going through her mind. 
“Cal,” I said, “you know we’ll behave. We haven’t done anything in church in 

Calpurnia evidently remembered a rainy Sunday when we were both fatherless 
and teacherless. Left to its own devices, the class tied Eunice Ann Simpson to a 
chair and placed her in the furnace room. We forgot her, trooped upstairs to 
church, and were listening quietly to the sermon when a dreadful banging issued 
from the radiator pipes, persisting until someone investigated and brought forth 
Eunice Ann saying she didn’t want to play Shadrach any more — Jem Finch said 
she wouldn’t get burnt if she had enough faith, but it was hot down there. 

“Besides, Cal, this isn’t the first time Atticus has left us,” I protested. 

“Yeah, but he makes certain your teacher’s gonna be there. I didn’t hear him say 
this time — reckon he forgot it.” Calpurnia scratched her head. Suddenly she 
smiled. “How’d you and Mister Jem like to come to church with me tomorrow?” 


“How ‘bout it?” grinned Calpurnia. 

If Calpurnia had ever bathed me roughly before, it was nothing compared to her 
supervision of that Saturday night’s routine. She made me soap all over twice, 
drew fresh water in the tub for each rinse; she stuck my head in the basin and 
washed it with Octagon soap and castile. She had trusted Jem for years, but that 

night she invaded his privacy and provoked an outburst: “Can’t anybody take a 
bath in this house without the whole family lookin‘?” 

Next morning she began earlier than usual, to “go over our clothes.” When 
Calpurnia stayed overnight with us she slept on a folding cot in the kitchen; that 
morning it was covered with our Sunday habiliments. She had put so much starch 
in my dress it came up like a tent when I sat down. She made me wear a petticoat 
and she wrapped a pink sash tightly around my waist. She went over my patent- 
leather shoes with a cold biscuit until she saw her face in them. 

“It’s like we were goin‘ to Mardi Gras,” said Jem. “What’s all this for, Cal?” 

“I don’t want anybody sayin‘ I don’t look after my children,” she muttered. 
“Mister Jem, you absolutely can’t wear that tie with that suit. It’s green.” 

“‘smatter with that?” 

“Suit’s blue. Can’t you tell?” 

“Hee hee,” I howled, “Jem’s color blind.” 

His face flushed angrily, but Calpurnia said, “Now you all quit that. You’re gonna 
go to First Purchase with smiles on your faces.” 

First Purchase African M.E. Church was in the Quarters outside the southern 
town limits, across the old sawmill tracks. It was an ancient paint-peeled frame 
building, the only church in Maycomb with a steeple and bell, called First 
Purchase because it was paid for from the first earnings of freed slaves. Negroes 
worshiped in it on Sundays and white men gambled in it on weekdays. 

The churchyard was brick-hard clay, as was the cemetery beside it. If someone 
died during a dry spell, the body was covered with chunks of ice until rain 
softened the earth. A few graves in the cemetery were marked with crumbling 
tombstones; newer ones were outlined with brightly colored glass and broken 
Coca-Cola bottles. Lightning rods guarding some graves denoted dead who rested 
uneasily; stumps of burned-out candles stood at the heads of infant graves. It was 
a happy cemetery. 

The warm bittersweet smell of clean Negro welcomed us as we entered the 
churchyard — Hearts of Love hairdressing mingled with asafoetida, snuff, Hoyt’s 
Cologne, Brown’s Mule, peppermint, and lilac talcum. 

When they saw Jem and me with Calpurnia, the men stepped back and took off 
their hats; the women crossed their arms at their waists, weekday gestures of 
respectful attention. They parted and made a small pathway to the church door for 
us. Calpurnia walked between Jem and me, responding to the greetings of her 
brightly clad neighbors. 

“What you up to, Miss Cal?” said a voice behind us. 

Calpurnia’ s hands went to our shoulders and we stopped and looked around: 
standing in the path behind us was a tall Negro woman. Her weight was on one 
leg; she rested her left elbow in the curve of her hip, pointing at us with upturned 
palm. She was bullet-headed with strange almond-shaped eyes, straight nose, and 
an Indian-bow mouth. She seemed seven feet high. 

I felt Calpurnia’ s hand dig into my shoulder. “What you want, Lula?” she asked, 
in tones I had never heard her use. She spoke quietly, contemptuously. 

“I wants to know why you bringhT white chillun to nigger church.” 

“They’s my comp’ny,” said Calpurnia. Again I thought her voice strange: she was 
talking like the rest of them. 

“Yeah, an‘ I reckon you’s comp’ny at the Finch house durin’ the week.” 

A murmur ran through the crowd. “Don’t you fret,” Calpurnia whispered to me, 
but the roses on her hat trembled indignantly. 

When Lula came up the pathway toward us Calpurnia said, “Stop right there, 

Lula stopped, but she said, “You ain’t got no business bringhT white chillun here 
— they got their church, we got our’n. It is our church, ain’t it, Miss Cal?” 

Calpurnia said, “It’s the same God, ain’t it?” 

Jem said, “Let’s go home, Cal, they don’t want us here — ” 

I agreed: they did not want us here. I sensed, rather than saw, that we were being 
advanced upon. They seemed to be drawing closer to us, but when I looked up at 
Calpurnia there was amusement in her eyes. When I looked down the pathway 
again, Lula was gone. In her place was a solid mass of colored people. 

One of them stepped from the crowd. It was Zeebo, the garbage collector. “Mister 
Jem,” he said, “we’re mighty glad to have you all here. Don’t pay no ‘tention to 

Lula, she’s contentious because Reverend Sykes threatened to church her. She’s a 
troublemaker from way back, got fancy ideas an’ haughty ways — we’re mighty 
glad to have you all.” 

With that, Calpurnia led us to the church door where we were greeted by 
Reverend Sykes, who led us to the front pew. 

First Purchase was unceiled and unpainted within. Along its walls unlighted 
kerosene lamps hung on brass brackets; pine benches served as pews. Behind the 
rough oak pulpit a faded pink silk banner proclaimed God Is Love, the church’s 
only decoration except a rotogravure print of Hunt’s The Light of the World. 

There was no sign of piano, organ, hymn-books, church programs — the familiar 
ecclesiastical impedimenta we saw every Sunday. It was dim inside, with a damp 
coolness slowly dispelled by the gathering congregation. At each seat was a cheap 
cardboard fan bearing a garish Garden of Gethsemane, courtesy Tyndal’s 
Hardware Co. (You-Name-It-We-Sell-It). 

Calpurnia motioned Jem and me to the end of the row and placed herself between 
us. She fished in her purse, drew out her handkerchief, and untied the hard wad of 
change in its corner. She gave a dime to me and a dime to Jem. “We’ve got ours,” 
he whispered. “You keep it,” Calpurnia said, “you’re my company.” Jem’s face 
showed brief indecision on the ethics of withholding his own dime, but his innate 
courtesy won and he shifted his dime to his pocket. I did likewise with no qualms. 

“Cal,” I whispered, “where are the hymn-books?” 

“We don’t have any,” she said. 

“Well how—?” 

“Sh-h,” she said. Reverend Sykes was standing behind the pulpit staring the 
congregation to silence. He was a short, stocky man in a black suit, black tie, 
white shirt, and a gold watch-chain that glinted in the light from the frosted 

He said, “Brethren and sisters, we are particularly glad to have company with us 
this morning. Mister and Miss Finch. You all know their father. Before I begin I 
will read some announcements.” 

Reverend Sykes shuffled some papers, chose one and held it at arm’s length. “The 

Missionary Society meets in the home of Sister Annette Reeves next Tuesday. 
Bring your sewing.” 

He read from another paper. “You all know of Brother Tom Robinson’s trouble. 
He has been a faithful member of First Purchase since he was a boy. The 
collection taken up today and for the next three Sundays will go to Helen — his 
wife, to help her out at home.” 

I punched Jem. “That’s the Tom Atticus’s de — ” 


I turned to Calpurnia but was hushed before I opened my mouth. Subdued, I fixed 
my attention upon Reverend Sykes, who seemed to be waiting for me to settle 
down. “Will the music superintendent lead us in the first hymn,” he said. 

Zeebo rose from his pew and walked down the center aisle, stopping in front of us 
and facing the congregation. He was carrying a battered hymn-book. He opened it 
and said, “We’ll sing number two seventy-three.” 

This was too much for me. “How’re we gonna sing it if there ain’t any hymn- 

Calpurnia smiled. “Hush baby,” she whispered, “you’ll see in a minute.” 

Zeebo cleared his throat and read in a voice like the rumble of distant artillery: 
“There’s a land beyond the river.” 

Miraculously on pitch, a hundred voices sang out Zeebo’ s words. The last 
syllable, held to a husky hum, was followed by Zeebo saying, “That we call the 
sweet forever.” 

Music again swelled around us; the last note lingered and Zeebo met it with the 
next line: “And we only reach that shore by faith’s decree.” 

The congregation hesitated, Zeebo repeated the line carefully, and it was sung. At 
the chorus Zeebo closed the book, a signal for the congregation to proceed 
without his help. 

On the dying notes of “Jubilee,” Zeebo said, “In that far-off sweet forever, just 
beyond the shining river.” 

Line for line, voices followed in simple harmony until the hymn ended in a 

melancholy murmur. 

I looked at Jem, who was looking at Zeebo from the corners of his eyes. I didn’t 
believe it either, but we had both heard it. 

Reverend Sykes then called on the Lord to bless the sick and the suffering, a 
procedure no different from our church practice, except Reverend Sykes directed 
the Deity’s attention to several specific cases. 

His sermon was a forthright denunciation of sin, an austere declaration of the 
motto on the wall behind him: he warned his flock against the evils of heady 
brews, gambling, and strange women. Bootleggers caused enough trouble in the 
Quarters, but women were worse. Again, as I had often met it in my own church, 

I was confronted with the Impurity of Women doctrine that seemed to preoccupy 
all clergymen. 

Jem and I had heard the same sermon Sunday after Sunday, with only one 
exception. Reverend Sykes used his pulpit more freely to express his views on 
individual lapses from grace: Jim Hardy had been absent from church for five 
Sundays and he wasn’t sick; Constance Jackson had better watch her ways — she 
was in grave danger for quarreling with her neighbors; she had erected the only 
spite fence in the history of the Quarters. 

Reverend Sykes closed his sermon. He stood beside a table in front of the pulpit 
and requested the morning offering, a proceeding that was strange to Jem and me. 
One by one, the congregation came forward and dropped nickels and dimes into a 
black enameled coffee can. Jem and I followed suit, and received a soft, “Thank 
you, thank you,” as our dimes clinked. 

To our amazement, Reverend Sykes emptied the can onto the table and raked the 
coins into his hand. He straightened up and said, “This is not enough, we must 
have ten dollars.” 

The congregation stirred. “You all know what it’s for — Helen can’t leave those 
children to work while Tom’s in jail. If everybody gives one more dime, we’ll 
have it — ” Reverend Sykes waved his hand and called to someone in the back of 
the church. “Alec, shut the doors. Nobody leaves here till we have ten dollars.” 

Calpurnia scratched in her handbag and brought forth a battered leather coin 
purse. “Naw Cal,” Jem whispered, when she handed him a shiny quarter, “we can 

put ours in. Gimme your dime, Scout.” 

The church was becoming stuffy, and it occurred to me that Reverend Sykes 
intended to sweat the amount due out of his flock. Fans crackled, feet shuffled, 
tobacco-chewers were in agony. 

Reverend Sykes startled me by saying sternly, “Carlow Richardson, I haven’t 
seen you up this aisle yet.” 

A thin man in khaki pants came up the aisle and deposited a coin. The 
congregation murmured approval. 

Reverend Sykes then said, “I want all of you with no children to make a sacrifice 
and give one more dime apiece. Then we’ll have it.” 

Slowly, painfully, the ten dollars was collected. The door was opened, and the 
gust of warm air revived us. Zeebo lined On Jordan ’s Stormy Banks, and church 
was over. 

I wanted to stay and explore, but Calpurnia propelled me up the aisle ahead of 
her. At the church door, while she paused to talk with Zeebo and his family, Jem 
and I chatted with Reverend Sykes. I was bursting with questions, but decided I 
would wait and let Calpurnia answer them. 

“We were ‘specially glad to have you all here,” said Reverend Sykes. “This 
church has no better friend than your daddy.” 

My curiosity burst: “Why were you all takin‘ up collection for Tom Robinson’s 

“Didn’t you hear why?” asked Reverend Sykes. “Helen’s got three little’uns and 
she can’t go out to work — ” 

“Why can’t she take ‘em with her, Reverend?” I asked. It was customary for field 
Negroes with tiny children to deposit them in whatever shade there was while 
their parents worked — usually the babies sat in the shade between two rows of 
cotton. Those unable to sit were strapped papoose-style on their mothers’ backs, 
or resided in extra cotton bags. 

Reverend Sykes hesitated. “To tell you the truth, Miss Jean Louise, Helen’s 
finding it hard to get work these days. . . when it’s picking time, I think Mr. Link 
Deas’ll take her.” 

“Why not, Reverend?” 

Before he could answer, I felt Calpurnia’s hand on my shoulder. At its pressure I 
said, “We thank you for lettin‘ us come.” Jem echoed me, and we made our way 

“Cal, I know Tom Robinson’s in jail an‘ he’s done somethin’ awful, but why 
won’t folks hire Helen?” I asked. 

Calpurnia, in her navy voile dress and tub of a hat, walked between Jem and me. 
“It’s because of what folks say Tom’s done,” she said. “Folks aren’t anxious to — 
to have anything to do with any of his family.” 

“Just what did he do, Cal?” 

Calpurnia sighed. “Old Mr. Bob Ewell accused him of rapin‘ his girl an’ had him 
arrested an‘ put in jail — ” 

“Mr. Ewell?” My memory stirred. “Does he have anything to do with those 
Ewells that come every first day of school an‘ then go home? Why, Atticus said 
they were absolute trash — I never heard Atticus talk about folks the way he talked 
about the Ewells. He said-” 

“Yeah, those are the ones.” 

“Well, if everybody in Maycomb knows what kind of folks the Ewells are they’d 
be glad to hire Helen. . . what’s rape, Cal?” 

“It’s somethin 4 you’ll have to ask Mr. Finch about,” she said. “He can explain it 
better than I can. You all hungry? The Reverend took a long time unwindin’ this 
morning, he’s not usually so tedious.” 

“He’s just like our preacher,” said Jem, “but why do you all sing hymns that 

“Linin‘?” she asked. 

“Is that what it is?” 

“Yeah, it’s called linin‘. They’ve done it that way as long as I can remember.” 

Jem said it looked like they could save the collection money for a year and get 
some hymn-books. 

Calpurnia laughed. “Wouldn’t do any good,” she said. “They can’t read.” 

“Can’t read?” I asked. “All those folks?” 

“That’s right,” Calpurnia nodded. “Can’t but about four folks in First Purchase 
read. . . I’m one of ‘em.” 

“Where’d you go to school, Cal?” asked Jem. 

“Nowhere. Let’s see now, who taught me my letters? It was Miss Maudie 
Atkinson’s aunt, old Miss Buford — ” 

“Are you that old?” 

“I’m older than Mr. Finch, even.” Calpurnia grinned. “Not sure how much, 
though. We started rememberhT one time, trying to figure out how old I was — I 
can remember back just a few years more’n he can, so I’m not much older, when 
you take off the fact that men can’t remember as well as women.” 

“What’s your birthday, Cal?” 

“I just have it on Christmas, it’s easier to remember that way — I don’t have a real 

“But Cal,” Jem protested, “you don’t look even near as old as Atticus.” 

“Colored folks don’t show their ages so fast,” she said. 

“Maybe because they can’t read. Cal, did you teach Zeebo?” 

“Yeah, Mister Jem. There wasn’t a school even when he was a boy. I made him 
learn, though.” 

Zeebo was Calpurnia’ s eldest son. If I had ever thought about it, I would have 
known that Calpurnia was of mature years — Zeebo had half-grown children — but 
then I had never thought about it. 

“Did you teach him out of a primer, like us?” I asked. 

“No, I made him get a page of the Bible every day, and there was a book Miss 
Buford taught me out of — bet you don’t know where I got it,” she said. 

We didn’t know. 

Calpurnia said, “Your Granddaddy Finch gave it to me.” 

“Were you from the Landing?” Jem asked. “You never told us that.” 

“I certainly am, Mister Jem. Grew up down there between the Buford Place and 
the LandhT. I’ve spent all my days workin’ for the Finches or the Bufords, an‘ I 

moved to Maycomb when your daddy and your mamma married.” 

“What was the book, Cal?” I asked. 

“Blackstone’s Commentaries .” 

Jem was thunderstruck. “You mean you taught Zeebo outa thatV 

“Why yes sir, Mister Jem.” Calpurnia timidly put her fingers to her mouth. “They 
were the only books I had. Your grandaddy said Mr. Blackstone wrote fine 
English — ” 

“That’s why you don’t talk like the rest of ‘em,” said Jem. 

“The rest of who?” 

“Rest of the colored folks. Cal, but you talked like they did in church. . .” 

That Calpurnia led a modest double life never dawned on me. The idea that she 
had a separate existence outside our household was a novel one, to say nothing of 
her having command of two languages. “Cal,” I asked, “why do you talk nigger- 
talk to the — to your folks when you know it’s not right?” 

“Well, in the first place I’m black — ” 

“That doesn’t mean you hafta talk that way when you know better,” said Jem. 

Calpurnia tilted her hat and scratched her head, then pressed her hat down 
carefully over her ears. “It’s right hard to say,” she said. “Suppose you and Scout 
talked colored-folks’ talk at home it’d be out of place, wouldn’t it? Now what if I 
talked white-folks’ talk at church, and with my neighbors? They’d think I was 
puttin‘ on airs to beat Moses.” 

“But Cal, you know better,” I said. 

“It’s not necessary to tell all you know. It’s not ladylike — in the second place, 
folks don’t like to have somebody around knowin‘ more than they do. It 
aggravates ’em. You’re not gonna change any of them by talkin‘ right, they’ve 
got to want to learn themselves, and when they don’t want to learn there’s nothing 
you can do but keep your mouth shut or talk their language.” 

“Cal, can I come to see you sometimes?” 

She looked down at me. “See me, honey? You see me every day.” 

“Out to your house,” I said. “Sometimes after work? Atticus can get me.” 

“Any time you want to,” she said. “We’d be glad to have you.” 

We were on the sidewalk by the Radley Place. 

“Look on the porch yonder,” Jem said. 

I looked over to the Radley Place, expecting to see its phantom occupant sunning 
himself in the swing. The swing was empty. 

“I mean our porch,” said Jem. 

I looked down the street. Enarmored, upright, uncompromising, Aunt Alexandra 
was sitting in a rocking chair exactly as if she had sat there every day of her life. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 13 

“Put my bag in the front bedroom, Calpurnia,” was the first thing Aunt Alexandra 
said. “Jean Louise, stop scratching your head,” was the second thing she said. 

Calpurnia picked up Aunty’s heavy suitcase and opened the door. “I’ll take it,” 
said Jem, and took it. I heard the suitcase hit the bedroom floor with a thump. The 
sound had a dull permanence about it. “Have you come for a visit, Aunty?” I 
asked. Aunt Alexandra’s visits from the Landing were rare, and she traveled in 
state. She owned a bright green square Buick and a black chauffeur, both kept in 
an unhealthy state of tidiness, but today they were nowhere to be seen. 

“Didn’t your father tell you?” she asked. 

Jem and I shook our heads. 

“Probably he forgot. He’s not in yet, is he?” 

“Nome, he doesn’t usually get back till late afternoon,” said Jem. 

“Well, your father and I decided it was time I came to stay with you for a while.” 

“For a while” in Maycomb meant anything from three days to thirty years. Jem 
and I exchanged glances. 

“Jem’s growing up now and you are too,” she said to me. “We decided that it 
would be best for you to have some feminine influence. It won’t be many years, 
Jean Louise, before you become interested in clothes and boys — ” 

I could have made several answers to this: Cal’s a girl, it would be many years 
before I would be interested in boys, I would never be interested in clothes. . . but 
I kept quiet. 

“What about Uncle Jimmy?” asked Jem. “Is he comin‘, too?” 

“Oh no, he’s staying at the Landing. He’ll keep the place going.” 

The moment I said, “Won’t you miss him?” I realized that this was not a tactful 
question. Uncle Jimmy present or Uncle Jimmy absent made not much difference, 
he never said anything. Aunt Alexandra ignored my question. 

I could think of nothing else to say to her. In fact I could never think of anything 
to say to her, and I sat thinking of past painful conversations between us: How are 
you, Jean Louise? Fine, thank you ma’am, how are you? Very well, thank you, 
what have you been doing with yourself? Nothin 4 . Don’t you do anything? Nome. 
Certainly you have friends? Yessum. Well what do you all do? Nothin’. 

It was plain that Aunty thought me dull in the extreme, because I once heard her 
tell Atticus that I was sluggish. 

There was a story behind all this, but I had no desire to extract it from her then. 
Today was Sunday, and Aunt Alexandra was positively irritable on the Lord’s 
Day. I guess it was her Sunday corset. She was not fat, but solid, and she chose 
protective garments that drew up her bosom to giddy heights, pinched in her 
waist, flared out her rear, and managed to suggest that Aunt Alexandra’ s was once 
an hour-glass figure. From any angle, it was formidable. 

The remainder of the afternoon went by in the gentle gloom that descends when 
relatives appear, but was dispelled when we heard a car turn in the driveway. It 
was Atticus, home from Montgomery. Jem, forgetting his dignity, ran with me to 
meet him. Jem seized his briefcase and bag, I jumped into his arms, felt his vague 
dry kiss and said, “‘d you bring me a book? ’d you know Aunty’s here?” 

Atticus answered both questions in the affirmative. “How’d you like for her to 
come live with us?” 

I said I would like it very much, which was a lie, but one must lie under certain 
circumstances and at all times when one can’t do anything about them. 

“We felt it was time you children needed — well, it’s like this, Scout,” Atticus 
said. “Your aunt’s doing me a favor as well as you all. I can’t stay here all day 
with you, and the summer’s going to be a hot one.” 

“Yes sir,” I said, not understanding a word he said. I had an idea, however, that 
Aunt Alexandra’s appearance on the scene was not so much Atticus ’s doing as 
hers. Aunty had a way of declaring What Is Best For The Family, and I suppose 
her coming to live with us was in that category. 

Maycomb welcomed her. Miss Maudie Atkinson baked a Lane cake so loaded 
with shinny it made me tight; Miss Stephanie Crawford had long visits with Aunt 
Alexandra, consisting mostly of Miss Stephanie shaking her head and saying, 

“Uh, uh, uh.” Miss Rachel next door had Aunty over for coffee in the afternoons, 
and Mr. Nathan Radley went so far as to come up in the front yard and say he was 
glad to see her. 

When she settled in with us and life resumed its daily pace, Aunt Alexandra 
seemed as if she had always lived with us. Her Missionary Society refreshments 
added to her reputation as a hostess (she did not permit Calpurnia to make the 
delicacies required to sustain the Society through long reports on Rice Christians); 
she joined and became Secretary of the Maycomb Amanuensis Club. To all 
parties present and participating in the life of the county, Aunt Alexandra was one 
of the last of her kind: she had river-boat, boarding-school manners; let any moral 
come along and she would uphold it; she was born in the objective case; she was 
an incurable gossip. When Aunt Alexandra went to school, self-doubt could not 
be found in any textbook, so she knew not its meaning. She was never bored, and 
given the slightest chance she would exercise her royal prerogative: she would 
arrange, advise, caution, and warn. 

She never let a chance escape her to point out the shortcomings of other tribal 
groups to the greater glory of our own, a habit that amused Jem rather than 
annoyed him: “Aunty better watch how she talks — scratch most folks in 
Maycomb and they’re kin to us.” 

Aunt Alexandra, in underlining the moral of young Sam Merriweather’ s suicide, 

said it was caused by a morbid streak in the family. Let a sixteen-year-old girl 
giggle in the choir and Aunty would say, “It just goes to show you, all the 
Penfield women are flighty.” Everybody in Maycomb, it seemed, had a Streak: a 
Drinking Streak, a Gambling Streak, a Mean Streak, a Funny Streak. 

Once, when Aunty assured us that Miss Stephanie Crawford’s tendency to mind 
other people’s business was hereditary, Atticus said, “Sister, when you stop to 
think about it, our generation’s practically the first in the Finch family not to 
marry its cousins. Would you say the Finches have an Incestuous Streak?” 

Aunty said no, that’ s where we got our small hands and feet. 

I never understood her preoccupation with heredity. Somewhere, I had received 
the impression that Fine Folks were people who did the best they could with the 
sense they had, but Aunt Alexandra was of the opinion, obliquely expressed, that 
the longer a family had been squatting on one patch of land the finer it was. 

“That makes the Ewells fine folks, then,” said Jem. The tribe of which Burris 
Ewell and his brethren consisted had lived on the same plot of earth behind the 
Maycomb dump, and had thrived on county welfare money for three generations. 

Aunt Alexandra’s theory had something behind it, though. Maycomb was an 
ancient town. It was twenty miles east of Finch’s Landing, awkwardly inland for 
such an old town. But Maycomb would have been closer to the river had it not 
been for the nimble-wittedness of one Sinkfield, who in the dawn of history 
operated an inn where two pig-trails met, the only tavern in the territory. 
Sinkfield, no patriot, served and supplied ammunition to Indians and settlers 
alike, neither knowing or caring whether he was a part of the Alabama Territory 
or the Creek Nation so long as business was good. Business was excellent when 
Governor William Wyatt Bibb, with a view to promoting the newly created 
county’s domestic tranquility, dispatched a team of surveyors to locate its exact 
center and there establish its seat of government. The surveyors, Sinkfield’ s 
guests, told their host that he was in the territorial confines of Maycomb County, 
and showed him the probable spot where the county seat would be built. Had not 
Sinkfield made a bold stroke to preserve his holdings, Maycomb would have sat 
in the middle of Winston Swamp, a place totally devoid of interest. Instead, 
Maycomb grew and sprawled out from its hub, Sinkfield’ s Tavern, because 

Sinkfield reduced his guests to myopic drunkenness one evening, induced them to 
bring forward their maps and charts, lop off a little here, add a bit there, and 
adjust the center of the county to meet his requirements. He sent them packing 
next day armed with their charts and five quarts of shinny in their saddlebags — 
two apiece and one for the Governor. 

Because its primary reason for existence was government, Maycomb was spared 
the grubbiness that distinguished most Alabama towns its size. In the beginning 
its buildings were solid, its courthouse proud, its streets graciously wide. 
Maycomb’ s proportion of professional people ran high: one went there to have his 
teeth pulled, his wagon fixed, his heart listened to, his money deposited, his soul 
saved, his mules vetted. But the ultimate wisdom of Sinkfield’ s maneuver is open 
to question. He placed the young town too far away from the only kind of public 
transportation in those days — river-boat — and it took a man from the north end of 
the county two days to travel to Maycomb for store-bought goods. As a result the 
town remained the same size for a hundred years, an island in a patchwork sea of 
cottonfields and timberland. 

Although Maycomb was ignored during the War Between the States, 
Reconstruction rule and economic ruin forced the town to grow. It grew inward. 
New people so rarely settled there, the same families married the same families 
until the members of the community looked faintly alike. Occasionally someone 
would return from Montgomery or Mobile with an outsider, but the result caused 
only a ripple in the quiet stream of family resemblance. Things were more or less 
the same during my early years. 

There was indeed a caste system in Maycomb, but to my mind it worked this way: 
the older citizens, the present generation of people who had lived side by side for 
years and years, were utterly predictable to one another: they took for granted 
attitudes, character shadings, even gestures, as having been repeated in each 
generation and refined by time. Thus the dicta No Crawford Minds His Own 
Business, Every Third Merriweather Is Morbid, The Truth Is Not in the 
Delafields, All the Bufords Walk Like That, were simply guides to daily living: 
never take a check from a Delafield without a discreet call to the bank; Miss 
Maudie Atkinson’s shoulder stoops because she was a Buford; if Mrs. Grace 
Merriweather sips gin out of Lydia E. Pinkham bottles it’s nothing unusual — her 

mother did the same. 

Aunt Alexandra fitted into the world of Maycomb like a hand into a glove, but 
never into the world of Jem and me. I so often wondered how she could be 
Atticus’s and Uncle Jack’s sister that I revived half-remembered tales of 
changelings and mandrake roots that Jem had spun long ago. 

These were abstract speculations for the first month of her stay, as she had little to 
say to Jem or me, and we saw her only at mealtimes and at night before we went 
to bed. It was summer and we were outdoors. Of course some afternoons when I 
would run inside for a drink of water, I would find the livingroom overrun with 
Maycomb ladies, sipping, whispering, fanning, and I would be called: “Jean 
Louise, come speak to these ladies.” 

When I appeared in the doorway, Aunty would look as if she regretted her 
request; I was usually mud-splashed or covered with sand. 

“Speak to your Cousin Lily,” she said one afternoon, when she had trapped me in 
the hall. 

“Who?” I said. 

“Your Cousin Lily Brooke,” said Aunt Alexandra. 

“She our cousin? I didn’t know that.” 

Aunt Alexandra managed to smile in a way that conveyed a gentle apology to 
Cousin Lily and firm disapproval to me. When Cousin Lily Brooke left I knew I 
was in for it. 

It was a sad thing that my father had neglected to tell me about the Finch Family, 
or to install any pride into his children. She summoned Jem, who sat warily on the 
sofa beside me. She left the room and returned with a purple-covered book on 
which Meditations of Joshua S. St. Clair was stamped in gold. 

“Your cousin wrote this,” said Aunt Alexandra. “He was a beautiful character.” 

Jem examined the small volume. “Is this the Cousin Joshua who was locked up 
for so long?” 

Aunt Alexandra said, “How did you know that?” 

“Why, Atticus said he went round the bend at the University. Said he tried to 

shoot the president. Said Cousin Joshua said he wasn’t anything but a sewer- 
inspector and tried to shoot him with an old flintlock pistol, only it just blew up in 
his hand. Atticus said it cost the family five hundred dollars to get him out of that 
one — ” 

Aunt Alexandra was standing stiff as a stork. “That’s all,” she said. “We’ll see 
about this.” 

Before bedtime I was in Jem’s room trying to borrow a book, when Atticus 
knocked and entered. JJe sat on the side of Jem’s bed, looked at us soberly, then 
he grinned. 

Er — h’rm,“ he said. He was beginning to preface some things he said with a 
throaty noise, and I thought he must at last be getting old, but he looked the same. 
”1 don’t exactly know how to say this,“ he began. 

“Well, just say it,” said Jem. “Have we done something?” 

Our father was actually fidgeting. “No, I just want to explain to you that — your 
Aunt Alexandra asked me. . . son, you know you’re a Finch, don’t you?” 

“That’s what I’ve been told.” Jem looked out of the corners of his eyes. His voice 
rose uncontrollably, “Atticus, what’s the matter?” 

Atticus crossed his knees and folded his arms. “I’m trying to tell you the facts of 

Jem’s disgust deepened. “I know all that stuff,” he said. 

Atticus suddenly grew serious. In his lawyer’s voice, without a shade of 
inflection, he said: “Your aunt has asked me to try and impress upon you and Jean 
Louise that you are not from run-of-the-mill people, that you are the product of 
several generations’ gentle breeding — ” Atticus paused, watching me locate an 
elusive redbug on my leg. 

“Gentle breeding,” he continued, when I had found and scratched it, “and that you 
should try to live up to your name — ” Atticus persevered in spite of us: “She 
asked me to tell you you must try to behave like the little lady and gentleman that 
you are. She wants to talk to you about the family and what it’s meant to 
Maycomb County through the years, so you’ll have some idea of who you are, so 

you might be moved to behave accordingly,” he concluded at a gallop. 

Stunned, Jem and I looked at each other, then at Atticus, whose collar seemed to 
worry him. We did not speak to him. 

Presently I picked up a comb from Jem’s dresser and ran its teeth along the edge. 
“Stop that noise,” Atticus said. 

His curtness stung me. The comb was midway in its journey, and I banged it 
down. For no reason I felt myself beginning to cry, but I could not stop. This was 
not my father. My father never thought these thoughts. My father never spoke so. 
Aunt Alexandra had put him up to this, somehow. Through my tears I saw Jem 
standing in a similar pool of isolation, his head cocked to one side. 

There was nowhere to go, but I turned to go and met Atticus’ s vest front. I buried 
my head in it and listened to the small internal noises that went on behind the 
light blue cloth: his watch ticking, the faint crackle of his starched shirt, the soft 
sound of his breathing. 

“Your stomach’s growling,” I said. 

“I know it,” he said. 

“You better take some soda.” 

“I will,” he said. 

“Atticus, is all this behavhT an’ stuff gonna make things different? I mean are you 

I felt his hand on the back of my head. “Don’t you worry about anything,” he 
said. “It’s not time to worry.” When I heard that, I knew he had come back to us. 
The blood in my legs began to flow again, and I raised my head. “You really want 
us to do all that? I can’t remember everything Finches are supposed to do. . .” 

“I don’t want you to remember it. Forget it.” 

He went to the door and out of the room, shutting the door behind him. He nearly 
slammed it, but caught himself at the last minute and closed it softly. As Jem and 
I stared, the door opened again and Atticus peered around. His eyebrows were 
raised, his glasses had slipped. “Get more like Cousin Joshua every day, don’t I? 
Do you think I’ll end up costing the family five hundred dollars?” 

I know now what he was trying to do, but Atticus was only a man. It takes a 
woman to do that kind of work. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 14 

Although we heard no more about the Finch family from Aunt Alexandra, we 
heard plenty from the town. On Saturdays, armed with our nickels, when Jem 
permitted me to accompany him (he was now positively allergic to my presence 
when in public), we would squirm our way through sweating sidewalk crowds 
and sometimes hear, “There’s his chillun,” or, “Yonder’s some Finches.” Turning 
to face our accusers, we would see only a couple of farmers studying the enema 
bags in the Mayco Drugstore window. Or two dumpy countrywomen in straw hats 
sitting in a Hoover cart. 

“They c’n go loose and rape up the countryside for all of ‘em who run this county 
care,” was one obscure observation we met head on from a skinny gentleman 
when he passed us. Which reminded me that I had a question to ask Atticus. 

“What’s rape?” I asked him that night. 

Atticus looked around from behind his paper. He was in his chair by the window. 
As we grew older, Jem and I thought it generous to allow Atticus thirty minutes to 
himself after supper. 

He sighed, and said rape was carnal knowledge of a female by force and without 

“Well if that’s all it is why did Calpurnia dry me up when I asked her what it 

Atticus looked pensive. “What’s that again?” 

“Well, I asked Calpurnia comin‘ from church that day what it was and she said 
ask you but I forgot to and now I’m askin’ you.” 

His paper was now in his lap. “Again, please,” he said. 

I told him in detail about our trip to church with Calpurnia. Atticus seemed to 
enjoy it, but Aunt Alexandra, who was sitting in a corner quietly sewing, put 
down her embroidery and stared at us. 

“You all were coming back from Calpurnia’ s church that Sunday?” 

Jem said, “Yessum, she took us.” 

I remembered something. “Yessum, and she promised me I could come out to her 
house some afternoon. Atticus. I’ll go next Sunday if it’s all right, can I? Cal said 
she’d come get me if you were off in the car.” 

“You may not” 

Aunt Alexandra said it. I wheeled around, startled, then turned back to Atticus in 
time to catch his swift glance at her, but it was too late. I said, “I didn’t ask you!” 

For a big man, Atticus could get up and down from a chair faster than anyone I 
ever knew. He was on his feet. “Apologize to your aunt,” he said. 

“I didn’t ask her, I asked you — ” 

Atticus turned his head and pinned me to the wall with his good eye. His voice 
was deadly: “First, apologize to your aunt.” 

“I’m sorry, Aunty,” I muttered. 

“Now then,” he said. “Let’s get this clear: you do as Calpurnia tells you, you do 
as I tell you, and as long as your aunt’s in this house, you will do as she tells you. 

I understood, pondered a while, and concluded that the only way I could retire 
with a shred of dignity was to go to the bathroom, where I stayed long enough to 
make them think I had to go. Returning, I lingered in the hall to hear a fierce 
discussion going on in the livingroom. Through the door I could see Jem on the 
sofa with a football magazine in front of his face, his head turning as if its pages 
contained a live tennis match. 

“’ve got to do something about her,” Aunty was saying. “You’ve let things 
go on too long, Atticus, too long.” 

“I don’t see any harm in letting her go out there. Cal’d look after her there as well 

as she does here.” 

Who was the “her” they were talking about? My heart sank: me. I felt the starched 
walls of a pink cotton penitentiary closing in on me, and for the second time in 
my life I thought of running away. Immediately. 

“Atticus, it’s all right to be soft-hearted, you’re an easy man, but you have a 
daughter to think of. A daughter who’s growing up.” 

“That’s what I am thinking of.” 

“And don’t try to get around it. You’ve got to face it sooner or later and it might 
as well be tonight. We don’t need her now.” 

Atticus ’s voice was even: “Alexandra, Calpurnia’s not leaving this house until she 
wants to. You may think otherwise, but I couldn’t have got along without her all 
these years. She’s a faithful member of this family and you’ll simply have to 
accept things the way they are. Besides, sister, I don’t want you working your 
head off for us — you’ve no reason to do that. We still need Cal as much as we 
ever did.” 

“But Atticus — ” 

“Besides, I don’t think the children’ve suffered one bit from her having brought 
them up. If anything, she’s been harder on them in some ways than a mother 
would have been. . . she’s never let them get away with anything, she’s never 
indulged them the way most colored nurses do. She tried to bring them up 
according to her lights, and Cal’s lights are pretty good — and another thing, the 
children love her.” 

I breathed again. It wasn’t me, it was only Calpurnia they were talking about. 
Revived, I entered the livingroom. Atticus had retreated behind his newspaper and 
Aunt Alexandra was worrying her embroidery. Punk, punk, punk, her needle 
broke the taut circle. She stopped, and pulled the cloth tighter: punk-punk-punk. 
She was furious. 

Jem got up and padded across the rug. He motioned me to follow. He led me to 
his room and closed the door. His face was grave. 

“They’ve been fussing, Scout.” 

Jem and I fussed a great deal these days, but I had never heard of or seen anyone 
quarrel with Atticus. It was not a comfortable sight. 

“Scout, try not to antagonize Aunty, hear?” 

Atticus’s remarks were still rankling, which made me miss the request in Jem’s 
question. My feathers rose again. “You tryin‘ to tell me what to do?” 

“Naw, it’s — he’s got a lot on his mind now, without us worrying him.” 

“Like what?” Atticus didn’t appear to have anything especially on his mind. 

“It’s this Tom Robinson case that’s worryhT him to death — ” 

I said Atticus didn’t worry about anything. Besides, the case never bothered us 
except about once a week and then it didn’t last. 

“That’s because you can’t hold something in your mind but a little while,” said 
Jem. “It’s different with grown folks, we — ” 

His maddening superiority was unbearable these days. He didn’t want to do 
anything but read and go off by himself. Still, everything he read he passed along 
to me, but with this difference: formerly, because he thought I’d like it; now, for 
my edification and instruction. 

“Jee crawling hova, Jem! Who do you think you are?” 

“Now I mean it, Scout, you antagonize Aunty and I’ll — I’ll spank you.” 

With that, I was gone. “You damn morphodite, I’ll kill you!” He was sitting on 
the bed, and it was easy to grab his front hair and land one on his mouth. He 
slapped me and I tried another left, but a punch in the stomach sent me sprawling 
on the floor. It nearly knocked the breath out of me, but it didn’t matter because I 
knew he was fighting, he was fighting me back. We were still equals. 

“Ain’t so high and mighty now, are you!” I screamed, sailing in again. He was 
still on the bed and I couldn’t get a firm stance, so I threw myself at him as hard 
as I could, hitting, pulling, pinching, gouging. What had begun as a fist-fight 
became a brawl. We were still struggling when Atticus separated us. 

“That’s all,” he said. “Both of you go to bed right now.” 

“Taah!” I said at Jem. He was being sent to bed at my bedtime. 

“Who started it?” asked Atticus, in resignation. 

“Jem did. He was tryin‘ to tell me what to do. I don’t have to mind him now, do 

Atticus smiled. “Let’s leave it at this: you mind Jem whenever he can make you. 
Fair enough?” 

Aunt Alexandra was present but silent, and when she went down the hall with 
Atticus we heard her say, “. . .just one of the things I’ve been telling you about,” a 
phrase that united us again. 

Ours were adjoining rooms; as I shut the door between them Jem said, “Night, 

“Night,” I murmured, picking my way across the room to turn on the light. As I 
passed the bed I stepped on something warm, resilient, and rather smooth. It was 
not quite like hard rubber, and I had the sensation that it was alive. I also heard it 

I switched on the light and looked at the floor by the bed. Whatever I had stepped 
on was gone. I tapped on Jem’s door. 

“What,” he said. 

“How does a snake feel?” 

“Sort of rough. Cold. Dusty. Why?” 

“I think there’s one under my bed. Can you come look?” 

“Are you bein‘ funny?” Jem opened the door. He was in his pajama bottoms. I 
noticed not without satisfaction that the mark of my knuckles was still on his 
mouth. When he saw I meant what I said, he said, “If you think I’m gonna put my 
face down to a snake you’ve got another think cornin’. Hold on a minute.” 

He went to the kitchen and fetched the broom. “You better get up on the bed,” he 

“You reckon it’s really one?” I asked. This was an occasion. Our houses had no 
cellars; they were built on stone blocks a few feet above the ground, and the entry 
of reptiles was not unknown but was not commonplace. Miss Rachel Haverford’s 
excuse for a glass of neat whiskey every morning was that she never got over the 
fright of finding a rattler coiled in her bedroom closet, on her washing, when she 
went to hang up her negligee. 

Jem made a tentative swipe under the bed. I looked over the foot to see if a snake 
would come out. None did. Jem made a deeper swipe. 

“Do snakes grunt?” 

“It ain’t a snake,” Jem said. “It’s somebody.” 

Suddenly a filthy brown package shot from under the bed. Jem raised the broom 
and missed Dill’s head by an inch when it appeared. 

“God Almighty.” Jem’s voice was reverent. 

We watched Dill emerge by degrees. He was a tight fit. He stood up and eased his 
shoulders, turned his feet in their ankle sockets, rubbed the back of his neck. His 
circulation restored, he said, “Hey.” 

Jem petitioned God again. I was speechless. 

“I’m ‘bout to perish,” said Dill. “Got anything to eat?” 

In a dream, I went to the kitchen. I brought him back some milk and half a pan of 
corn bread left over from supper. Dill devoured it, chewing with his front teeth, as 
was his custom. 

I finally found my voice. “How’d you get here?” 

By an involved route. Refreshed by food, Dill recited this narrative: having been 
bound in chains and left to die in the basement (there were basements in 
Meridian) by his new father, who disliked him, and secretly kept alive on raw 
field peas by a passing farmer who heard his cries for help (the good man poked a 
bushel pod by pod through the ventilator), Dill worked himself free by pulling the 
chains from the wall. Still in wrist manacles, he wandered two miles out of 
Meridian where he discovered a small animal show and was immediately engaged 
to wash the camel. He traveled with the show all over Mississippi until his 
infallible sense of direction told him he was in Abbott County, Alabama, just 
across the river from Maycomb. He walked the rest of the way. 

“How’d you get here?” asked Jem. 

He had taken thirteen dollars from his mother’s purse, caught the nine o’clock 
from Meridian and got off at Maycomb Junction. He had walked ten or eleven of 
the fourteen miles to Maycomb, off the highway in the scrub bushes lest the 
authorities be seeking him, and had ridden the remainder of the way clinging to 
the backboard of a cotton wagon. He had been under the bed for two hours, he 
thought; he had heard us in the diningroom, and the clink of forks on plates nearly 

drove him crazy. He thought Jem and I would never go to bed; he had considered 
emerging and helping me beat Jem, as Jem had grown far taller, but he knew Mr. 
Finch would break it up soon, so he thought it best to stay where he was. He was 
worn out, dirty beyond belief, and home. 

“They must not know you’re here,” said Jem. “We’d know if they were lookin‘ 
for you...” 

“Think they’re still searchhT all the picture shows in Meridian.” Dill grinned. 

“You oughta let your mother know where you are,” said Jem. “You oughta let her 
know you’re here. . .” 

Dill’s eyes flickered at Jem, and Jem looked at the floor. Then he rose and broke 
the remaining code of our childhood. He went out of the room and down the hall. 
“Atticus,” his voice was distant, “can you come here a minute, sir?” 

Beneath its sweat-streaked dirt Dill’s face went white. I felt sick. Atticus was in 
the doorway. 

He came to the middle of the room and stood with his hands in his pockets, 
looking down at Dill. 

I finally found my voice: “It’s okay, Dill. When he wants you to know somethin 4 , 
he tells you.” 

Dill looked at me. “I mean it’s all right,” I said. “You know he wouldn’t bother 
you, you know you ain’t scared of Atticus.” 

“I’m not scared. . .” Dill muttered. 

“Just hungry, I’ll bet.” Atticus’s voice had its usual pleasant dryness. “Scout, we 
can do better than a pan of cold corn bread, can’t we? You fill this fellow up and 
when I get back we’ll see what we can see.” 

“Mr. Finch, don’t tell Aunt Rachel, don’t make me go back, please sir! I’ll run off 
again — !” 

“Whoa, son,” said Atticus. “Nobody’s about to make you go anywhere but to bed 
pretty soon. I’m just going over to tell Miss Rachel you’re here and ask her if you 
could spend the night with us — you’d like that, wouldn’t you? And for goodness’ 
sake put some of the county back where it belongs, the soil erosion’s bad enough 
as it is.” 

Dill stared at my father’s retreating figure. 

“He’s tryin‘ to be funny,” I said. “He means take a bath. See there, I told you he 
wouldn’t bother you.” 

Jem was standing in a corner of the room, looking like the traitor he was. “Dill, I 
had to tell him,” he said. “You can’t run three hundred miles off without your 
mother knowink” 

We left him without a word. 

Dill ate, and ate, and ate. He hadn’t eaten since last night. He used all his money 
for a ticket, boarded the train as he had done many times, coolly chatted with the 
conductor, to whom Dill was a familiar sight, but he had not the nerve to invoke 
the rule on small children traveling a distance alone if you’ve lost your money the 
conductor will lend you enough for dinner and your father will pay him back at 
the end of the line. 

Dill made his way through the leftovers and was reaching for a can of pork and 
beans in the pantry when Miss Rachel’s Do-oo Je-sus went off in the hall. He 
shivered like a rabbit. 

He bore with fortitude her Wait Till I Get You Home, Your Folks Are Out of 
Their Minds Worrying was quite calm during That’s All the Harris in You 
Coming Out, smiled at her Reckon Y ou Can Stay One Night, and returned the 
hug at long last bestowed upon him. 

Atticus pushed up his glasses and rubbed his face. 

“Your father’s tired,” said Aunt Alexandra, her first words in hours, it seemed. 

She had been there, but I suppose struck dumb most of the time. “You children 
get to bed now.” 

We left them in the diningroom, Atticus still mopping his face. “From rape to riot 
to runaways,” we heard him chuckle. “I wonder what the next two hours will 

Since things appeared to have worked out pretty well, Dill and I decided to be 
civil to Jem. Besides, Dill had to sleep with him so we might as well speak to him. 

I put on my pajamas, read for a while and found myself suddenly unable to keep 
my eyes open. Dill and Jem were quiet; when I turned off my reading lamp there 

was no strip of light under the door to Jem’s room. 

I must have slept a long time, for when I was punched awake the room was dim 
with the light of the setting moon. 

“Move over, Scout.” 

“He thought he had to,” I mumbled. “Don’t stay mad with him.” 

Dill got in bed beside me. “I ain’t,” he said. “I just wanted to sleep with you. Are 
you waked up?” 

By this time I was, but lazily so. “Why’d you do it?” 

No answer. “I said why’d you run off? Was he really hateful like you said?” 

“Didn’t you all build that boat like you wrote you were gonna?” 

“He just said we would. We never did.” 

I raised up on my elbow, facing Dill’s outline. “It’s no reason to run off. They 
don’t get around to doin‘ what they say they’re gonna do half the time. . .” 

“That wasn’t it, he — they just wasn’t interested in me.” 

This was the weirdest reason for flight I had ever heard. “How come?” 

“Well, they stayed gone all the time, and when they were home, even, they’d get 
off in a room by themselves.” 

“What’d they do in there?” 

“Nothin 4 , just sittin’ and readirT — but they didn’t want me with ’em.” 

I pushed the pillow to the headboard and sat up. “You know something? I was 
fixin‘ to run off tonight because there they all were. You don’t want ’em around 
you all the time, Dill — ” 

Dill breathed his patient breath, a half-sigh. 

“ — good night, Atticus’s gone all day and sometimes half the night and off in the 
legislature and I don’t know what — you don’t want ‘em around all the time, Dill, 
you couldn’t do anything if they were.” 

“That’s not it.” 

As Dill explained, I found myself wondering what life would be if Jem were 

different, even from what he was now; what I would do if Atticus did not feel the 
necessity of my presence, help and advice. Why, he couldn’t get along a day 
without me. Even Calpurnia couldn’t get along unless I was there. They needed 

“Dill, you ain’t telling me right — your folks couldn’t do without you. They must 
be just mean to you. Tell you what to do about that — ” 

Dill’s voice went on steadily in the darkness: “The thing is, what I’m tryin‘ to say 
is — they do get on a lot better without me, I can’t help them any. They ain’t mean. 
They buy me everything I want, but it’s now — you’ve-got-it-go-play-with-it. 
You’ve got a roomful of things. I-got-you-that-book-so-go-read-it.” Dill tried to 
deepen his voice. “You’re not a boy. Boys get out and play baseball with other 
boys, they don’t hang around the house worryin’ their folks.” 

Dill’s voice was his own again: “Oh, they ain’t mean. They kiss you and hug you 
good night and good mornin‘ and good-bye and tell you they love you — Scout, 
let’s get us a baby.” 


There was a man Dill had heard of who had a boat that he rowed across to a foggy 
island where all these babies were; you could order one — 

“That’s a lie. Aunty said God drops ‘em down the chimney. At least that’s what I 
think she said.” For once, Aunty’s diction had not been too clear. 

“Well that ain’t so. You get babies from each other. But there’s this man, too — he 
has all these babies just waitin‘ to wake up, he breathes life into ’em. . .” 

Dill was off again. Beautiful things floated around in his dreamy head. He could 
read two books to my one, but he preferred the magic of his own inventions. He 
could add and subtract faster than lightning, but he preferred his own twilight 
world, a world where babies slept, waiting to be gathered like morning lilies. He 
was slowly talking himself to sleep and taking me with him, but in the quietness 
of his foggy island there rose the faded image of a gray house with sad brown 



“Why do you reckon Boo Radley’s never run off?” 
Dill sighed a long sigh and turned away from me. 
“Maybe he doesn’t have anywhere to run off to. . 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 15 

After many telephone calls, much pleading on behalf of the defendant, and a long 
forgiving letter from his mother, it was decided that Dill could stay. We had a 
week of peace together. After that, little, it seemed. A nightmare was upon us. 

It began one evening after supper. Dill was over; Aunt Alexandra was in her chair 
in the corner, Atticus was in his; Jem and I were on the floor reading. It had been 
a placid week: I had minded Aunty; Jem had outgrown the treehouse, but helped 
Dill and me construct a new rope ladder for it; Dill had hit upon a foolproof plan 
to make Boo Radley come out at no cost to ourselves (place a trail of lemon drops 
from the back door to the front yard and he’d follow it, like an ant). There was a 
knock on the front door, Jem answered it and said it was Mr. Heck Tate. 

“Well, ask him to come in,” said Atticus. 

“I already did. There’s some men outside in the yard, they want you to come out.” 

In May comb, grown men stood outside in the front yard for only two reasons: 
death and politics. I wondered who had died. Jem and I went to the front door, but 
Atticus called, “Go back in the house.” 

Jem turned out the livingroom lights and pressed his nose to a window screen. 
Aunt Alexandra protested. “Just for a second, Aunty, let’s see who it is,” he said. 

Dill and I took another window. A crowd of men was standing around Atticus. 
They all seemed to be talking at once. 

“...movin‘ him to the county jail tomorrow,” Mr. Tate was saying, “I don’t look 
for any trouble, but I can’t guarantee there won’t be any . . .” 

“Don’t be foolish, Heck,” Atticus said. “This is Maycomb.” 

“. . .said I was just uneasy.” 

“Heck, we’ve gotten one postponement of this case just to make sure there’s 
nothing to be uneasy about. This is Saturday,” Atticus said. “Trial’ 11 probably be 
Monday. You can keep him one night, can’t you? I don’t think anybody in 
Maycomb ’ll begrudge me a client, with times this hard.” 

There was a murmur of glee that died suddenly when Mr. Link Deas said, 
“Nobody around here’s up to anything, it’s that Old Sarum bunch I’m worried 
about. . . can’t you get a — what is it, Heck?” 

“Change of venue,” said Mr. Tate. “Not much point in that, now is it?” 

Atticus said something inaudible. I turned to Jem, who waved me to silence. 

“ — besides,” Atticus was saying, “you’re not scared of that crowd, are you?” 

“. . .know how they do when they get shinnied up.” 

“They don’t usually drink on Sunday, they go to church most of the day. . .” 
Atticus said. 

“This is a special occasion, though...” someone said. 

They murmured and buzzed until Aunty said if Jem didn’t turn on the livingroom 
lights he would disgrace the family. Jem didn’t hear her. 

“ — don’t see why you touched it in the first place,” Mr. Link Deas was saying. 
“You’ve got everything to lose from this, Atticus. I mean everything.” 

“Do you really think so?” 

This was Atticus ’s dangerous question. “Do you really think you want to move 
there, Scout?” Bam, bam, bam, and the checkerboard was swept clean of my men. 
“Do you really think that, son? Then read this.” Jem would struggle the rest of an 
evening through the speeches of Henry W. Grady. 

“Link, that boy might go to the chair, but he’s not going till the truth’s told.” 
Atticus’s voice was even. “And you know what the truth is.” 

There was a murmur among the group of men, made more ominous when Atticus 
moved back to the bottom front step and the men drew nearer to him. 

Suddenly Jem screamed, “Atticus, the telephone’s ringing!” 

The men jumped a little and scattered; they were people we saw every day: 
merchants, in-town farmers; Dr. Reynolds was there; so was Mr. Avery. 

“Well, answer it, son,” called Atticus. 

Laughter broke them up. When Atticus switched on the overhead light in the 
livingroom he found Jem at the window, pale except for the vivid mark of the 
screen on his nose. 

“Why on earth are you all sitting in the dark?” he asked. 

Jem watched him go to his chair and pick up the evening paper. I sometimes think 
Atticus subjected every crisis of his life to tranquil evaluation behind The Mobile 
Register, The Birmingham News and The Montgomery Advertiser. 

“They were after you, weren’t they?” Jem went to him. “They wanted to get you, 
didn’t they?” 

Atticus lowered the paper and gazed at Jem. “What have you been reading?” he 
asked. Then he said gently, “No son, those were our friends.” 

“It wasn’t a — a gang?” Jem was looking from the corners of his eyes. 

Atticus tried to stifle a smile but didn’t make it. “No, we don’t have mobs and that 
nonsense in Maycomb. I’ve never heard of a gang in Maycomb.” 

“Ku Klux got after some Catholics one time.” 

“Never heard of any Catholics in Maycomb either,” said Atticus, “you’re 
confusing that with something else. Way back about nineteen-twenty there was a 
Klan, but it was a political organization more than anything. Besides, they 
couldn’t find anybody to scare. They paraded by Mr. Sam Levy’s house one 
night, but Sam just stood on his porch and told ‘em things had come to a pretty 
pass, he’d sold ’em the very sheets on their backs. Sam made ‘em so ashamed of 
themselves they went away.” 

The Levy family met all criteria for being Fine Folks: they did the best they could 
with the sense they had, and they had been living on the same plot of ground in 
Maycomb for five generations. 

“The Ku Klux’s gone,” said Atticus. “It’ll never come back.” 

I walked home with Dill and returned in time to overhear Atticus saying to Aunty, 

. .in favor of Southern womanhood as much as anybody, but not for preserving 
polite fiction at the expense of human life,” a pronouncement that made me 
suspect they had been fussing again. 

I sought Jem and found him in his room, on the bed deep in thought. “Have they 
been at it?” I asked. 

“Sort of. She won’t let him alone about Tom Robinson. She almost said Atticus 
was disgracnT the family. Scout... I’m scared.” 

“Scared’ a what?” 

“Scared about Atticus. Somebody might hurt him.” Jem preferred to remain 
mysterious; all he would say to my questions was go on and leave him alone. 

Next day was Sunday. In the interval between Sunday School and Church when 
the congregation stretched its legs, I saw Atticus standing in the yard with another 
knot of men. Mr. Heck Tate was present, and I wondered if he had seen the light. 
He never went to church. Even Mr. Underwood was there. Mr. Underwood had 
no use for any organization but The May comb Tribune, of which he was the sole 
owner, editor, and printer. His days were spent at his linotype, where he refreshed 
himself occasionally from an ever-present gallon jug of cherry wine. He rarely 
gathered news; people brought it to him. It was said that he made up every edition 
of The Maycomb Tribune out of his own head and wrote it down on the linotype. 
This was believable. Something must have been up to haul Mr. Underwood out. 

I caught Atticus coming in the door, and he said that they’d moved Tom Robinson 
to the Maycomb jail. He also said, more to himself than to me, that if they’d kept 
him there in the first place there wouldn’t have been any fuss. I watched him take 
his seat on the third row from the front, and I heard him rumble, “Nearer my God 
to thee,” some notes behind the rest of us. He never sat with Aunty, Jem and me. 
He liked to be by himself in church. 

The fake peace that prevailed on Sundays was made more irritating by Aunt 
Alexandra’s presence. Atticus would flee to his office directly after dinner, where 
if we sometimes looked in on him, we would find him sitting back in his swivel 
chair reading. Aunt Alexandra composed herself for a two-hour nap and dared us 
to make any noise in the yard, the neighborhood was resting. Jem in his old age 
had taken to his room with a stack of football magazines. So Dill and I spent our 

Sundays creeping around in Deer’s Pasture. 

Shooting on Sundays was prohibited, so Dill and I kicked Jem’s football around 
the pasture for a while, which was no fun. Dill asked if I’d like to have a poke at 
Boo Radley. I said I didn’t think it’d be nice to bother him, and spent the rest of 
the afternoon filling Dill in on last winter’s events. He was considerably 

We parted at suppertime, and after our meal Jem and I were settling down to a 
routine evening, when Atticus did something that interested us: he came into the 
livingroom carrying a long electrical extension cord. There was a light bulb on the 

“I’m going out for a while,” he said. “You folks’ll be in bed when I come back, so 
I’ll say good night now.” 

With that, he put his hat on and went out the back door. 

“He’s takin‘ the car,” said Jem. 

Our father had a few peculiarities: one was, he never ate desserts; another was 
that he liked to walk. As far back as I could remember, there was always a 
Chevrolet in excellent condition in the carhouse, and Atticus put many miles on it 
in business trips, but in Maycomb he walked to and from his office four times a 
day, covering about two miles. He said his only exercise was walking. In 
Maycomb, if one went for a walk with no definite purpose in mind, it was correct 
to believe one’s mind incapable of definite purpose. 

Later on, I bade my aunt and brother good night and was well into a book when I 
heard Jem rattling around in his room. His go-to-bed noises were so familiar to 
me that I knocked on his door: “Why ain’t you going to bed?” 

“I’m goin‘ downtown for a while.” He was changing his pants. 

“Why? It’s almost ten o’clock, Jem.” 

He knew it, but he was going anyway. 

“Then I’m goin‘ with you. If you say no you’re not, I’m goin’ anyway, hear?” 

Jem saw that he would have to fight me to keep me home, and I suppose he 
thought a fight would antagonize Aunty, so he gave in with little grace. 

I dressed quickly. We waited until Aunty’s light went out, and we walked quietly 

down the back steps. There was no moon tonight. 

“Dill’ll wanta come,” I whispered. 

“So he will,” said Jem gloomily. 

We leaped over the driveway wall, cut through Miss Rachel’s side yard and went 
to Dill’s window. Jem whistled bob-white. Dill’s face appeared at the screen, 
disappeared, and five minutes later he unhooked the screen and crawled out. An 
old campaigner, he did not speak until we were on the sidewalk. “What’s up?” 

“Jem’s got the look-arounds,” an affliction Calpurnia said all boys caught at his 

“I’ve just got this feeling,” Jem said, “just this feeling.” 

We went by Mrs. Dubose’s house, standing empty and shuttered, her camellias 
grown up in weeds and johnson grass. There were eight more houses to the post 
office corner. 

The south side of the square was deserted. Giant monkey-puzzle bushes bristled 
on each corner, and between them an iron hitching rail glistened under the street 
lights. A light shone in the county toilet, otherwise that side of the courthouse was 
dark. A larger square of stores surrounded the courthouse square; dim lights 
burned from deep within them. 

Atticus’s office was in the courthouse when he began his law practice, but after 
several years of it he moved to quieter quarters in the Maycomb Bank building. 
When we rounded the corner of the square, we saw the car parked in front of the 
bank. “He’s in there,” said Jem. 

But he wasn’t. His office was reached by a long hallway. Looking down the hall, 
we should have seen Atticus Finch, Attorney -at-Law in small sober letters against 
the light from behind his door. It was dark. 

Jem peered in the bank door to make sure. He turned the knob. The door was 
locked. “Let’s go up the street. Maybe he’s visithT Mr. Underwood.” 

Mr. Underwood not only ran The Maycomb Tribune office, he lived in it. That is, 
above it. He covered the courthouse and jailhouse news simply by looking out his 
upstairs window. The office building was on the northwest corner of the square, 
and to reach it we had to pass the jail. 

The Maycomb jail was the most venerable and hideous of the county’s buildings. 
Atticus said it was like something Cousin Joshua St. Clair might have designed. It 
was certainly someone’s dream. Starkly out of place in a town of square-faced 
stores and steep-roofed houses, the Maycomb jail was a miniature Gothic joke 
one cell wide and two cells high, complete with tiny battlements and flying 
buttresses. Its fantasy was heightened by its red brick facade and the thick steel 
bars at its ecclesiastical windows. It stood on no lonely hill, but was wedged 
between Tyndal’s Hardware Store and The Maycomb Tribune office. The jail was 
Maycomb ’s only conversation piece: its detractors said it looked like a Victorian 
privy; its supporters said it gave the town a good solid respectable look, and no 
stranger would ever suspect that it was full of niggers. 

As we walked up the sidewalk, we saw a solitary light burning in the distance. 
“That’s funny,” said Jem, “jail doesn’t have an outside light.” 

“Looks like it’s over the door,” said Dill. 

A long extension cord ran between the bars of a second-floor window and down 
the side of the building. In the light from its bare bulb, Atticus was sitting propped 
against the front door. He was sitting in one of his office chairs, and he was 
reading, oblivious of the nightbugs dancing over his head. 

I made to run, but Jem caught me. “Don’t go to him,” he said, “he might not like 
it. He’s all right, let’s go home. I just wanted to see where he was.” 

We were taking a short cut across the square when four dusty cars came in from 
the Meridian highway, moving slowly in a line. They went around the square, 
passed the bank building, and stopped in front of the jail. 

Nobody got out. We saw Atticus look up from his newspaper. He closed it, folded 
it deliberately, dropped it in his lap, and pushed his hat to the back of his head. He 
seemed to be expecting them. 

“Come on,” whispered Jem. We streaked across the square, across the street, until 
we were in the shelter of the Jitney Jungle door. Jem peeked up the sidewalk. “We 
can get closer,” he said. We ran to Tyndal’s Hardware door — near enough, at the 
same time discreet. 

In ones and twos, men got out of the cars. Shadows became substance as lights 

revealed solid shapes moving toward the jail door. Atticus remained where he 
was. The men hid him from view. 

“He in there, Mr. Finch?” a man said. 

“He is,” we heard Atticus answer, “and he’s asleep. Don’t wake him up.” 

In obedience to my father, there followed what I later realized was a sickeningly 
comic aspect of an unfunny situation: the men talked in near- whispers. 

“You know what we want,” another man said. “Get aside from the door, Mr. 

“You can turn around and go home again, Walter,” Atticus said pleasantly. “Heck 
Tate’s around somewhere.” 

“The hell he is,” said another man. “Heck’s bunch’s so deep in the woods they 
won’t get out till mornink” 

“Indeed? Why so?” 

“Called ‘em off on a snipe hunt,” was the succinct answer. “Didn’t you think 
a’ that, Mr. Finch?” 

“Thought about it, but didn’t believe it. Well then,” my father’s voice was still the 
same, “that changes things, doesn’t it?” 

“It do,” another deep voice said. Its owner was a shadow. 

“Do you really think so?” 

This was the second time I heard Atticus ask that question in two days, and it 
meant somebody’s man would get jumped. This was too good to miss. I broke 
away from Jem and ran as fast as I could to Atticus. 

Jem shrieked and tried to catch me, but I had a lead on him and Dill. I pushed my 
way through dark smelly bodies and burst into the circle of light. 

“H-ey, Atticus!” 

I thought he would have a fine surprise, but his face killed my joy. A flash of 
plain fear was going out of his eyes, but returned when Dill and Jem wriggled into 
the light. 

There was a smell of stale whiskey and pigpen about, and when I glanced around 
I discovered that these men were strangers. They were not the people I saw last 

night. Hot embarrassment shot through me: I had leaped triumphantly into a ring 
of people I had never seen before. 

Atticus got up from his chair, but he was moving slowly, like an old man. He put 
the newspaper down very carefully, adjusting its creases with lingering fingers. 
They were trembling a little. 

“Go home, Jem,” he said. “Take Scout and Dill home.” 

We were accustomed to prompt, if not always cheerful acquiescence to Atticus ’s 
instructions, but from the way he stood Jem was not thinking of budging. 

“Go home, I said.” 

Jem shook his head. As Atticus’s fists went to his hips, so did Jem’s, and as they 
faced each other I could see little resemblance between them: Jem’s soft brown 
hair and eyes, his oval face and snug-fitting ears were our mother’s, contrasting 
oddly with Atticus’s graying black hair and square-cut features, but they were 
somehow alike. Mutual defiance made them alike. 

“Son, I said go home.” 

Jem shook his head. 

“I’ll send him home,” a burly man said, and grabbed Jem roughly by the collar. 
He yanked Jem nearly off his feet. 

“Don’t you touch him!” I kicked the man swiftly. Barefooted, I was surprised to 
see him fall back in real pain. I intended to kick his shin, but aimed too high. 

“That’ll do, Scout.” Atticus put his hand on my shoulder. “Don’t kick folks. No 
— ” he said, as I was pleading justification. 

“Ain’t nobody gonna do Jem that way,” I said. 

“All right, Mr. Finch, get ‘em outa here,” someone growled. “You got fifteen 
seconds to get ’em outa here.” 

In the midst of this strange assembly, Atticus stood trying to make Jem mind him. 
“I ain’t going,” was his steady answer to Atticus’s threats, requests, and finally, 
“Please Jem, take them home.” 

I was getting a bit tired of that, but felt Jem had his own reasons for doing as he 
did, in view of his prospects once Atticus did get him home. I looked around the 

crowd. It was a summer’ s night, but the men were dressed, most of them, in 
overalls and denim shirts buttoned up to the collars. I thought they must be cold- 
natured, as their sleeves were unrolled and buttoned at the cuffs. Some wore hats 
pulled firmly down over their ears. They were sullen-looking, sleepy-eyed men 
who seemed unused to late hours. I sought once more for a familiar face, and at 
the center of the semi-circle I found one. 

“Hey, Mr. Cunningham.” 

The man did not hear me, it seemed. 

“Hey, Mr. Cunningham. How’s your entailment gettin‘ along?” 

Mr. Walter Cunningham’s legal affairs were well known to me; Atticus had once 
described them at length. The big man blinked and hooked his thumbs in his 
overall straps. He seemed uncomfortable; he cleared his throat and looked away. 
My friendly overture had fallen flat. 

Mr. Cunningham wore no hat, and the top half of his forehead was white in 
contrast to his sunscorched face, which led me to believe that he wore one most 
days. He shifted his feet, clad in heavy work shoes. 

“Don’t you remember me, Mr. Cunningham? I’m Jean Louise Finch. You brought 
us some hickory nuts one time, remember?” I began to sense the futility one feels 
when unacknowledged by a chance acquaintance. 

“I go to school with Walter,” I began again. “He’s your boy, ain’t he? Ain’t he, 

Mr. Cunningham was moved to a faint nod. He did know me, after all. 

“He’s in my grade,” I said, “and he does right well. He’s a good boy,” I added, “a 
real nice boy. We brought him home for dinner one time. Maybe he told you 
about me, I beat him up one time but he was real nice about it. Tell him hey for 
me, won’t you?” 

Atticus had said it was the polite thing to talk to people about what they were 
interested in, not about what you were interested in. Mr. Cunningham displayed 
no interest in his son, so I tackled his entailment once more in a last-ditch effort to 
make him feel at home. 

“Entailments are bad,” I was advising him, when I slowly awoke to the fact that I 

was addressing the entire aggregation. The men were all looking at me, some had 
their mouths half-open. Atticus had stopped poking at Jem: they were standing 
together beside Dill. Their attention amounted to fascination. Atticus ’s mouth, 
even, was half-open, an attitude he had once described as uncouth. Our eyes met 
and he shut it. 

“Well, Atticus, I was just sayin‘ to Mr. Cunningham that entailments are bad an’ 
all that, but you said not to worry, it takes a long time sometimes. . . that you ail’d 
ride it out together. . .” I was slowly drying up, wondering what idiocy I had 
committed. Entailments seemed all right enough for livingroom talk. 

I began to feel sweat gathering at the edges of my hair; I could stand anything but 
a bunch of people looking at me. They were quite still. 

“What’s the matter?” I asked. 

Atticus said nothing. I looked around and up at Mr. Cunningham, whose face was 
equally impassive. Then he did a peculiar thing. He squatted down and took me 
by both shoulders. 

“I’ll tell him you said hey, little lady,” he said. 

Then he straightened up and waved a big paw. “Let’s clear out,” he called. “Let’s 
get going, boys.” 

As they had come, in ones and twos the men shuffled back to their ramshackle 
cars. Doors slammed, engines coughed, and they were gone. 

I turned to Atticus, but Atticus had gone to the jail and was leaning against it with 
his face to the wall. I went to him and pulled his sleeve. “Can we go home now?” 
He nodded, produced his handkerchief, gave his face a going-over and blew his 
nose violently. 

“Mr. Linch?” 

A soft husky voice came from the darkness above: “They gone?” 

Atticus stepped back and looked up. “They’ve gone,” he said. “Get some sleep, 
Tom. They won’t bother you any more.” 

Lrom a different direction, another voice cut crisply through the night: “You’re 
damn tootin‘ they won’t. Had you covered all the time, Atticus.” 

Mr. Underwood and a double-barreled shotgun were leaning out his window 

above The Maycomb Tribune office. 

It was long past my bedtime and I was growing quite tired; it seemed that Atticus 
and Mr. Underwood would talk for the rest of the night, Mr. Underwood out the 
window and Atticus up at him. Finally Atticus returned, switched off the light 
above the jail door, and picked up his chair. 

“Can I carry it for you, Mr. Finch?” asked Dill. He had not said a word the whole 

“Why, thank you, son.” 

Walking toward the office, Dill and I fell into step behind Atticus and Jem. Dill 
was encumbered by the chair, and his pace was slower. Atticus and Jem were well 
ahead of us, and I assumed that Atticus was giving him hell for not going home, 
but I was wrong. As they passed under a streetlight, Atticus reached out and 
massaged Jem’s hair, his one gesture of affection. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 16 

Jem heard me. He thrust his head around the connecting door. As he came to my 
bed Atticus’s light flashed on. We stayed where we were until it went off; we 
heard him turn over, and we waited until he was still again. 

Jem took me to his room and put me in bed beside him. “Try to go to sleep,” he 
said, “It’ll be all over after tomorrow, maybe.” 

We had come in quietly, so as not to wake Aunty. Atticus killed the engine in the 
driveway and coasted to the carhouse; we went in the back door and to our rooms 
without a word. I was very tired, and was drifting into sleep when the memory of 
Atticus calmly folding his newspaper and pushing back his hat became Atticus 
standing in the middle of an empty waiting street, pushing up his glasses. The full 
meaning of the night’s events hit me and I began crying. Jem was awfully nice 

about it: for once he didn’t remind me that people nearly nine years old didn’t do 
things like that. 

Everybody’s appetite was delicate this morning, except Jem’s: he ate his way 
through three eggs. Atticus watched in frank admiration; Aunt Alexandra sipped 
coffee and radiated waves of disapproval. Children who slipped out at night were 
a disgrace to the family. Atticus said he was right glad his disgraces had come 
along, but Aunty said, “Nonsense, Mr. Underwood was there all the time.” 

“You know, it’s a funny thing about Braxton,” said Atticus. “He despises 
Negroes, won’t have one near him.” 

Local opinion held Mr. Underwood to be an intense, profane little man, whose 
father in a fey fit of humor christened Braxton Bragg, a name Mr. Underwood had 
done his best to live down. Atticus said naming people after Confederate generals 
made slow steady drinkers. 

Calpurnia was serving Aunt Alexandra more coffee, and she shook her head at 
what I thought was a pleading winning look. “You’re still too little,” she said. 

“I’ll tell you when you ain’t.” I said it might help my stomach. “All right,” she 
said, and got a cup from the sideboard. She poured one tablespoonful of coffee 
into it and filled the cup to the brim with milk. I thanked her by sticking out my 
tongue at it, and looked up to catch Aunty’s warning frown. But she was frowning 
at Atticus. 

She waited until Calpurnia was in the kitchen, then she said, “Don’t talk like that 
in front of them.” 

“Talk like what in front of whom?” he asked. 

“Like that in front of Calpurnia. You said Braxton Underwood despises Negroes 
right in front of her.” 

“Well, I’m sure Cal knows it. Everybody in Maycomb knows it.” 

I was beginning to notice a subtle change in my father these days, that came out 
when he talked with Aunt Alexandra. It was a quiet digging in, never outright 
irritation. There was a faint starchiness in his voice when he said, “Anything fit to 
say at the table’s fit to say in front of Calpurnia. She knows what she means to 
this family.” 

“I don’t think it’s a good habit, Atticus. It encourages them. You know how they 
talk among themselves. Every thing that happens in this town’s out to the 
Quarters before sundown.” 

My father put down his knife. “I don’t know of any law that says they can’t talk. 
Maybe if we didn’t give them so much to talk about they’d be quiet. Why don’t 
you drink your coffee, Scout?” 

I was playing in it with the spoon. “I thought Mr. Cunningham was a friend of 
ours. You told me a long time ago he was.” 

“He still is.” 

“But last night he wanted to hurt you.” 

Atticus placed his fork beside his knife and pushed his plate aside. “Mr. 
Cunningham’s basically a good man,” he said, “he just has his blind spots along 
with the rest of us.” 

Jem spoke. “Don’t call that a blind spot. He’ da killed you last night when he first 
went there. 

“He might have hurt me a little,” Atticus conceded, “but son, you’ll understand 
folks a little better when you’re older. A mob’s always made up of people, no 
matter what. Mr. Cunningham was part of a mob last night, but he was still a man. 
Every mob in every little Southern town is always made up of people you know — 
doesn’t say much for them, does it?” 

“I’ll say not,” said Jem. 

“So it took an eight-year-old child to bring ‘em to their senses, didn’t it?” said 
Atticus. “That proves something — that a gang of wild animals can be stopped, 
simply because they’re still human. Hmp, maybe we need a police force of 
children. . . you children last night made Walter Cunningham stand in my shoes 
for a minute. That was enough.” 

Well, I hoped Jem would understand folks a little better when he was older; I 
wouldn’t. “First day Walter comes back to school’ll be his last,” I affirmed. 

“You will not touch him,” Atticus said flatly. “I don’t want either of you bearing a 

grudge about this thing, no matter what happens.” 

“You see, don’t you,” said Aunt Alexandra, “what comes of things like this. 

Don’t say I haven’t told you.” 

Atticus said he’d never say that, pushed out his chair and got up. “There’s a day 
ahead, so excuse me. Jem, I don’t want you and Scout downtown today, please.” 

As Atticus departed, Dill came bounding down the hall into the diningroom. “It’ s 
all over town this morning,” he announced, “all about how we held off a hundred 
folks with our bare hands. . .” Aunt Alexandra stared him to silence. “It was not a 
hundred folks,” she said, “and nobody held anybody off. It was just a nest of 
those Cunninghams, drunk and disorderly.” 

“Aw, Aunty, that’s just Dill’s way,” said Jem. He signaled us to follow him. 

“You all stay in the yard today,” she said, as we made our way to the front porch. 

It was like Saturday. People from the south end of the county passed our house in 
a leisurely but steady stream. 

Mr. Dolphus Raymond lurched by on his thoroughbred. “Don’t see how he stays 
in the saddle,” murmured Jem. “How c’n you stand to get drunk ‘fore eight in the 

A wagonload of ladies rattled past us. They wore cotton sunbonnets and dresses 
with long sleeves. A bearded man in a wool hat drove them. “Yonder’s some 
Mennonites,” Jem said to Dill. “They don’t have buttons.” They lived deep in the 
woods, did most of their trading across the river, and rarely came to Maycomb. 
Dill was interested. “They’ve all got blue eyes,” Jem explained, “and the men 
can’t shave after they marry. Their wives like for ‘em to tickle ’em with their 

Mr. X Billups rode by on a mule and waved to us. “He’s a funny man,” said Jem. 
“X’s his name, not his initial. He was in court one time and they asked him his 
name. He said X Billups. Clerk asked him to spell it and he said X. Asked him 
again and he said X. They kept at it till he wrote X on a sheet of paper and held it 
up for everybody to see. They asked him where he got his name and he said that’s 
the way his folks signed him up when he was born.” 

As the county went by us, Jem gave Dill the histories and general attitudes of the 
more prominent figures: Mr. Tensaw Jones voted the straight Prohibition ticket; 

Miss Emily Davis dipped snuff in private; Mr. Byron Waller could play the 
violin; Mr. Jake Slade was cutting his third set of teeth. 

A wagonload of unusually stern-faced citizens appeared. When they pointed to 
Miss Maudie Atkinson’s yard, ablaze with summer flowers, Miss Maudie herself 
came out on the porch. There was an odd thing about Miss Maudie — on her porch 
she was too far away for us to see her features clearly, but we could always catch 
her mood by the way she stood. She was now standing arms akimbo, her 
shoulders drooping a little, her head cocked to one side, her glasses winking in the 
sunlight. We knew she wore a grin of the uttermost wickedness. 

The driver of the wagon slowed down his mules, and a shrill- voiced woman 
called out: “He that cometh in vanity departeth in darkness!” 

Miss Maudie answered: “A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance!” 

I guess that the foot-washers thought that the Devil was quoting Scripture for his 
own purposes, as the driver speeded his mules. Why they objected to Miss 
Maudie ’s yard was a mystery, heightened in my mind because for someone who 
spent all the daylight hours outdoors, Miss Maudie’ s command of Scripture was 

“You goin‘ to court this morning?” asked Jem. We had strolled over. 

“I am not,” she said. “I have no business with the court this morning.” 

“Aren’t you goin‘ down to watch?” asked Dill. 

“I am not. ‘t’s morbid, watching a poor devil on trial for his life. Look at all those 
folks, it’s like a Roman carnival.” 

“They hafta try him in public, Miss Maudie,” I said. “Wouldn’t be right if they 

“I’m quite aware of that,” she said. “Just because it’s public, I don’t have to go, 
do I?” 

Miss Stephanie Crawford came by. She wore a hat and gloves. “Um, um, um,” 
she said. “Look at all those folks — you’d think William Jennings Bryan was 
speakin 4 .” 

“And where are you going, Stephanie?” inquired Miss Maudie. 

“To the Jitney Jungle.” 

Miss Maudie said she’d never seen Miss Stephanie go to the Jitney Jungle in a hat 
in her life. 

“Well,” said Miss Stephanie, “I thought I might just look in at the courthouse, to 
see what Atticus’s up to.” 

“Better be careful he doesn’t hand you a subpoena.” 

We asked Miss Maudie to elucidate: she said Miss Stephanie seemed to know so 
much about the case she might as well be called on to testify. 

We held off until noon, when Atticus came home to dinner and said they’d spent 
the morning picking the jury. After dinner, we stopped by for Dill and went to 

It was a gala occasion. There was no room at the public hitching rail for another 
animal, mules and wagons were parked under every available tree. The 
courthouse square was covered with picnic parties sitting on newspapers, washing 
down biscuit and syrup with warm milk from fruit jars. Some people were 
gnawing on cold chicken and cold fried pork chops. The more affluent chased 
their food with drugstore Coca-Cola in bulb-shaped soda glasses. Greasy-faced 
children popped-the-whip through the crowd, and babies lunched at their mothers’ 

In a far corner of the square, the Negroes sat quietly in the sun, dining on 
sardines, crackers, and the more vivid flavors of Nehi Cola. Mr. Dolphus 
Raymond sat with them. 

“Jem,” said Dill, “he’s drinkhT out of a sack.” 

Mr. Dolphus Raymond seemed to be so doing: two yellow drugstore straws ran 
from his mouth to the depths of a brown paper bag. 

“Ain’t ever seen anybody do that,” murmured Dill. 

“How does he keep what’s in it in it?” 

Jem giggled. “He’s got a Co-Cola bottle full of whiskey in there. That’s so’s not 
to upset the ladies. You’ll see him sip it all afternoon, he’ll step out for a while 
and fill it back up.” 

“Why’s he sittin‘ with the colored folks?” 

“Always does. He likes ‘em better’n he likes us, I reckon. Lives by himself way 
down near the county line. He’s got a colored woman and all sorts of mixed 
chillun. Show you some of ’em if we see ‘em.” 

“He doesn’t look like trash,” said Dill. 

“He’s not, he owns all one side of the riverbank down there, and he’s from a real 
old family to boot.” 

“Then why does he do like that?” 

“That’s just his way,” said Jem. “They say he never got over his weddin‘. He was 
supposed to marry one of the — the Spencer ladies, I think. They were gonna have 
a huge weddin’, but they didn’t — after the rehearsal the bride went upstairs and 
blew her head off. Shotgun. She pulled the trigger with her toes.” 

“Did they ever know why?” 

“No,” said Jem, “nobody ever knew quite why but Mr. Dolphus. They said it was 
because she found out about his colored woman, he reckoned he could keep her 
and get married too. He’s been sorta drunk ever since. You know, though, he’s 
real good to those chillun — ” 

“Jem,” I asked, “what’s a mixed child?” 

“Half white, half colored. You’ve seen ‘em, Scout. You know that red-kinky- 
headed one that delivers for the drugstore. He’s half white. They’re real sad.” 

“Sad, how come?” 

“They don’t belong anywhere. Colored folks won’t have ‘em because they’re half 
white; white folks won’t have ’em cause they’re colored, so they’re just in- 
betweens, don’t belong anywhere. But Mr. Dolphus, now, they say he’s shipped 
two of his up north. They don’t mind ‘em up north. Yonder’s one of ’em.” 

A small boy clutching a Negro woman’s hand walked toward us. He looked all 
Negro to me: he was rich chocolate with flaring nostrils and beautiful teeth. 
Sometimes he would skip happily, and the Negro woman tugged his hand to make 
him stop. 

Jem waited until they passed us. “That’s one of the little ones,” he said. 

“How can you tell?” asked Dill. “He looked black to me.” 

“You can’t sometimes, not unless you know who they are. But he’s half 
Raymond, all right.” 

“But how can you tellT I asked. 

“I told you, Scout, you just hafta know who they are.” 

“Well how do you know we ain’t Negroes?” 

“Uncle Jack Finch says we really don’t know. He says as far as he can trace back 
the Finches we ain’t, but for all he knows we mighta come straight out of Ethiopia 
durin‘ the Old Testament.” 

“Well if we came out durin‘ the Old Testament it’s too long ago to matter.” 

“That’s what I thought,” said Jem, “but around here once you have a drop of 
Negro blood, that makes you all black. Hey, look — ” 

Some invisible signal had made the lunchers on the square rise and scatter bits of 
newspaper, cellophane, and wrapping paper. Children came to mothers, babies 
were cradled on hips as men in sweat-stained hats collected their families and 
herded them through the courthouse doors. In the far corner of the square the 
Negroes and Mr. Dolphus Raymond stood up and dusted their breeches. There 
were few women and children among them, which seemed to dispel the holiday 
mood. They waited patiently at the doors behind the white families. 

“Let’s go in,” said Dill. 

“Naw, we better wait till they get in, Atticus might not like it if he sees us,” said 

The Maycomb County courthouse was faintly reminiscent of Arlington in one 
respect: the concrete pillars supporting its south roof were too heavy for their light 
burden. The pillars were all that remained standing when the original courthouse 
burned in 1856. Another courthouse was built around them. It is better to say, 
built in spite of them. But for the south porch, the Maycomb County courthouse 
was early Victorian, presenting an unoffensive vista when seen from the north. 
From the other side, however, Greek revival columns clashed with a big 
nineteenth-century clock tower housing a rusty unreliable instrument, a view 
indicating a people determined to preserve every physical scrap of the past. 

To reach the courtroom, on the second floor, one passed sundry sunless county 

cubbyholes: the tax assessor, the tax collector, the county clerk, the county 
solicitor, the circuit clerk, the judge of probate lived in cool dim hutches that 
smelled of decaying record books mingled with old damp cement and stale urine. 
It was necessary to turn on the lights in the daytime; there was always a film of 
dust on the rough floorboards. The inhabitants of these offices were creatures of 
their environment: little gray-faced men, they seemed untouched by wind or sun. 

We knew there was a crowd, but we had not bargained for the multitudes in the 
first-floor hallway. I got separated from Jem and Dill, but made my way toward 
the wall by the stairwell, knowing Jem would come for me eventually. I found 
myself in the middle of the Idlers’ Club and made myself as unobtrusive as 
possible. This was a group of white-shirted, khaki-trousered, suspendered old men 
who had spent their lives doing nothing and passed their twilight days doing same 
on pine benches under the live oaks on the square. Attentive critics of courthouse 
business, Atticus said they knew as much law as the Chief Justice, from long 
years of observation. Normally, they were the court’s only spectators, and today 
they seemed resentful of the interruption of their comfortable routine. When they 
spoke, their voices sounded casually important. The conversation was about my 

“. . .thinks he knows what he’s doing,” one said. 

“Oh-h now, I wouldn’t say that,” said another. “Atticus Finch’s a deep reader, a 
mighty deep reader.” 

“He reads all right, that’s all he does.” The club snickered. 

“Lemme tell you somethin 4 now, Billy,” a third said, “you know the court 
appointed him to defend this nigger.” 

“Yeah, but Atticus aims to defend him. That’s what I don’t like about it.” 

This was news, news that put a different light on things: Atticus had to, whether 
he wanted to or not. I thought it odd that he hadn’t said anything to us about it — 
we could have used it many times in defending him and ourselves. He had to, 
that’s why he was doing it, equaled fewer fights and less fussing. But did that 
explain the town’s attitude? The court appointed Atticus to defend him. Atticus 
aimed to defend him. That’s what they didn’t like about it. It was confusing. 

The Negroes, having waited for the white people to go upstairs, began to come in. 

“Whoa now, just a minute,” said a club member, holding up his walking stick. 
“Just don’t start up them there stairs yet awhile.” 

The club began its stiff-jointed climb and ran into Dill and Jem on their way down 
looking for me. They squeezed past and Jem called, “Scout, come on, there ain’t a 
seat left. We’ll hafta stand up.” 

“Looka there, now.” he said irritably, as the black people surged upstairs. The old 
men ahead of them would take most of the standing room. We were out of luck 
and it was my fault, Jem informed me. We stood miserably by the wall. 

“Can’t you all get in?” 

Reverend Sykes was looking down at us, black hat in hand. 

“Hey, Reverend,” said Jem. “Naw, Scout here messed us up.” 

“Well, let’s see what we can do.” 

Reverend Sykes edged his way upstairs. In a few moments he was back. “There’s 
not a seat downstairs. Do you all reckon it’ll be all right if you all came to the 
balcony with me?” 

“Gosh yes,” said Jem. Happily, we sped ahead of Reverend Sykes to the 
courtroom floor. There, we went up a covered staircase and waited at the door. 
Reverend Sykes came puffing behind us, and steered us gently through the black 
people in the balcony. Four Negroes rose and gave us their front-row seats. 

The Colored balcony ran along three walls of the courtroom like a second-story 
veranda, and from it we could see everything. 

The jury sat to the left, under long windows. Sunburned, lanky, they seemed to be 
all farmers, but this was natural: townfolk rarely sat on juries, they were either 
struck or excused. One or two of the jury looked vaguely like dressed-up 
Cunninghams. At this stage they sat straight and alert. 

The circuit solicitor and another man, Atticus and Tom Robinson sat at tables 
with their backs to us. There was a brown book and some yellow tablets on the 
solicitor’s table; Atticus’s was bare. Just inside the railing that divided the 
spectators from the court, the witnesses sat on cowhide-bottomed chairs. Their 
backs were to us. 

Judge Taylor was on the bench, looking like a sleepy old shark, his pilot fish 

writing rapidly below in front of him. Judge Taylor looked like most judges I had 
ever seen: amiable, white-haired, slightly ruddy-faced, he was a man who ran his 
court with an alarming informality — he sometimes propped his feet up, he often 
cleaned his fingernails with his pocket knife. In long equity hearings, especially 
after dinner, he gave the impression of dozing, an impression dispelled forever 
when a lawyer once deliberately pushed a pile of books to the floor in a desperate 
effort to wake him up. Without opening his eyes, Judge Taylor murmured, “Mr. 
Whitley, do that again and it’ll cost you one hundred dollars.” 

He was a man learned in the law, and although he seemed to take his job casually, 
in reality he kept a firm grip on any proceedings that came before him. Only once 
was Judge Taylor ever seen at a dead standstill in open court, and the 
Cunninghams stopped him. Old Sarum, their stamping grounds, was populated by 
two families separate and apart in the beginning, but unfortunately bearing the 
same name. The Cunninghams married the Coninghams until the spelling of the 
names was academic — academic until a Cunningham disputed a Coningham over 
land titles and took to the law. During a controversy of this character, Jeems 
Cunningham testified that his mother spelled it Cunningham on deeds and things, 
but she was really a Coningham, she was an uncertain speller, a seldom reader, 
and was given to looking far away sometimes when she sat on the front gallery in 
the evening. After nine hours of listening to the eccentricities of Old Sarum’ s 
inhabitants, Judge Taylor threw the case out of court. When asked upon what 
grounds, Judge Taylor said, “Champertous connivance,” and declared he hoped to 
God the litigants were satisfied by each having had their public say. They were. 
That was all they had wanted in the first place. 

Judge Taylor had one interesting habit. He permitted smoking in his courtroom 
but did not himself indulge: sometimes, if one was lucky, one had the privilege of 
watching him put a long dry cigar into his mouth and munch it slowly up. Bit by 
bit the dead cigar would disappear, to reappear some hours later as a flat slick 
mess, its essence extracted and mingling with Judge Taylor’s digestive juices. I 
once asked Atticus how Mrs. Taylor stood to kiss him, but Atticus said they 
didn’t kiss much. 

The witness stand was to the right of Judge Taylor, and when we got to our seats 

Mr. Heck Tate was already on it. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 17 

“Jem,” I said, “are those the Ewells sittin‘ down yonder?” 

“Hush,” said Jem, “Mr. Heck Tate’s testifyhT.” 

Mr. Tate had dressed for the occasion. He wore an ordinary business suit, which 
made him look somehow like every other man: gone were his high boots, lumber 
jacket, and bullet-studded belt. From that moment he ceased to terrify me. He was 
sitting forward in the witness chair, his hands clasped between his knees, listening 
attentively to the circuit solicitor. 

The solicitor, a Mr. Gilmer, was not well known to us. He was from Abbottsville; 
we saw him only when court convened, and that rarely, for court was of no 
special interest to Jem and me. A balding, smooth-faced man, he could have been 
anywhere between forty and sixty. Although his back was to us, we knew he had 
a slight cast in one of his eyes which he used to his advantage: he seemed to be 
looking at a person when he was actually doing nothing of the kind, thus he was 
hell on juries and witnesses. The jury, thinking themselves under close scrutiny, 
paid attention; so did the witnesses, thinking likewise. 

“. . .in your own words, Mr. Tate,” Mr. Gilmer was saying. 

“Well,” said Mr. Tate, touching his glasses and speaking to his knees, “I was 
called — ” 

“Could you say it to the jury, Mr. Tate? Thank you. Who called you?” 

Mr. Tate said, “I was fetched by Bob — by Mr. Bob Ewell yonder, one night — ” 
“What night, sir?” 

Mr. Tate said, “It was the night of November twenty-first. I was just leaving my 
office to go home when B — Mr. Ewell came in, very excited he was, and said get 

out to his house quick, some nigger’ d raped his girl.” 

“Did you go?” 

“Certainly. Got in the car and went out as fast as I could.” 

“And what did you find?” 

“Found her lying on the floor in the middle of the front room, one on the right as 
you go in. She was pretty well beat up, but I heaved her to her feet and she 
washed her face in a bucket in the corner and said she was all right. I asked her 
who hurt her and she said it was Tom Robinson — ” 

Judge Taylor, who had been concentrating on his fingernails, looked up as if he 
were expecting an objection, but Atticus was quiet. 

“ — asked her if he beat her like that, she said yes he had. Asked her if he took 
advantage of her and she said yes he did. So I went down to Robinson’s house 
and brought him back. She identified him as the one, so I took him in. That’s all 
there was to it.” 

“Thank you,” said Mr. Gilmer. 

Judge Taylor said, “Any questions, Atticus?” 

“Yes,” said my father. He was sitting behind his table; his chair was skewed to 
one side, his legs were crossed and one arm was resting on the back of his chair. 

“Did you call a doctor, Sheriff? Did anybody call a doctor?” asked Atticus. 

“No sir,” said Mr. Tate. 

“Didn’t call a doctor?” 

“No sir,” repeated Mr. Tate. 

“Why not?” There was an edge to Atticus ’s voice. 

“Well I can tell you why I didn’t. It wasn’t necessary, Mr. Finch. She was mighty 
banged up. Something sho‘ happened, it was obvious.” 

“But you didn’t call a doctor? While you were there did anyone send for one, 
fetch one, carry her to one?” 

“No sir—” 

Judge Taylor broke in. “He’s answered the question three times, Atticus. He 

didn’t call a doctor.” 

Atticus said, “I just wanted to make sure, Judge,” and the judge smiled. 

Jem’s hand, which was resting on the balcony rail, tightened around it. He drew in 
his breath suddenly. Glancing below, I saw no corresponding reaction, and 
wondered if Jem was trying to be dramatic. Dill was watching peacefully, and so 
was Reverend Sykes beside him. 

“What is it?” I whispered, and got a terse, “Sh-h!” 

“Sheriff,” Atticus was saying, “you say she was mighty banged up. In what way?” 

“Just describe her injuries, Heck.” 

“Well, she was beaten around the head. There was already bruises comhT on her 
arms, and it happened about thirty minutes before — ” 

“How do you know?” 

Mr. Tate grinned. “Sorry, that’s what they said. Anyway, she was pretty bruised 
up when I got there, and she had a black eye comin‘.” 

“Which eye?” 

Mr. Tate blinked and ran his hands through his hair. “Let’s see,” he said softly, 
then he looked at Atticus as if he considered the question childish. “Can’t you 
remember?” Atticus asked. 

Mr. Tate pointed to an invisible person five inches in front of him and said, “Her 

“Wait a minute, Sheriff,” said Atticus. “Was it her left facing you or her left 
looking the same way you were?” 

Mr. Tate said, “Oh yes, that’d make it her right. It was her right eye, Mr. Finch. I 
remember now, she was bunged up on that side of her face. . .” 

Mr. Tate blinked again, as if something had suddenly been made plain to him. 
Then he turned his head and looked around at Tom Robinson. As if by instinct, 
Tom Robinson raised his head. 

Something had been made plain to Atticus also, and it brought him to his feet. 
“Sheriff, please repeat what you said.” 

“It was her right eye, I said.” 

“No. . .” Atticus walked to the court reporter’s desk and bent down to the furiously 
scribbling hand. It stopped, flipped back the shorthand pad, and the court reporter 
said, “‘Mr. Finch. I remember now she was bunged up on that side of the face.’” 

Atticus looked up at Mr. Tate. “Which side again, Heck?” 

“The right side, Mr. Finch, but she had more bruises — you wanta hear about ‘em?” 

Atticus seemed to be bordering on another question, but he thought better of it 
and said, “Yes, what were her other injuries?” As Mr. Tate answered, Atticus 
turned and looked at Tom Robinson as if to say this was something they hadn’t 
bargained for. 

“. . .her arms were bruised, and she showed me her neck. There were definite 
finger marks on her gullet — ” 

“All around her throat? At the back of her neck?” 

“I’d say they were all around, Mr. Finch.” 

“You would?” 

“Yes sir, she had a small throat, anybody could’ a reached around it with — ” 

“Just answer the question yes or no, please, Sheriff,” said Atticus dryly, and Mr. 
Tate fell silent. 

Atticus sat down and nodded to the circuit solicitor, who shook his head at the 
judge, who nodded to Mr. Tate, who rose stiffly and stepped down from the 
witness stand. 

Below us, heads turned, feet scraped the floor, babies were shifted to shoulders, 
and a few children scampered out of the courtroom. The Negroes behind us 
whispered softly among themselves; Dill was asking Reverend Sykes what it was 
all about, but Reverend Sykes said he didn’t know. So far, things were utterly 
dull: nobody had thundered, there were no arguments between opposing counsel, 
there was no drama; a grave disappointment to all present, it seemed. Atticus was 
proceeding amiably, as if he were involved in a title dispute. With his infinite 
capacity for calming turbulent seas, he could make a rape case as dry as a sermon. 
Gone was the terror in my mind of stale whiskey and barnyard smells, of sleepy- 
eyed sullen men, of a husky voice calling in the night, “Mr. Finch? They gone?” 

Our nightmare had gone with daylight, everything would come out all right. 

All the spectators were as relaxed as Judge Taylor, except Jem. His mouth was 
twisted into a purposeful half-grin, and his eyes happy about, and he said 
something about corroborating evidence, which made me sure he was showing off. 

“...Robert E. Lee Ewell!” 

In answer to the clerk’s booming voice, a little bantam cock of a man rose and 
strutted to the stand, the back of his neck reddening at the sound of his name. 
When he turned around to take the oath, we saw that his face was as red as his 
neck. We also saw no resemblance to his namesake. A shock of wispy new- 
washed hair stood up from his forehead; his nose was thin, pointed, and shiny; he 
had no chin to speak of — it seemed to be part of his crepey neck. 

“ — so help me God,” he crowed. 

Every town the size of Maycomb had families like the Ewells. No economic 
fluctuations changed their status — people like the Ewells lived as guests of the 
county in prosperity as well as in the depths of a depression. No truant officers 
could keep their numerous offspring in school; no public health officer could free 
them from congenital defects, various worms, and the diseases indigenous to 
filthy surroundings. 

Maycomb’ s Ewells lived behind the town garbage dump in what was once a 
Negro cabin. The cabin’s plank walls were supplemented with sheets of 
corrugated iron, its roof shingled with tin cans hammered flat, so only its general 
shape suggested its original design: square, with four tiny rooms opening onto a 
shotgun hall, the cabin rested uneasily upon four irregular lumps of limestone. Its 
windows were merely open spaces in the walls, which in the summertime were 
covered with greasy strips of cheesecloth to keep out the varmints that feasted on 
Maycomb’ s refuse. 

The varmints had a lean time of it, for the Ewells gave the dump a thorough 
gleaning every day, and the fruits of their industry (those that were not eaten) 
made the plot of ground around the cabin look like the playhouse of an insane 
child: what passed for a fence was bits of tree-limbs, broomsticks and tool shafts, 
all tipped with rusty hammer-heads, snaggle-toothed rake heads, shovels, axes 
and grubbing hoes, held on with pieces of barbed wire. Enclosed by this barricade 

was a dirty yard containing the remains of a Model-T Ford (on blocks), a 
discarded dentist’s chair, an ancient icebox, plus lesser items: old shoes, worn-out 
table radios, picture frames, and fruit jars, under which scrawny orange chickens 
pecked hopefully. 

One corner of the yard, though, bewildered Maycomb. Against the fence, in a 
line, were six chipped-enamel slop jars holding brilliant red geraniums, cared for 
as tenderly as if they belonged to Miss Maudie Atkinson, had Miss Maudie 
deigned to permit a geranium on her premises. People said they were Mayella 

Nobody was quite sure how many children were on the place. Some people said 
six, others said nine; there were always several dirty-faced ones at the windows 
when anyone passed by. Nobody had occasion to pass by except at Christmas, 
when the churches delivered baskets, and when the mayor of Maycomb asked us 
to please help the garbage collector by dumping our own trees and trash. 

Atticus took us with him last Christmas when he complied with the mayor’ s 
request. A dirt road ran from the highway past the dump, down to a small Negro 
settlement some five hundred yards beyond the Ewells 4 . It was necessary either to 
back out to the highway or go the full length of the road and turn around; most 
people turned around in the Negroes’ front yards. In the frosty December dusk, 
their cabins looked neat and snug with pale blue smoke rising from the chimneys 
and doorways glowing amber from the fires inside. There were delicious smells 
about: chicken, bacon frying crisp as the twilight air. Jem and I detected squirrel 
cooking, but it took an old countryman like Atticus to identify possum and rabbit, 
aromas that vanished when we rode back past the Ewell residence. 

All the little man on the witness stand had that made him any better than his 
nearest neighbors was, that if scrubbed with lye soap in very hot water, his skin 
was white. 

“Mr. Robert Ewell?” asked Mr. Gilmer. 

“That’s m’name, cap’n,” said the witness. 

Mr. Gilmer’s back stiffened a little, and I felt sorry for him. Perhaps I’d better 
explain something now. I’ve heard that lawyers’ children, on seeing their parents 
in court in the heat of argument, get the wrong idea: they think opposing counsel 

to be the personal enemies of their parents, they suffer agonies, and are surprised 
to see them often go out arm-in-arm with their tormenters during the first recess. 
This was not true of Jem and me. We acquired no traumas from watching our 
father win or lose. I’m sorry that I can’t provide any drama in this respect; if I did, 
it would not be true. We could tell, however, when debate became more 
acrimonious than professional, but this was from watching lawyers other than our 
father. I never heard Atticus raise his voice in my life, except to a deaf witness. 
Mr. Gilmer was doing his job, as Atticus was doing his. Besides, Mr. Ewell was 
Mr. Gilmer’s witness, and he had no business being rude to him of all people. 

“Are you the father of Mayella Ewell?” was the next question. 

“Well, if I ain’t I can’t do nothing about it now, her ma’s dead,” was the answer. 

Judge Taylor stirred. He turned slowly in his swivel chair and looked benignly at 
the witness. “Are you the father of Mayella Ewell?” he asked, in a way that made 
the laughter below us stop suddenly. 

“Yes sir,” Mr. Ewell said meekly. 

Judge Taylor went on in tones of good will: “This the first time you’ve ever been 
in court? I don’t recall ever seeing you here.” At the witness’s affirmative nod he 
continued, “Well, let’s get something straight. There will be no more audibly 
obscene speculations on any subject from anybody in this courtroom as long as 
I’m sitting here. Do you understand?” 

Mr. Ewell nodded, but I don’t think he did. Judge Taylor sighed and said, “All 
right, Mr. Gilmer?” 

“Thank you, sir. Mr. Ewell, would you tell us in your own words what happened 
on the evening of November twenty-first, please?” 

Jem grinned and pushed his hair back. Just-in-your-own words was Mr. Gilmer’s 
trademark. We often wondered who else’s words Mr. Gilmer was afraid his 
witness might employ. 

“Well, the night of November twenty-one I was comin‘ in from the woods with a 
load o’kindlin’ and just as I got to the fence I heard Mayella screamhT like a 
stuck hog inside the house — ” 

Here Judge Taylor glanced sharply at the witness and must have decided his 

speculations devoid of evil intent, for he subsided sleepily. 

“What time was it, Mr. Ewell?” 

“Just ‘fore sundown. Well, I was sayin’ Mayella was screamin' fit to beat Jesus 
— ” another glance from the bench silenced Mr. Ewell. 

“Yes? She was screaming?” said Mr. Gilmer. 

Mr. Ewell looked confusedly at the judge. “Well, Mayella was raisin 4 this holy 
racket so I dropped m’load and run as fast as I could but I run into th’ fence, but 
when I got distangled I run up to th 4 window and I seen — ” Mr. Ewell’s face grew 
scarlet. He stood up and pointed his finger at Tom Robinson. 44 — I seen that black 
nigger yonder ruttin’ on my Mayella!” 

So serene was Judge Taylor’s court, that he had few occasions to use his gavel, 
but he hammered fully five minutes. Atticus was on his feet at the bench saying 
something to him, Mr. Heck Tate as first officer of the county stood in the middle 
aisle quelling the packed courtroom. Behind us, there was an angry muffled groan 
from the colored people. 

Reverend Sykes leaned across Dill and me, pulling at Jem’s elbow. “Mr. Jem,” he 
said, “you better take Miss Jean Louise home. Mr. Jem, you hear me?” 

Jem turned his head. “Scout, go home. Dill, you’n‘Scout go home.” 

“You gotta make me first,” I said, remembering Atticus ’s blessed dictum. 

Jem scowled furiously at me, then said to Reverend Sykes, “I think it’s okay, 
Reverend, she doesn’t understand it.” 

I was mortally offended. “I most certainly do, I c’n understand anything you can.” 
“Aw hush. She doesn’t understand it, Reverend, she ain’t nine yet.” 

Reverend Sykes’s black eyes were anxious. “Mr. Finch know you all are here? 
This ain’t fit for Miss Jean Louise or you boys either.” 

Jem shook his head. “He can’t see us this far away. It’s all right, Reverend.” 

I knew Jem would win, because I knew nothing could make him leave now. Dill 
and I were safe, for a while: Atticus could see us from where he was, if he looked. 

As Judge Taylor banged his gavel, Mr. Ewell was sitting smugly in the witness 
chair, surveying his handiwork. With one phrase he had turned happy picknickers 

into a sulky, tense, murmuring crowd, being slowly hypnotized by gavel taps 
lessening in intensity until the only sound in the courtroom was a dim pink-pink- 
pink: the judge might have been rapping the bench with a pencil. 

In possession of his court once more, Judge Taylor leaned back in his chair. He 
looked suddenly weary; his age was showing, and I thought about what Atticus 
had said — he and Mrs. Taylor didn’t kiss much — he must have been nearly 

“There has been a request,” Judge Taylor said, “that this courtroom be cleared of 
spectators, or at least of women and children, a request that will be denied for the 
time being. People generally see what they look for, and hear what they listen for, 
and they have the right to subject their children to it, but I can assure you of one 
thing: you will receive what you see and hear in silence or you will leave this 
courtroom, but you won’t leave it until the whole boiling of you come before me 
on contempt charges. Mr. Ewell, you will keep your testimony within the confines 
of Christian English usage, if that is possible. Proceed, Mr. Gilmer.” 

Mr. Ewell reminded me of a deaf-mute. I was sure he had never heard the words 
Judge Taylor directed at him — his mouth struggled silently with them — but their 
import registered on his face. Smugness faded from it, replaced by a dogged 
earnestness that fooled Judge Taylor not at all: as long as Mr. Ewell was on the 
stand, the judge kept his eyes on him, as if daring him to make a false move. 

Mr. Gilmer and Atticus exchanged glances. Atticus was sitting down again, his 
fist rested on his cheek and we could not see his face. Mr. Gilmer looked rather 
desperate. A question from Judge Taylor made him relax: “Mr. Ewell, did you see 
the defendant having sexual intercourse with your daughter?” 

“Yes, I did.” 

The spectators were quiet, but the defendant said something. Atticus whispered to 
him, and Tom Robinson was silent. 

“You say you were at the window?” asked Mr. Gilmer. 

“Yes sir.” 

“How far is it from the ground?” 

“‘bout three foot.” 

“Did you have a clear view of the room?” 

“Yes sir.” 

“How did the room look?” 

“Well, it was all slung about, like there was a fight.” 

“What did you do when you saw the defendant?” 

“Well, I run around the house to get in, but he run out the front door just ahead of 
me. I sawed who he was, all right. I was too distracted about Mayella to run 
after’im. I run in the house and she was lyin‘ on the floor squallin’ — ” 

“Then what did you do?” 

“Why, I run for Tate quick as I could. I knowed who it was, all right, lived down 
yonder in that nigger-nest, passed the house every day. Jedge, I’ve asked this 
county for fifteen years to clean out that nest down yonder, they’re dangerous to 
live around ‘sides devaluin’ my property — ” 

“Thank you, Mr. Ewell,” said Mr. Gilmer hurriedly. 

The witness made a hasty descent from the stand and ran smack into Atticus, who 
had risen to question him. Judge Taylor permitted the court to laugh. 

“Just a minute, sir,” said Atticus genially. “Could I ask you a question or two?” 

Mr. Ewell backed up into the witness chair, settled himself, and regarded Atticus 
with haughty suspicion, an expression common to Maycomb County witnesses 
when confronted by opposing counsel. 

“Mr. Ewell,” Atticus began, “folks were doing a lot of running that night. Let’s 
see, you say you ran to the house, you ran to the window, you ran inside, you ran 
to Mayella, you ran for Mr. Tate. Did you, during all this running, run for a 

“Wadn’t no need to. I seen what happened.” 

“But there’s one thing I don’t understand,” said Atticus. “Weren’t you concerned 
with Mayella’ s condition?” 

“I most positively was,” said Mr. Ewell. “I seen who done it.” 

“No, I mean her physical condition. Did you not think the nature of her injuries 
warranted immediate medical attention?” 


“Didn’t you think she should have had a doctor, immediately?” 

The witness said he never thought of it, he had never called a doctor to any of 
his’n in his life, and if he had it would have cost him five dollars. “That all?” he 

“Not quite,” said Atticus casually. “Mr. Ewell, you heard the sheriff’s testimony, 
didn’t you?” 

“How’s that?” 

“You were in the courtroom when Mr. Heck Tate was on the stand, weren’t you? 
You heard everything he said, didn’t you?” 

Mr. Ewell considered the matter carefully, and seemed to decide that the question 
was safe. 

“Yes,” he said. 

“Do you agree with his description of Mayella’s injuries?” 

“How’s that?” 

Atticus looked around at Mr. Gilmer and smiled. Mr. Ewell seemed determined 
not to give the defense the time of day. 

“Mr. Tate testified that her right eye was blackened, that she was beaten around 

“Oh yeah,” said the witness. “I hold with everything Tate said.” 

“You do?” asked Atticus mildly. “I just want to make sure.” He went to the court 
reporter, said something, and the reporter entertained us for some minutes by 
reading Mr. Tate’s testimony as if it were stock-market quotations: “...which eye 
her left oh yes that’d make it her right it was her right eye Mr. Finch I remember 
now she was bunged.” He flipped the page. “Up on that side of the face Sheriff 
please repeat what you said it was her right eye I said — ” 

“Thank you, Bert,” said Atticus. “You heard it again, Mr. Ewell. Do you have 
anything to add to it? Do you agree with the sheriff?” 

“I holds with Tate. Her eye was blacked and she was mighty beat up.” 

The little man seemed to have forgotten his previous humiliation from the bench. 

It was becoming evident that he thought Atticus an easy match. He seemed to 
grow ruddy again; his chest swelled, and once more he was a red little rooster. I 
thought he’d burst his shirt at Atticus ’s next question: 

“Mr. Ewell, can you read and write?” 

Mr. Gilmer interrupted. “Objection,” he said. “Can’t see what witness’s literacy 
has to do with the case, irrelevant’n ‘immaterial.” 

Judge Taylor was about to speak but Atticus said, “Judge, if you’ll allow the 
question plus another one you’ll soon see.” 

“All right, let’s see,” said Judge Taylor, “but make sure we see, Atticus. 

Mr. Gilmer seemed as curious as the rest of us as to what bearing the state of Mr. 
Ewell’s education had on the case. 

“I’ll repeat the question,” said Atticus. “Can you read and write?” 

“I most positively can.” 

“Will you write your name and show us?” 

“I most positively will. How do you think I sign my relief checks?” 

Mr. Ewell was endearing himself to his fellow citizens. The whispers and 
chuckles below us probably had to do with what a card he was. 

I was becoming nervous. Atticus seemed to know what he was doing — but it 
seemed to me that he’d gone frog-sticking without a light. Never, never, never, on 
cross-examination ask a witness a question you don’t already know the answer to, 
was a tenet I absorbed with my baby-food. Do it, and you’ll often get an answer 
you don’t want, an answer that might wreck your case. 

Atticus was reaching into the inside pocket of his coat. He drew out an envelope, 
then reached into his vest pocket and unclipped his fountain pen. He moved 
leisurely, and had turned so that he was in full view of the jury. He unscrewed the 
fountain-pen cap and placed it gently on his table. He shook the pen a little, then 
handed it with the envelope to the witness. “Would you write your name for us?” 
he asked. “Clearly now, so the jury can see you do it.” 

Mr. Ewell wrote on the back of the envelope and looked up complacently to see 
Judge Taylor staring at him as if he were some fragrant gardenia in full bloom on 

the witness stand, to see Mr. Gilmer half-sitting, half-standing at his table. The 
jury was watching him, one man was leaning forward with his hands over the 

“What’s so interesthT?” he asked. 

“You’re left-handed, Mr. Ewell,” said Judge Taylor. Mr. Ewell turned angrily to 
the judge and said he didn’t see what his being left-handed had to do with it, that 
he was a Christ-fearing man and Atticus Finch was taking advantage of him. 
Tricking lawyers like Atticus Finch took advantage of him all the time with their 
tricking ways. He had told them what happened, he’d say it again and again — 
which he did. Nothing Atticus asked him after that shook his story, that he’d 
looked through the window, then ran the nigger off, then ran for the sheriff. 
Atticus finally dismissed him. 

Mr. Gilmer asked him one more question. “About your writing with your left 
hand, are you ambidextrous, Mr. Ewell?” 

“I most positively am not, I can use one hand good as the other. One hand good as 
the other,” he added, glaring at the defense table. 

Jem seemed to be having a quiet fit. He was pounding the balcony rail softly, and 
once he whispered, “We’ve got him.” 

I didn’t think so: Atticus was trying to show, it seemed to me, that Mr. Ewell 
could have beaten up Mayella. That much I could follow. If her right eye was 
blacked and she was beaten mostly on the right side of the face, it would tend to 
show that a left-handed person did it. Sherlock Holmes and Jem Finch would 
agree. But Tom Robinson could easily be left-handed, too. Like Mr. Heck Tate, I 
imagined a person facing me, went through a swift mental pantomime, and 
concluded that he might have held her with his right hand and pounded her with 
his left. I looked down at him. His back was to us, but I could see his broad 
shoulders and bull-thick neck. He could easily have done it. I thought Jem was 
counting his chickens. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 18 

But someone was booming again. 

“Mayella Violet Ewell—!” 

A young girl walked to the witness stand. As she raised her hand and swore that 
the evidence she gave would be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth so help her God, she seemed somehow fragile-looking, but when she sat 
facing us in the witness chair she became what she was, a thick-bodied girl 
accustomed to strenuous labor. 

In Maycomb County, it was easy to tell when someone bathed regularly, as 
opposed to yearly lavations: Mr. Ewell had a scalded look; as if an overnight 
soaking had deprived him of protective layers of dirt, his skin appeared to be 
sensitive to the elements. Mayella looked as if she tried to keep clean, and I was 
reminded of the row of red geraniums in the Ewell yard. 

Mr. Gilmer asked Mayella to tell the jury in her own words what happened on the 
evening of November twenty-first of last year, just in her own words, please. 

Mayella sat silently. 

“Where were you at dusk on that evening?” began Mr. Gilmer patiently. 

“On the porch.” 

“Which porch?” 

“Ain’t but one, the front porch.” 

“What were you doing on the porch?” 

“Nothin 4 .” 

Judge Taylor said, “Just tell us what happened. You can do that, can’t you?” 

Mayella stared at him and burst into tears. She covered her mouth with her hands 
and sobbed. Judge Taylor let her cry for a while, then he said, “That’s enough 
now. Don’t be ‘fraid of anybody here, as long as you tell the truth. All this is 
strange to you, I know, but you’ve nothing to be ashamed of and nothing to fear. 

What are you scared of?” 

Mayella said something behind her hands. “What was that?” asked the judge. 
“Him,” she sobbed, pointing at Atticus. 

“Mr. Finch?” 

She nodded vigorously, saying, “Don’t want him doin‘ me like he done Papa, 
tryin’ to make him out lefthanded. . .” 

Judge Taylor scratched his thick white hair. It was plain that he had never been 
confronted with a problem of this kind. “How old are you?” he asked. 

“Nineteen-and-a-half,” Mayella said. 

Judge Taylor cleared his throat and tried unsuccessfully to speak in soothing 
tones. “Mr. Finch has no idea of scaring you,” he growled, “and if he did, I’m 
here to stop him. That’s one thing I’m sitting up here for. Now you’re a big girl, 
so you just sit up straight and tell the — tell us what happened to you. You can do 
that, can’t you?” 

I whispered to Jem, “Has she got good sense?” 

Jem was squinting down at the witness stand. “Can’t tell yet,” he said. “She’s got 
enough sense to get the judge sorry for her, but she might be just — oh, I don’t 

Mollified, Mayella gave Atticus a final terrified glance and said to Mr. Gilmer, 
“Well sir, I was on the porch and — and he came along and, you see, there was this 
old chiffarobe in the yard Papa’d brought in to chop up for kindlhT — Papa told 
me to do it while he was off in the woods but I wadn’t feelin’ strong enough then, 
so he came by-” 

“Who is ‘he’?” 

Mayella pointed to Tom Robinson. “I’ll have to ask you to be more specific, 
please,” said Mr. Gilmer. “The reporter can’t put down gestures very well.” 

“That’n yonder,” she said. “Robinson.” 

“Then what happened?” 

“I said come here, nigger, and bust up this chiffarobe for me, I gotta nickel for 
you. He coulda done it easy enough, he could. So he come in the yard an‘ I went 

in the house to get him the nickel and I turned around an ’fore I knew it he was on 
me. Just run up behind me, he did. He got me round the neck, cussin‘ me an’ 
sayin‘ dirt — I fought’ n’ hollered, but he had me round the neck. He hit me agin 
an‘ agin — ” 

Mr. Gilmer waited for Mayella to collect herself: she had twisted her 
handkerchief into a sweaty rope; when she opened it to wipe her face it was a 
mass of creases from her hot hands. She waited for Mr. Gilmer to ask another 
question, but when he didn’t, she said, “-he chunked me on the floor an‘ choked 
me’n took advantage of me.” 

“Did you scream?” asked Mr. Gilmer. “Did you scream and fight back?” 

“Reckon I did, hollered for all I was worth, kicked and hollered loud as I could.” 
“Then what happened?” 

“I don’t remember too good, but next thing I knew Papa was in the room 
a’ standing over me hollerin‘ who done it, who done it? Then I sorta fainted an’ 
the next thing I knew Mr. Tate was pullin‘ me up off a the floor and leadin’ me to 
the water bucket.” 

Apparently Mayella’ s recital had given her confidence, but it was not her father’s 
brash kind: there was something stealthy about hers, like a steady-eyed cat with a 
twitchy tail. 

“You say you fought him off as hard as you could? Fought him tooth and nail?” 
asked Mr. Gilmer. 

“I positively did,” Mayella echoed her father. 

“You are positive that he took full advantage of you?” 

Mayella’ s face contorted, and I was afraid that she would cry again. Instead, she 
said, “He done what he was after.” 

Mr. Gilmer called attention to the hot day by wiping his head with his hand. 
“That’s all for the time being,” he said pleasantly, “but you stay there. I expect 
big bad Mr. Finch has some questions to ask you.” 

“State will not prejudice the witness against counsel for the defense,” murmured 
Judge Taylor primly, “at least not at this time.” 

Atticus got up grinning but instead of walking to the witness stand, he opened his 

coat and hooked his thumbs in his vest, then he walked slowly across the room to 
the windows. He looked out, but didn’t seem especially interested in what he saw, 
then he turned and strolled back to the witness stand. From long years of 
experience, I could tell he was trying to come to a decision about something. 

“Miss Mayella,” he said, smiling, “I won’t try to scare you for a while, not yet. 
Let’s just get acquainted. How old are you?” 

“Said I was nineteen, said it to the judge yonder.” Mayella jerked her head 
resentfully at the bench. 

“So you did, so you did, ma’am. You’ll have to bear with me, Miss Mayella, I’m 
getting along and can’t remember as well as I used to. I might ask you things 
you’ve already said before, but you’ll give me an answer, won’t you? Good.” 

I could see nothing in Mayella’s expression to justify Atticus’s assumption that he 
had secured her wholehearted cooperation. She was looking at him furiously. 

“Won’t answer a word you say long as you keep on mockin‘ me,” she said. 
“Ma’am?” asked Atticus, startled. 

“Long’s you keep on makin‘ fun o’me.” 

Judge Taylor said, “Mr. Finch is not making fun of you. What’s the matter with 

Mayella looked from under lowered eyelids at Atticus, but she said to the judge: 
“Long’s he keeps on callin‘ me ma’am an sayin’ Miss Mayella. I don’t hafta take 
his sass, I ain’t called upon to take it.” 

Atticus resumed his stroll to the windows and let Judge Taylor handle this one. 
Judge Taylor was not the kind of figure that ever evoked pity, but I did feel a 
pang for him as he tried to explain. “That’s just Mr. Finch’s way,” he told 
Mayella. “We’ve done business in this court for years and years, and Mr. Finch is 
always courteous to everybody. He’s not trying to mock you, he’s trying to be 
polite. That’s just his way.” 

The judge leaned back. “Atticus, let’s get on with these proceedings, and let the 
record show that the witness has not been sassed, her views to the contrary.” 

I wondered if anybody had ever called her “ma’am,” or “Miss Mayella” in her 
life; probably not, as she took offense to routine courtesy. What on earth was her 

life like? I soon found out. 

“You say you’re nineteen,” Atticus resumed. “How many sisters and brothers 
have you?” He walked from the windows back to the stand. 

“Seb’m,” she said, and I wondered if they were all like the specimen I had seen 
the first day I started to school. 

“You the eldest? The oldest?” 


“How long has your mother been dead?” 

“Don’t know — long time.” 

“Did you ever go to school?” 

“Read’ n ‘write good as Papa yonder.” 

Mayella sounded like a Mr. Jingle in a book I had been reading. 

“How long did you go to school?” 

“Two year — three year — dunno.” 

Slowly but surely I began to see the pattern of Atticus ’s questions: from questions 
that Mr. Gilmer did not deem sufficiently irrelevant or immaterial to object to, 
Atticus was quietly building up before the jury a picture of the Ewells’ home life. 
The jury learned the following things: their relief check was far from enough to 
feed the family, and there was strong suspicion that Papa drank it up anyway — he 
sometimes went off in the swamp for days and came home sick; the weather was 
seldom cold enough to require shoes, but when it was, you could make dandy 
ones from strips of old tires; the family hauled its water in buckets from a spring 
that ran out at one end of the dump — they kept the surrounding area clear of trash 
— and it was everybody for himself as far as keeping clean went: if you wanted to 
wash you hauled your own water; the younger children had perpetual colds and 
suffered from chronic ground-itch; there was a lady who came around sometimes 
and asked Mayella why she didn’t stay in school — she wrote down the answer; 
with two members of the family reading and writing, there was no need for the 
rest of them to learn — Papa needed them at home. 

“Miss Mayella,” said Atticus, in spite of himself, “a nineteen-year-old girl like 

you must have friends. Who are your friends?” 

The witness frowned as if puzzled. “Friends?” 

“Yes, don’t you know anyone near your age, or older, or younger? Boys and 
girls? Just ordinary friends?” 

Mayella’s hostility, which had subsided to grudging neutrality, flared again. “You 
makin‘ fun o’ me agin, Mr. Finch?” 

Atticus let her question answer his 

“Do you love your father, Miss Mayella?” was his next. 

“Love him, whatcha mean?” 

“I mean, is he good to you, is he easy to get along with?” 

“He does tollable, ‘cept when — ” 

“Except when?” 

Mayella looked at her father, who was sitting with his chair tipped against the 
railing. He sat up straight and waited for her to answer. 

“Except when nothin 4 ,” said Mayella. “I said he does tollable.” 

Mr. Ewell leaned back again. 

“Except when he’s drinking?” asked Atticus so gently that Mayella nodded. 
“Does he ever go after you?” 

“How you mean?” 

“When he’s — riled, has he ever beaten you?” 

Mayella looked around, down at the court reporter, up at the judge. “Answer the 
question, Miss Mayella,” said Judge Taylor. 

“My paw’s never touched a hair o’my head in my life,” she declared firmly. “He 
never touched me.” 

Atticus’s glasses had slipped a little, and he pushed them up on his nose. “We’ve 
had a good visit, Miss Mayella, and now I guess we’d better get to the case. You 
say you asked Tom Robinson to come chop up a — what was it?” 

“A chiffarobe, a old dresser full of drawers on one side.” 

“Was Tom Robinson well known to you?” 

“Whaddya mean?” 

“I mean did you know who he was, where he lived?” 

Mayella nodded. “I knowed who he was, he passed the house every day.” 

“Was this the first time you asked him to come inside the fence?” 

Mayella jumped slightly at the question. Atticus was making his slow pilgrimage 
to the windows, as he had been doing: he would ask a question, then look out, 
waiting for an answer. He did not see her involuntary jump, but it seemed to me 
that he knew she had moved. He turned around and raised his eyebrows. “Was — ” 
he began again. 

“Yes it was.” 

“Didn’t you ever ask him to come inside the fence before?” 

She was prepared now. “I did not, I certainly did not.” 

“One did not’s enough,” said Atticus serenely. “You never asked him to do odd 
jobs for you before?” 

“I mighta,” conceded Mayella. “There was several niggers around.” 

“Can you remember any other occasions?” 


“All right, now to what happened. You said Tom Robinson was behind you in the 
room when you turned around, that right?” 


“You said he ‘got you around the neck cussing and saying dirt’ — is that right?” 
‘“t’s right.” 

Atticus ’s memory had suddenly become accurate. “You say ‘he caught me and 
choked me and took advantage of me’ — is that right?” 

“That’s what I said.” 

“Do you remember him beating you about the face?” 

The witness hesitated. 

“Y ou seem sure enough that he choked you. All this time you were fighting back, 

remember? You ‘kicked and hollered as loud as you could.’ Do you remember 
him beating you about the face?” 

Mayella was silent. She seemed to be trying to get something clear to herself. I 
thought for a moment she was doing Mr. Heck Tate’s and my trick of pretending 
there was a person in front of us. She glanced at Mr. Gilmer. 

“It’s an easy question, Miss Mayella, so I’ll try again. Do you remember him 
beating you about the face?” Atticus’s voice had lost its comfortableness; he was 
speaking in his arid, detached professional voice. “Do you remember him beating 
you about the face?” 

“No, I don’t recollect if he hit me. I mean yes I do, he hit me.” 

“Was your last sentence your answer?” 

“Huh? Yes, he hit — I just don’t remember, I just don’t remember. . . it all 
happened so quick.” 

Judge Taylor looked sternly at Mayella. “Don’t you cry, young woman — ” he 
began, but Atticus said, “Let her cry if she wants to, Judge. We’ve got all the time 
in the world.” 

Mayella sniffed wrathfully and looked at Atticus. “Til answer any question you 
got — get me up here an‘ mock me, will you? I’ll answer any question you got — ” 

“That’s fine,” said Atticus. “There’re only a few more. Miss Mayella, not to be 
tedious, you’ve testified that the defendant hit you, grabbed you around the neck, 
choked you, and took advantage of you. I want you to be sure you have the right 
man. Will you identify the man who raped you?” 

“I will, that’s him right yonder.” 

Atticus turned to the defendant. “Tom, stand up. Let Miss Mayella have a good 
long look at you. Is this the man, Miss Mayella?” 

Tom Robinson’s powerful shoulders rippled under his thin shirt. He rose to his 
feet and stood with his right hand on the back of his chair. He looked oddly off 
balance, but it was not from the way he was standing. His left arm was fully 
twelve inches shorter than his right, and hung dead at his side. It ended in a small 
shriveled hand, and from as far away as the balcony I could see that it was no use 
to him. 

“Scout,” breathed Jem. “Scout, look! Reverend, he’s crippled!” 

Reverend Sykes leaned across me and whispered to Jem. “JJe got it caught in a 
cotton gin, caught it in Mr. Dolphus Raymond’s cotton gin when he was a boy . . . 
like to bled to death. . . tore all the muscles loose from his bones — ” 

Atticus said, “Is this the man who raped you?” 

“It most certainly is.” 

Atticus ’s next question was one word long. “How?” 

Mayella was raging. “I don’t know how he done it, but he done it — I said it all 
happened so fast I — ” 

“Now let’s consider this calmly — ” began Atticus, but Mr. Gilmer interrupted 
with an objection: he was not irrelevant or immaterial, but Atticus was 
browbeating the witness. 

Judge Taylor laughed outright. “Oh sit down, Horace, he’s doing nothing of the 
sort. If anything, the witness’s browbeating Atticus.” 

Judge Taylor was the only person in the courtroom who laughed. Even the babies 
were still, and I suddenly wondered if they had been smothered at their mothers’ 

“Now,” said Atticus, “Miss Mayella, you’ve testified that the defendant choked 
and beat you — you didn’t say that he sneaked up behind you and knocked you 
cold, but you turned around and there he was — ” Atticus was back behind his 
table, and he emphasized his words by tapping his knuckles on it. “ — do you wish 
to reconsider any of your testimony?” 

“You want me to say something that didn’t happen?” 

“No ma’am, I want you to say something that did happen. Tell us once more, 
please, what happened?” 

“I told’ja what happened.” 

“You testified that you turned around and there he was. He choked you then?” 

“Then he released your throat and hit you?” 

“I said he did.” 

“He blacked your left eye with his right fist?” 

“I ducked and it — it glanced, that’s what it did. I ducked and it glanced off.” 
Mayella had finally seen the light. 

“You’re becoming suddenly clear on this point. A while ago you couldn’t 
remember too well, could you?” 

“I said he hit me.” 

“All right. He choked you, he hit you, then he raped you, that right?” 

“It most certainly is.” 

“You’re a strong girl, what were you doing all the time, just standing there?” 

“I told’ja I hollered’ n ‘kicked’ n’ fought — ” 

Atticus reached up and took off his glasses, turned his good right eye to the 
witness, and rained questions on her. Judge Taylor said, “One question at a time, 
Atticus. Give the witness a chance to answer.” 

“All right, why didn’t you run?” 

“I tried...” 

“Tried to? What kept you from it?” 

“I — he slung me down. That’s what he did, he slung me down’n got on top of 

“You were screaming all this time?” 

“I certainly was.” 

“Then why didn’t the other children hear you? Where were they? At the dump?” 
“Where were they?” 

No answer. 

“Why didn’t your screams make them come running? The dump’s closer than the 
woods, isn’t it?” 

No answer. 

“Or didn’t you scream until you saw your father in the window? You didn’t think 
to scream until then, did you?” 

No answer. 

“Did you scream first at your father instead of at Tom Robinson? Was that it?” 

No answer. 

“Who beat you up? Tom Robinson or your father?” 

No answer. 

“What did your father see in the window, the crime of rape or the best defense to 
it? Why don’t you tell the truth, child, didn’t Bob Ewell beat you up?” 

When Atticus turned away from Mayella he looked like his stomach hurt, but 
Mayella’s face was a mixture of terror and fury. Atticus sat down wearily and 
polished his glasses with his handkerchief. 

Suddenly Mayella became articulate. “I got somethin 4 to say,” she said. 

Atticus raised his head. “Do you want to tell us what happened?” 

But she did not hear the compassion in his invitation. “I got somethin 4 to say an’ 
then I ain’t gonna say no more. That nigger yonder took advantage of me an 4 if 
you fine fancy gentlemen don’t wanta do nothin’ about it then you’re all yellow 
stinkin 4 cowards, stinkin’ cowards, the lot of you. Your fancy airs don’t come to 
nothin 4 — your ma’amin’ and Miss Mayellerin 4 don’t come to nothin’, Mr. Finch 

Then she burst into real tears. Her shoulders shook with angry sobs. She was as 
good as her word. She answered no more questions, even when Mr. Gilmer tried 
to get her back on the track. I guess if she hadn’t been so poor and ignorant, Judge 
Taylor would have put her under the jail for the contempt she had shown 
everybody in the courtroom. Somehow, Atticus had hit her hard in a way that was 
not clear to me, but it gave him no pleasure to do so. He sat with his head down, 
and I never saw anybody glare at anyone with the hatred Mayella showed when 
she left the stand and walked by Atticus ’s table. 

When Mr. Gilmer told Judge Taylor that the state rested, Judge Taylor said, “It’s 
time we all did. We’ll take ten minutes.” 

Atticus and Mr. Gilmer met in front of the bench and whispered, then they left the 
courtroom by a door behind the witness stand, which was a signal for us all to 
stretch. I discovered that I had been sitting on the edge of the long bench, and I 
was somewhat numb. Jem got up and yawned, Dill did likewise, and Reverend 

Sykes wiped his face on his hat. The temperature was an easy ninety, he said. 

Mr. Braxton Underwood, who had been sitting quietly in a chair reserved for the 
Press, soaking up testimony with his sponge of a brain, allowed his bitter eyes to 
rove over the colored balcony, and they met mine. He gave a snort and looked 

“Jem,” I said, “Mr. Underwood’s seen us.” 

“That’s okay. He won’t tell Atticus, he’ll just put it on the social side of the 
Tribune .” Jem turned back to Dill, explaining, I suppose, the finer points of the 
trial to him, but I wondered what they were. There had been no lengthy debates 
between Atticus and Mr. Gilmer on any points; Mr. Gilmer seemed to be 
prosecuting almost reluctantly; witnesses had been led by the nose as asses are, 
with few objections. But Atticus had once told us that in Judge Taylor’s court any 
lawyer who was a strict constructionist on evidence usually wound up receiving 
strict instructions from the bench. He distilled this for me to mean that Judge 
Taylor might look lazy and operate in his sleep, but he was seldom reversed, and 
that was the proof of the pudding. Atticus said he was a good judge. 

Presently Judge Taylor returned and climbed into his swivel chair. He took a cigar 
from his vest pocket and examined it thoughtfully. I punched Dill. Having passed 
the judge’s inspection, the cigar suffered a vicious bite. “We come down 
sometimes to watch him,” I explained. “It’s gonna take him the rest of the 
afternoon, now. You watch.” Unaware of public scrutiny from above, Judge 
Taylor disposed of the severed end by propelling it expertly to his lips and saying, 
“Fhluck!” He hit a spittoon so squarely we could hear it slosh. “Bet he was hell 
with a spitball,” murmured Dill. 

As a rule, a recess meant a general exodus, but today people weren’t moving. 

Even the Idlers who had failed to shame younger men from their seats had 
remained standing along the walls. I guess Mr. Heck Tate had reserved the county 
toilet for court officials. 

Atticus and Mr. Gilmer returned, and Judge Taylor looked at his watch. “It’s 
gettin‘ on to four,” he said, which was intriguing, as the courthouse clock must 
have struck the hour at least twice. I had not heard it or felt its vibrations. 

“Shall we try to wind up this afternoon?” asked Judge Taylor. “How ‘bout it, 


“I think we can,” said Atticus. 
“How many witnesses you got?” 

“Well, call him.” 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 19 

Thomas Robinson reached around, ran his fingers under his left arm and lifted it. 
He guided his arm to the Bible and his rubber-like left hand sought contact with 
the black binding. As he raised his right hand, the useless one slipped off the 
Bible and hit the clerk’s table. He was trying again when Judge Taylor growled, 
“That’ll do, Tom.” Tom took the oath and stepped into the witness chair. Atticus 
very quickly induced him to tell us: 

Tom was twenty-five years of age; he was married with three children; he had 
been in trouble with the law before: he once received thirty days for disorderly 

“It must have been disorderly,” said Atticus. “What did it consist of?” 

“Got in a fight with another man, he tried to cut me.” 

“Did he succeed?” 

“Yes suh, a little, not enough to hurt. You see, I — ” Tom moved his left shoulder. 
“Yes,” said Atticus. “You were both convicted?” 

“Yes suh, I had to serve ‘cause I couldn’t pay the fine. Other fellow paid his’n.” 

Dill leaned across me and asked Jem what Atticus was doing. Jem said Atticus 
was showing the jury that Tom had nothing to hide. 

“Were you acquainted with Mayella Violet Ewell?” asked Atticus. 

“Yes suh, I had to pass her place goin‘ to and from the field every day.” 

“Whose field?” 

“I picks for Mr. Link Deas.” 

“Were you picking cotton in November?” 

“No suh, I works in his yard fall an‘ wintertime. I works pretty steady for him all 
year round, he’s got a lot of pecan trees’n things.” 

“Y ou say you had to pass the Ewell place to get to and from work. Is there any 
other way to go?” 

“No suh, none’s I know of.” 

“Tom, did she ever speak to you?” 

“Why, yes suh, I’d tip m’hat when I’d go by, and one day she asked me to come 
inside the fence and bust up a chiffarobe for her.” 

“When did she ask you to chop up the — the chiffarobe?” 

“Mr. Finch, it was way last spring. I remember it because it was choppin‘ time 
and I had my hoe with me. I said I didn’t have nothin’ but this hoe, but she said 
she had a hatchet. She give me the hatchet and I broke up the chiffarobe. She said, 
‘I reckon I’ll hafta give you a nickel, won’t I?’ an‘ I said, ’No ma’am, there ain’t 
no charge/ Then I went home. Mr. Finch, that was way last spring, way over a 
year ago.” 

“Did you ever go on the place again?” 

“Yes suh.” 


“Well, I went lots of times.” 

Judge Taylor instinctively reached for his gavel, but let his hand fall. The murmur 
below us died without his help. 

“Under what circumstances?” 

“Please, suh?” 

“Why did you go inside the fence lots of times?” 

Tom Robinson’s forehead relaxed. “She’d call me in, suh. Seemed like every time 

I passed by yonder she’d have some little somethin 4 for me to do — choppin’ 
kindlin % totin’ water for her. She watered them red flowers every day — ” 

“Were you paid for your services?” 

“No suh, not after she offered me a nickel the first time. I was glad to do it, Mr. 
Ewell didn’t seem to help her none, and neither did the chillun, and I knowed she 
didn’t have no nickels to spare.” 

“Where were the other children?” 

“They was always around, all over the place. They’d watch me work, some of 
‘em, some of ’em’d set in the window.” 

“Would Miss Mayella talk to you?” 

“Yes sir, she talked to me.” 

As Tom Robinson gave his testimony, it came to me that Mayella Ewell must 
have been the loneliest person in the world. She was even lonelier than Boo 
Radley, who had not been out of the house in twenty-five years. When Atticus 
asked had she any friends, she seemed not to know what he meant, then she 
thought he was making fun of her. She was as sad, I thought, as what Jem called a 
mixed child: white people wouldn’t have anything to do with her because she 
lived among pigs; Negroes wouldn’t have anything to do with her because she 
was white. She couldn’t live like Mr. Dolphus Raymond, who preferred the 
company of Negroes, because she didn’t own a riverbank and she wasn’t from a 
fine old family. Nobody said, “That’s just their way,” about the Ewells. Maycomb 
gave them Christmas baskets, welfare money, and the back of its hand. Tom 
Robinson was probably the only person who was ever decent to her. But she said 
he took advantage of her, and when she stood up she looked at him as if he were 
dirt beneath her feet. 

“Did you ever,” Atticus interrupted my meditations, “at any time, go on the Ewell 
property — did you ever set foot on the Ewell property without an express 
invitation from one of them?” 

“No suh, Mr. Finch, I never did. I wouldn’t do that, suh.” 

Atticus sometimes said that one way to tell whether a witness was lying or telling 
the truth was to listen rather than watch: I applied his test — Tom denied it three 

times in one breath, but quietly, with no hint of whining in his voice, and I found 
myself believing him in spite of his protesting too much. He seemed to be a 
respectable Negro, and a respectable Negro would never go up into somebody’s 
yard of his own volition. 

“Tom, what happened to you on the evening of November twenty-first of last 

Below us, the spectators drew a collective breath and leaned forward. Behind us, 
the Negroes did the same. 

Tom was a black- velvet Negro, not shiny, but soft black velvet. The whites of his 
eyes shone in his face, and when he spoke we saw flashes of his teeth. If he had 
been whole, he would have been a fine specimen of a man. 

“Mr. Finch,” he said, “I was goin‘ home as usual that evenin’, an‘ when I passed 
the Ewell place Miss Mayella were on the porch, like she said she were. It seemed 
real quiet like, an’ I didn’t quite know why. I was studynT why, just passin’ by, 
when she says for me to come there and help her a minute. Well, I went inside the 
fence an‘ looked around for some kindlin’ to work on, but I didn’t see none, and 
she says, ‘Naw, I got somethin’ for you to do in the house. Th‘ old door’s off its 
hinges an’ fall’s comin‘ on pretty fast.’ I said you got a screwdriver, Miss 
Mayella? She said she sho‘ had. Well, I went up the steps an’ she motioned me to 
come inside, and I went in the front room an‘ looked at the door. I said Miss 
Mayella, this door look all right. I pulled it back’n forth and those hinges was all 
right. Then she shet the door in my face. Mr. Finch, I was wonderin’ why it was 
so quiet like, an‘ it come to me that there weren’t a chile on the place, not a one of 
’em, and I said Miss Mayella, where the chillun?” 

Tom’s black velvet skin had begun to shine, and he ran his hand over his face. 

“I say where the chillun?” he continued, “an‘ she says — she was laughin’, sort of 
— she says they all gone to town to get ice creams. She says, ‘took me a slap year 
to save seb’m nickels, but I done it. They all gone to town.’” 

Tom’s discomfort was not from the humidity. “What did you say then, Tom?” 
asked Atticus. 

“I said somethin 4 like, why Miss Mayella, that’s right smart o’you to treat ’em. 
An‘ she said, ’You think so?‘ I don’t think she understood what I was thinkin’ — I 

meant it was smart of her to save like that, an‘ nice of her to treat em.” 

“I understand you, Tom. Go on,” said Atticus. 

“Well, I said I best be goin‘, I couldn’t do nothin’ for her, an‘ she says oh yes I 
could, an’ I ask her what, and she says to just step on that chair yonder an‘ git that 
box down from on top of the chiffarobe.” 

“Not the same chiffarobe you busted up?” asked Atticus. 

The witness smiled. “Naw suh, another one. Most as tall as the room. So I done 
what she told me, an‘ I was just reachin’ when the next thing I knows she — she’d 
grabbed me round the legs, grabbed me round th‘ legs, Mr. Finch. She scared me 
so bad I hopped down an’ turned the chair over — that was the only thing, only 
furniture, ‘sturbed in that room, Mr. Finch, when I left it. I swear ’fore God.” 

“What happened after you turned the chair over?” 

Tom Robinson had come to a dead stop. He glanced at Atticus, then at the jury, 
then at Mr. Underwood sitting across the room. 

“Tom, you’re sworn to tell the whole truth. Will you tell it?” 

Tom ran his hand nervously over his mouth. 

“What happened after that?” 

“Answer the question,” said Judge Taylor. One-third of his cigar had vanished. 

“Mr. Finch, I got down offa that chair an‘ turned around an’ she sorta jumped on 

“Jumped on you? Violently?” 

“No suh, she — she hugged me. She hugged me round the waist.” 

This time Judge Taylor’s gavel came down with a bang, and as it did the overhead 
lights went on in the courtroom. Darkness had not come, but the afternoon sun 
had left the windows. Judge Taylor quickly restored order. 

“Then what did she do?” 

The witness swallowed hard. “She reached up an‘ kissed me ’side of th‘ face. She 
says she never kissed a grown man before an’ she might as well kiss a nigger. She 
says what her papa do to her don’t count. She says, ‘Kiss me back, nigger.’ I say 
Miss Mayella lemme outa here an‘ tried to run but she got her back to the door 

an’ I’da had to push her. I didn’t wanta harm her, Mr. Finch, an‘ I say lemme 
pass, but just when I say it Mr. Ewell yonder hollered through th’ window.” 

“What did he say?” 

Tom Robinson swallowed again, and his eyes widened. “Somethin 4 not fittin’ to 
say — not fittin 4 for these folks ’n chillun to hear — ” 

“What did he say, Tom? You must tell the jury what he said.” 

Tom Robinson shut his eyes tight. “He says you goddamn whore, I’ll kill ya.” 
“Then what happened?” 

“Mr. Finch, I was runnin 4 so fast I didn’t know what happened.” 

“Tom, did you rape Mayella Ewell?” 

“I did not, suh.” 

“Did you harm her in any way?” 

“I did not, suh.” 

“Did you resist her advances?” 

“Mr. Finch, I tried. I tried to ‘thout bein’ ugly to her. I didn’t wanta be ugly, I 
didn’t wanta push her or nothin 4 .” 

It occurred to me that in their own way, Tom Robinson’s manners were as good 
as Atticus’s. Until my father explained it to me later, I did not understand the 
subtlety of Tom’s predicament: he would not have dared strike a white woman 
under any circumstances and expect to live long, so he took the first opportunity 
to run — a sure sign of guilt. 

“Tom, go back once more to Mr. Ewell,” said Atticus. “Did he say anything to 

“Not anything, suh. He mighta said somethin 4 , but I weren’t there — ” 

“That’ll do,” Atticus cut in sharply. “What you did hear, who was he talking to?” 
“Mr. Finch, he were talkin' and lookin’ at Miss Mayella.” 

“Then you ran?” 

“I sho 4 did, suh.” 

“Why did you run?” 

“I was scared, suh.” 

“Why were you scared?” 

“Mr. Finch, if you was a nigger like me, you’d be scared, too.” 

Atticus sat down. Mr. Gilmer was making his way to the witness stand, but before 
he got there Mr. Link Deas rose from the audience and announced: 

“I just want the whole lot of you to know one thing right now. That boy’s worked 
for me eight years an‘ I ain’t had a speck o’trouble outa him. Not a speck.” 

“ Shut your mouth, sir!” Judge Taylor was wide awake and roaring. He was also 
pink in the face. His speech was miraculously unimpaired by his cigar. “Link 
Deas,” he yelled, “if you have anything you want to say you can say it under oath 
and at the proper time, but until then you get out of this room, you hear me? Get 
out of this room, sir, you hear me? I’ll be damned if I’ll listen to this case again!” 

Judge Taylor looked daggers at Atticus, as if daring him to speak, but Atticus had 
ducked his head and was laughing into his lap. I remembered something he had 
said about Judge Taylor’s ex cathedra remarks sometimes exceeding his duty, but 
that few lawyers ever did anything about them. I looked at Jem, but Jem shook his 
head. “It ain’t like one of the jurymen got up and started talking,” he said. “I think 
it’d be different then. Mr. Link was just disturbin 4 the peace or something.” 

Judge Taylor told the reporter to expunge anything he happened to have written 
down after Mr. Finch if you were a nigger like me you’d be scared too, and told 
the jury to disregard the interruption. He looked suspiciously down the middle 
aisle and waited, I suppose, for Mr. Link Deas to effect total departure. Then he 
said, “Go ahead, Mr. Gilmer.” 

“You were given thirty days once for disorderly conduct, Robinson?” asked Mr. 

“Yes suh.” 

“What’d the nigger look like when you got through with him?” 

“He beat me, Mr. Gilmer.” 

“Yes, but you were convicted, weren’t you?” 

Atticus raised his head. “It was a misdemeanor and it’s in the record, Judge.” I 
thought he sounded tired. 

“Witness’ll answer, though,” said Judge Taylor, just as wearily. 

“Yes suh, I got thirty days.” 

I knew that Mr. Gilmer would sincerely tell the jury that anyone who was 
convicted of disorderly conduct could easily have had it in his heart to take 
advantage of Mayella Ewell, that was the only reason he cared. Reasons like that 

“Robinson, you’re pretty good at busting up chiffarobes and kindling with one 
hand, aren’t you?” 

“Yes, suh, I reckon so.” 

“Strong enough to choke the breath out of a woman and sling her to the floor?” 

“I never done that, suh.” 

“But you are strong enough to?” 

“I reckon so, suh.” 

“Had your eye on her a long time, hadn’t you, boy?” 

“No suh, I never looked at her.” 

“Then you were mighty polite to do all that chopping and hauling for her, weren’t 
you, boy?” 

“I was just tryin‘ to help her out, suh.” 

“That was mighty generous of you, you had chores at home after your regular 
work, didn’t you?” 

“Yes suh.” 

“Why didn’t you do them instead of Miss Ewell’s?” 

“I done ‘em both, suh.” 

“You must have been pretty busy. Why?” 

“Why what, suh?” 

“Why were you so anxious to do that woman’s chores?” 

Tom Robinson hesitated, searching for an answer. “Looked like she didn’t have 
nobody to help her, like I says — ” 

“With Mr. Ewell and seven children on the place, boy?” 

“Well, I says it looked like they never help her none — ” 

“You did all this chopping and work from sheer goodness, boy?” 

“Tried to help her, I says.” 

Mr. Gilmer smiled grimly at the jury. “You’re a mighty good fellow, it seems — 
did all this for not one penny?” 

“Yes, suh. I felt right sorry for her, she seemed to try more’n the rest of ‘em — ” 

“You felt sorry for her, you felt sorry for he?” Mr. Gilmer seemed ready to rise to 
the ceiling. 

The witness realized his mistake and shifted uncomfortably in the chair. But the 
damage was done. Below us, nobody liked Tom Robinson’s answer. Mr. Gilmer 
paused a long time to let it sink in. 

“Now you went by the house as usual, last November twenty-first,” he said, “and 
she asked you to come in and bust up a chiffarobe?” 

“No suh.” 

“Do you deny that you went by the house?” 

“No suh — she said she had somethin 4 for me to do inside the house — ” 

“She says she asked you to bust up a chiffarobe, is that right?” 

“No suh, it ain’t.” 

“Then you say she’s lying, boy?” 

Atticus was on his feet, but Tom Robinson didn’t need him. “I don’t say she’s 
lyin‘, Mr. Gilmer, I say she’s mistaken in her mind.” 

To the next ten questions, as Mr. Gilmer reviewed Mayella’s version of events, 
the witness’s steady answer was that she was mistaken in her mind. 

“Didn’t Mr. Ewell run you off the place, boy?” 

“No suh, I don’t think he did.” 

“Don’t think, what do you mean?” 

“I mean I didn’t stay long enough for him to run me off.” 

“You’re very candid about this, why did you run so fast?” 

“I says I was scared, suh.” 

“If you had a clear conscience, why were you scared?” 

“Like I says before, it weren’t safe for any nigger to be in a — fix like that.” 

“But you weren’t in a fix — you testified that you were resisting Miss Ewell. Were 
you so scared that she’d hurt you, you ran, a big buck like you?” 

“No suh, I’s scared I’d be in court, just like I am now.” 

“Scared of arrest, scared you’d have to face up to what you did?” 

“No suh, scared I’d hafta face up to what I didn’t do.” 

“Are you being impudent to me, boy?” 

“No suh, I didn’t go to be.” 

This was as much as I heard of Mr. Gilmer’s cross-examination, because Jem 
made me take Dill out. For some reason Dill had started crying and couldn’t stop; 
quietly at first, then his sobs were heard by several people in the balcony. Jem 
said if I didn’t go with him he’d make me, and Reverend Sykes said I’d better go, 
so I went. Dill had seemed to be all right that day, nothing wrong with him, but I 
guessed he hadn’t fully recovered from running away. 

“Ain’t you feeling good?” I asked, when we reached the bottom of the stairs. 

Dill tried to pull himself together as we ran down the south steps. Mr. Link Deas 
was a lonely figure on the top step. “Anything happenin‘, Scout?” he asked as we 
went by. “No sir,” I answered over my shoulder. “Dill here, he’s sick.” 

“Come on out under the trees,” I said. “Heat got you, I expect.” We chose the 
fattest live oak and we sat under it. 

“It was just him I couldn’t stand,” Dill said. 

“Who, Tom?” 

“That old Mr. Gilmer doin‘ him thataway, talking so hateful to him — ” 

“Dill, that’s his job. Why, if we didn’t have prosecutors — well, we couldn’t have 
defense attorneys, I reckon.” 

Dill exhaled patiently. “I know all that, Scout. It was the way he said it made me 
sick, plain sick.” 

“He’s supposed to act that way, Dill, he was cross — ” 


“He didn’t act that way when — 

“Dill, those were his own witnesses.” 

“Well, Mr. Finch didn’t act that way to Mayella and old man Ewell when he cross- 
examined them. The way that man called him ‘boy’ all the time an‘ sneered at 
him, an’ looked around at the jury every time he answered — ” 

“Well, Dill, after all he’s just a Negro.” 

“I don’t care one speck. It ain’t right, somehow it ain’t right to do ‘em that way. 
Hasn’t anybody got any business talkin’ like that — it just makes me sick.” 

“That’s just Mr. Gilmer’s way, Dill, he does ‘em all that way. You’ve never seen 
him get good’n down on one yet. Why, when — well, today Mr. Gilmer seemed to 
me like he wasn’t half trying. They do ’em all that way, most lawyers, I mean.” 

“Mr. Finch doesn’t.” 

“He’s not an example, Dill, he’s — ” I was trying to grope in my memory for a 
sharp phrase of Miss Maudie Atkinson’s. I had it: “He’s the same in the 
courtroom as he is on the public streets.” 

“That’s not what I mean,” said Dill. 

“I know what you mean, boy,” said a voice behind us. We thought it came from 
the tree-trunk, but it belonged to Mr. Dolphus Raymond. He peered around the 
trunk at us. “You aren’t thin-hided, it just makes you sick, doesn’t it?” 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 20 

“Come on round here, son, I got something that’ll settle your stomach.” 

As Mr. Dolphus Raymond was an evil man I accepted his invitation reluctantly, 
but I followed Dill. Somehow, I didn’t think Atticus would like it if we became 
friendly with Mr. Raymond, and I knew Aunt Alexandra wouldn’t. 

“Here,” he said, offering Dill his paper sack with straws in it. “Take a good sip, 

it’ll quieten you.” 

Dill sucked on the straws, smiled, and pulled at length. 

“Hee hee,” said Mr. Raymond, evidently taking delight in corrupting a child. 

“Dill, you watch out, now,” I warned. 

Dill released the straws and grinned. “Scout, it’s nothing but Coca-Cola.” 

Mr. Raymond sat up against the tree-trunk. He had been lying on the grass. “You 
little folks won’t tell on me now, will you? It’d ruin my reputation if you did.” 

“You mean all you drink in that sack’s Coca-Cola? Just plain Coca-Cola?” 

“Yes ma’am,” Mr. Raymond nodded. I liked his smell: it was of leather, horses, 
cottonseed. He wore the only English riding boots I had ever seen. “That’s all I 
drink, most of the time.” 

“Then you just pretend you’re half — ? I beg your pardon, sir,” I caught myself. “I 
didn’t mean to be — ” 

Mr. Raymond chuckled, not at all offended, and I tried to frame a discreet 
question: “Why do you do like you do?” 

“Wh — oh yes, you mean why do I pretend? Well, it’s very simple,” he said. 
“Some folks don’t — like the way I live. Now I could say the hell with ‘em, I don’t 
care if they don’t like it. I do say I don’t care if they don’t like it, right enough — 
but I don’t say the hell with ’em, see?” 

Dill and I said, “No sir.” 

“I try to give ‘em a reason, you see. It helps folks if they can latch onto a reason. 
When I come to town, which is seldom, if I weave a little and drink out of this 
sack, folks can say Dolphus Raymond’s in the clutches of whiskey — that’s why 
he won’t change his ways. He can’t help himself, that’s why he lives the way he 

“That ain’t honest, Mr. Raymond, making yourself out badder’n you are already 

“It ain’t honest but it’s mighty helpful to folks. Secretly, Miss Finch, I’m not 
much of a drinker, but you see they could never, never understand that I live like I 
do because that’s the way I want to live.” 

I had a feeling that I shouldn’t be here listening to this sinful man who had mixed 
children and didn’t care who knew it, but he was fascinating. I had never 
encountered a being who deliberately perpetrated fraud against himself. But why 
had he entrusted us with his deepest secret? I asked him why. 

“Because you’re children and you can understand it,” he said, “and because I 
heard that one — ” 

He jerked his head at Dill: “Things haven’t caught up with that one’s instinct yet. 
Let him get a little older and he won’t get sick and cry. Maybe things’ll strike him 
as being — not quite right, say, but he won’t cry, not when he gets a few years on 

“Cry about what, Mr. Raymond?” Dill’s maleness was beginning to assert itself. 

“Cry about the simple hell people give other people — without even thinking. Cry 
about the hell white people give colored folks, without even stopping to think that 
they’re people, too.” 

“Atticus says cheatin‘ a colored man is ten times worse than cheatin’ a white 
man,” I muttered. “Says it’s the worst thing you can do.” 

Mr. Raymond said, “I don’t reckon it’s — Miss Jean Louise, you don’t know your 
pa’s not a run-of-the-mill man, it’ll take a few years for that to sink in — you 
haven’t seen enough of the world yet. You haven’t even seen this town, but all 
you gotta do is step back inside the courthouse.” 

Which reminded me that we were missing nearly all of Mr. Gilmer’s cross- 
examination. I looked at the sun, and it was dropping fast behind the store-tops on 
the west side of the square. Between two fires, I could not decide which I wanted 
to jump into: Mr. Raymond or the 5th Judicial Circuit Court. “C’mon, Dill,” I 
said. “You all right, now?” 

“Yeah. Glad t’ve metcha, Mr. Raymond, and thanks for the drink, it was mighty 

We raced back to the courthouse, up the steps, up two flights of stairs, and edged 
our way along the balcony rail. Reverend Sykes had saved our seats. 

The courtroom was still, and again I wondered where the babies were. Judge 
Taylor’s cigar was a brown speck in the center of his mouth; Mr. Gilmer was 

writing on one of the yellow pads on his table, trying to outdo the court reporter, 
whose hand was jerking rapidly. “Shoot,” I muttered, “we missed it.” 

Atticus was halfway through his speech to the jury. He had evidently pulled some 
papers from his briefcase that rested beside his chair, because they were on his 
table. Tom Robinson was toying with them. 

“. . .absence of any corroborative evidence, this man was indicted on a capital 
charge and is now on trial for his life. . .” 

I punched Jem. “How long’s he been at it?” 

“He’s just gone over the evidence,” Jem whispered, “and we’re gonna win, Scout. 
I don’t see how we can’t. He’s been at it ‘bout five minutes. He made it as plain 
and easy as — well, as I’da explained it to you. You could’ve understood it, even.” 

“Did Mr. Gilmer—?” 

“Sh-h. Nothing new, just the usual. Hush now.” 

We looked down again. Atticus was speaking easily, with the kind of detachment 
he used when he dictated a letter. He walked slowly up and down in front of the 
jury, and the jury seemed to be attentive: their heads were up, and they followed 
Atticus ’s route with what seemed to be appreciation. I guess it was because 
Atticus wasn’t a thunderer. 

Atticus paused, then he did something he didn’t ordinarily do. He unhitched his 
watch and chain and placed them on the table, saying, “With the court’s 
permission — ” 

Judge Taylor nodded, and then Atticus did something I never saw him do before 
or since, in public or in private: he unbuttoned his vest, unbuttoned his collar, 
loosened his tie, and took off his coat. He never loosened a scrap of his clothing 
until he undressed at bedtime, and to Jem and me, this was the equivalent of him 
standing before us stark naked. We exchanged horrified glances. 

Atticus put his hands in his pockets, and as he returned to the jury, I saw his gold 
collar button and the tips of his pen and pencil winking in the light. 

“Gentlemen,” he said. Jem and I again looked at each other: Atticus might have 
said, “Scout.” His voice had lost its aridity, its detachment, and he was talking to 
the jury as if they were folks on the post office corner. 

“Gentlemen,” he was saying, “I shall be brief, but I would like to use my 
remaining time with you to remind you that this case is not a difficult one, it 
requires no minute sifting of complicated facts, but it does require you to be sure 
beyond all reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the defendant. To begin with, this 
case should never have come to trial. This case is as simple as black and white. 

“The state has not produced one iota of medical evidence to the effect that the 
crime Tom Robinson is charged with ever took place. It has relied instead upon 
the testimony of two witnesses whose evidence has not only been called into 
serious question on cross-examination, but has been flatly contradicted by the 
defendant. The defendant is not guilty, but somebody in this courtroom is. 

“I have nothing but pity in my heart for the chief witness for the state, but my pity 
does not extend so far as to her putting a man’s life at stake, which she has done 
in an effort to get rid of her own guilt. 

“I say guilt, gentlemen, because it was guilt that motivated her. She has 
committed no crime, she has merely broken a rigid and time-honored code of our 
society, a code so severe that whoever breaks it is hounded from our midst as 
unfit to live with. She is the victim of cruel poverty and ignorance, but I cannot 
pity her: she is white. She knew full well the enormity of her offense, but because 
her desires were stronger than the code she was breaking, she persisted in 
breaking it. She persisted, and her subsequent reaction is something that all of us 
have known at one time or another. She did something every child has done — she 
tried to put the evidence of her offense away from her. But in this case she was no 
child hiding stolen contraband: she struck out at her victim — of necessity she 
must put him away from her — he must be removed from her presence, from this 
world. She must destroy the evidence of her offense. 

“What was the evidence of her offense? Tom Robinson, a human being. She must 
put Tom Robinson away from her. Tom Robinson was her daily reminder of what 
she did. What did she do? She tempted a Negro. 

“She was white, and she tempted a Negro. She did something that in our society is 
unspeakable: she kissed a black man. Not an old Uncle, but a strong young Negro 
man. No code mattered to her before she broke it, but it came crashing down on 
her afterwards. 

“Her father saw it, and the defendant has testified as to his remarks. What did her 
father do? We don’t know, but there is circumstantial evidence to indicate that 
Mayella Ewell was beaten savagely by someone who led almost exclusively with 
his left. We do know in part what Mr. Ewell did: he did what any God-fearing, 
persevering, respectable white man would do under the circumstances — he swore 
out a warrant, no doubt signing it with his left hand, and Tom Robinson now sits 
before you, having taken the oath with the only good hand he possesses — his right 

“And so a quiet, respectable, humble Negro who had the unmitigated temerity to 
‘feel sorry’ for a white woman has had to put his word against two white 
people’s. I need not remind you of their appearance and conduct on the stand — 
you saw them for yourselves. The witnesses for the state, with the exception of 
the sheriff of Maycomb County, have presented themselves to you gentlemen, to 
this court, in the cynical confidence that their testimony would not be doubted, 
confident that you gentlemen would go along with them on the assumption — the 
evil assumption — that all Negroes lie, that all Negroes are basically immoral 
beings, that all Negro men are not to be trusted around our women, an assumption 
one associates with minds of their caliber. 

“Which, gentlemen, we know is in itself a lie as black as Tom Robinson’s skin, a 
lie I do not have to point out to you. You know the truth, and the truth is this: 
some Negroes lie, some Negroes are immoral, some Negro men are not to be 
trusted around women — black or white. But this is a truth that applies to the 
human race and to no particular race of men. There is not a person in this 
courtroom who has never told a lie, who has never done an immoral thing, and 
there is no man living who has never looked upon a woman without desire.” 

Atticus paused and took out his handkerchief. Then he took off his glasses and 
wiped them, and we saw another “first”: we had never seen him sweat — he was 
one of those men whose faces never perspired, but now it was shining tan. 

“One more thing, gentlemen, before I quit. Thomas Jefferson once said that all 
men are created equal, a phrase that the Yankees and the distaff side of the 
Executive branch in Washington are fond of hurling at us. There is a tendency in 
this year of grace, 1935, for certain people to use this phrase out of context, to 

satisfy all conditions. The most ridiculous example I can think of is that the 
people who run public education promote the stupid and idle along with the 
industrious — because all men are created equal, educators will gravely tell you, 
the children left behind suffer terrible feelings of inferiority. We know all men are 
not created equal in the sense some people would have us believe — some people 
are smarter than others, some people have more opportunity because they’re born 
with it, some men make more money than others, some ladies make better cakes 
than others — some people are born gifted beyond the normal scope of most men. 

“But there is one way in this country in which all men are created equal — there is 
one human institution that makes a pauper the equal of a Rockefeller, the stupid 
man the equal of an Einstein, and the ignorant man the equal of any college 
president. That institution, gentlemen, is a court. It can be the Supreme Court of 
the United States or the humblest J.P. court in the land, or this honorable court 
which you serve. Our courts have their faults, as does any human institution, but 
in this country our courts are the great levelers, and in our courts all men are 
created equal. 

“I’m no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and in the jury 
system — that is no ideal to me, it is a living, working reality. Gentlemen, a court 
is no better than each man of you sitting before me on this jury. A court is only as 
sound as its jury, and a jury is only as sound as the men who make it up. I am 
confident that you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence you have 
heard, come to a decision, and restore this defendant to his family. In the name of 
God, do your duty.” 

Atticus’s voice had dropped, and as he turned away from the jury he said 
something I did not catch. He said it more to himself than to the court. I punched 
Jem. “What’d he say?” 

“‘In the name of God, believe him,’ I think that’s what he said.” 

Dill suddenly reached over me and tugged at Jem. “Looka yonder!” 

We followed his finger with sinking hearts. Calpurnia was making her way up the 
middle aisle, walking straight toward Atticus. 

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Chapter 21 

She stopped shyly at the railing and waited to get Judge Taylor’s attention. She 
was in a fresh apron and she carried an envelope in her hand. 

Judge Taylor saw her and said, “It’s Calpurnia, isn’t it?” 

“Yes sir,” she said. “Could I just pass this note to Mr. Finch, please sir? It hasn’t 
got anything to do with — with the trial.” 

Judge Taylor nodded and Atticus took the envelope from Calpurnia. He opened it, 
read its contents and said, “Judge, I — this note is from my sister. She says my 
children are missing, haven’t turned up since noon. . . I. . . could you — ” 

“I know where they are, Atticus.” Mr. Underwood spoke up. “They’re right up 
yonder in the colored balcony — been there since precisely one-eighteen P.M.” 

Our father turned around and looked up. “Jem, come down from there,” he called. 
Then he said something to the Judge we didn’t hear. We climbed across Reverend 
Sykes and made our way to the staircase. 

Atticus and Calpurnia met us downstairs. Calpurnia looked peeved, but Atticus 
looked exhausted. 

Jem was jumping in excitement. “We’ve won, haven’t we?” 

“I’ve no idea,” said Atticus shortly. “You’ve been here all afternoon? Go home 
with Calpurnia and get your supper — and stay home.” 

“Aw, Atticus, let us come back,” pleaded Jem. “Please let us hear the verdict, 
please sir.” 

“The jury might be out and back in a minute, we don’t know — ” but we could tell 
Atticus was relenting. “Well, you’ve heard it all, so you might as well hear the 
rest. Tell you what, you all can come back when you’ve eaten your supper — eat 
slowly, now, you won’t miss anything important — and if the jury’s still out, you 
can wait with us. But I expect it’ll be over before you get back.” 

“You think they’ll acquit him that fast?” asked Jem. 

Atticus opened his mouth to answer, but shut it and left us. 

I prayed that Reverend Sykes would save our seats for us, but stopped praying 
when I remembered that people got up and left in droves when the jury was out — 
tonight, they’d overrun the drugstore, the O.K. Cafe and the hotel, that is, unless 
they had brought their suppers too. 

Calpurnia marched us home: “ — skin every one of you alive, the very idea, you 
children listenin‘ to all that! Mister Jem, don’t you know better’n to take your 
little sister to that trial? Miss Alexandra’ 11 absolutely have a stroke of paralysis 
when she finds out! Ain’t fittin’ for children to hear. . .” 

The streetlights were on, and we glimpsed Calpurnia’ s indignant profile as we 
passed beneath them. “Mister Jem, I thought you was gettin‘ some kinda head on 
your shoulders — the very idea, she’s your little sister! The very idea, sir! You 
oughta be perfectly ashamed of yourself — ain’t you got any sense at all?” 

I was exhilarated. So many things had happened so fast I felt it would take years 
to sort them out, and now here was Calpurnia giving her precious Jem down the 
country — what new marvels would the evening bring? 

Jem was chuckling. “Don’t you want to hear about it, Cal?” 

“JJush your mouth, sir! When you oughta be hangin‘ your head in shame you go 
along laughin’ — ” Calpurnia revived a series of rusty threats that moved Jem to 
little remorse, and she sailed up the front steps with her classic, “If Mr. Finch 
don’t wear you out, I will — get in that house, sir!” 

Jem went in grinning, and Calpurnia nodded tacit consent to having Dill in to 
supper. “You all call Miss Rachel right now and tell her where you are,” she told 
him. “She’s run distracted lookin‘ for you — you watch out she don’t ship you 
back to Meridian first thing in the mornin’.” 

Aunt Alexandra met us and nearly fainted when Calpurnia told her where we 
were. I guess it hurt her when we told her Atticus said we could go back, because 
she didn’t say a word during supper. She just rearranged food on her plate, 
looking at it sadly while Calpurnia served Jem, Dill and me with a vengeance. 
Calpurnia poured milk, dished out potato salad and ham, muttering, “‘shamed of 

yourselves,” in varying degrees of intensity. “Now you all eat slow,” was her final 

Reverend Sykes had saved our places. We were surprised to find that we had been 
gone nearly an hour, and were equally surprised to find the courtroom exactly as 
we had left it, with minor changes: the jury box was empty, the defendant was 
gone; Judge Taylor had been gone, but he reappeared as we were seating 

“Nobody’s moved, hardly,” said Jem. 

“They moved around some when the jury went out,” said Reverend Sykes. “The 
menfolk down there got the womenfolk their suppers, and they fed their babies.” 

“How long have they been out?” asked Jem. 

“‘bout thirty minutes. Mr. Finch and Mr. Gilmer did some more talkin’, and Judge 
Taylor charged the jury.” 

“How was he?” asked Jem. 

“What say? Oh, he did right well. I ain’t complainhT one bit — he was mighty fair- 
minded. He sorta said if you believe this, then you’ll have to return one verdict, 
but if you believe this, you’ll have to return another one. I thought he was leanin’ 
a little to our side — ” Reverend Sykes scratched his head. 

Jem smiled. “He’s not supposed to lean, Reverend, but don’t fret, we’ve won it,” 
he said wisely. “Don’t see how any jury could convict on what we heard — ” 

“Now don’t you be so confident, Mr. Jem, I ain’t ever seen any jury decide in 
favor of a colored man over a white man. . .” But Jem took exception to Reverend 
Sykes, and we were subjected to a lengthy review of the evidence with Jem’s 
ideas on the law regarding rape: it wasn’t rape if she let you, but she had to be 
eighteen — in Alabama, that is — and Mayella was nineteen. Apparently you had to 
kick and holler, you had to be overpowered and stomped on, preferably knocked 
stone cold. If you were under eighteen, you didn’t have to go through all this. 

“Mr. Jem,” Reverend Sykes demurred, “this ain’t a polite thing for little ladies to 

“Aw, she doesn’t know what we’re talkin‘ about,” said Jem. “Scout, this is too 

old for you, ain’t it?” 

“It most certainly is not, I know every word you’re saying.” Perhaps I was too 
convincing, because Jem hushed and never discussed the subject again. 

“What time is it, Reverend?” he asked. 

“Gettin‘ on toward eight.” 

I looked down and saw Atticus strolling around with his hands in his pockets: he 
made a tour of the windows, then walked by the railing over to the jury box. He 
looked in it, inspected Judge Taylor on his throne, then went back to where he 
started. I caught his eye and waved to him. He acknowledged my salute with a 
nod, and resumed his tour. 

Mr. Gilmer was standing at the windows talking to Mr. Underwood. Bert, the 
court reporter, was chain-smoking: he sat back with his feet on the table. 

But the officers of the court, the ones present — Atticus, Mr. Gilmer, Judge Taylor 
sound asleep, and Bert, were the only ones whose behavior seemed normal. I had 
never seen a packed courtroom so still. Sometimes a baby would cry out fretfully, 
and a child would scurry out, but the grown people sat as if they were in church. 

In the balcony, the Negroes sat and stood around us with biblical patience. 

The old courthouse clock suffered its preliminary strain and struck the hour, eight 
deafening bongs that shook our bones. 

When it bonged eleven times I was past feeling: tired from fighting sleep, I 
allowed myself a short nap against Reverend Sykes’s comfortable arm and 
shoulder. I jerked awake and made an honest effort to remain so, by looking down 
and concentrating on the heads below: there were sixteen bald ones, fourteen men 
that could pass for redheads, forty heads varying between brown and black, and — 
I remembered something Jem had once explained to me when he went through a 
brief period of psychical research: he said if enough people — a stadium full, 
maybe — were to concentrate on one thing, such as setting a tree afire in the 
woods, that the tree would ignite of its own accord. I toyed with the idea of asking 
everyone below to concentrate on setting Tom Robinson free, but thought if they 
were as tired as I, it wouldn’t work. 

Dill was sound asleep, his head on Jem’s shoulder, and Jem was quiet. 

“Ain’t it a long time?” I asked him. 

“Sure is, Scout,” he said happily. 

“Well, from the way you put it, it’d just take five minutes.” 

Jem raised his eyebrows. “There are things you don’t understand,” he said, and I 
was too weary to argue. 

But I must have been reasonably awake, or I would not have received the 
impression that was creeping into me. It was not unlike one I had last winter, and 
I shivered, though the night was hot. The feeling grew until the atmosphere in the 
courtroom was exactly the same as a cold February morning, when the 
mockingbirds were still, and the carpenters had stopped hammering on Miss 
Maudie’s new house, and every wood door in the neighborhood was shut as tight 
as the doors of the Radley Place. A deserted, waiting, empty street, and the 
courtroom was packed with people. A steaming summer night was no different 
from a winter morning. Mr. Heck Tate, who had entered the courtroom and was 
talking to Atticus, might have been wearing his high boots and lumber jacket. 
Atticus had stopped his tranquil journey and had put his foot onto the bottom rung 
of a chair; as he listened to what Mr. Tate was saying, he ran his hand slowly up 
and down his thigh. I expected Mr. Tate to say any minute, “Take him, Mr. 

But Mr. Tate said, “This court will come to order,” in a voice that rang with 
authority, and the heads below us jerked up. Mr. Tate left the room and returned 
with Tom Robinson. He steered Tom to his place beside Atticus, and stood there. 
Judge Taylor had roused himself to sudden alertness and was sitting up straight, 
looking at the empty jury box. 

What happened after that had a dreamlike quality: in a dream I saw the jury 
return, moving like underwater swimmers, and Judge Taylor’s voice came from 
far away and was tiny. I saw something only a lawyer’s child could be expected 
to see, could be expected to watch for, and it was like watching Atticus walk into 
the street, raise a rifle to his shoulder and pull the trigger, but watching all the 
time knowing that the gun was empty. 

A jury never looks at a defendant it has convicted, and when this jury came in, not 
one of them looked at Tom Robinson. The foreman handed a piece of paper to 
Mr. Tate who handed it to the clerk who handed it to the judge. . . 

I shut my eyes. Judge Taylor was polling the jury: “Guilty. . . guilty. . . guilty. . . 
guilty. . .” I peeked at Jem: his hands were white from gripping the balcony rail, 
and his shoulders jerked as if each “guilty” was a separate stab between them. 

Judge Taylor was saying something. His gavel was in his fist, but he wasn’t using 
it. Dimly, I saw Atticus pushing papers from the table into his briefcase. He 
snapped it shut, went to the court reporter and said something, nodded to Mr. 
Gilmer, and then went to Tom Robinson and whispered something to him. Atticus 
put his hand on Tom’s shoulder as he whispered. Atticus took his coat off the 
back of his chair and pulled it over his shoulder. Then he left the courtroom, but 
not by his usual exit. He must have wanted to go home the short way, because he 
walked quickly down the middle aisle toward the south exit. I followed the top of 
his head as he made his way to the door. He did not look up. 

Someone was punching me, but I was reluctant to take my eyes from the people 
below us, and from the image of Atticus’ s lonely walk down the aisle. 

“Miss Jean Louise?” 

I looked around. They were standing. All around us and in the balcony on the 
opposite wall, the Negroes were getting to their feet. Reverend Sykes’s voice was 
as distant as Judge Taylor’s: 

“Miss Jean Louise, stand up. Your father’s passin‘.” 

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Chapter 22 

It was Jem’s turn to cry. His face was streaked with angry tears as we made our 
way through the cheerful crowd. “It ain’t right,” he muttered, all the way to the 
corner of the square where we found Atticus waiting. Atticus was standing under 
the street light looking as though nothing had happened: his vest was buttoned, 
his collar and tie were neatly in place, his watch-chain glistened, he was his 

impassive self again. 

“It ain’t right, Atticus,” said Jem. 

“No son, it’s not right.” 

We walked home. 

Aunt Alexandra was waiting up. She was in her dressing gown, and I could have 
sworn she had on her corset underneath it. “I’m sorry, brother,” she murmured. 
Having never heard her call Atticus “brother” before, I stole a glance at Jem, but 
he was not listening. He would look up at Atticus, then down at the floor, and I 
wondered if he thought Atticus somehow responsible for Tom Robinson’s 

“Is he all right?” Aunty asked, indicating Jem. 

“He’ll be so presently,” said Atticus. “It was a little too strong for him.” Our 
father sighed. “I’m going to bed,” he said. “If I don’t wake up in the morning, 
don’t call me.” 

“I didn’t think it wise in the first place to let them — ” 

“This is their home, sister,” said Atticus. “We’ve made it this way for them, they 
might as well learn to cope with it.” 

“But they don’t have to go to the courthouse and wallow in it — ” 

“It’s just as much Maycomb County as missionary teas.” 

“Atticus — ” Aunt Alexandra’s eyes were anxious. “You are the last person I 
thought would turn bitter over this.” 

“I’m not bitter, just tired. I’m going to bed.” 

“Atticus — ” said Jem bleakly. 

He turned in the doorway. “What, son?” 

“How could they do it, how could they?” 

“I don’t know, but they did it. They’ve done it before and they did it tonight and 
they’ll do it again and when they do it — seems that only children weep. Good 

But things are always better in the morning. Atticus rose at his usual ungodly hour 
and was in the livingroom behind the Mobile Register when we stumbled in. 

Jem’s morning face posed the question his sleepy lips struggled to ask. 

“It’s not time to worry yet,” Atticus reassured him, as we went to the diningroom. 
“We’re not through yet. There’ll be an appeal, you can count on that. Gracious 
alive, Cal, what’s all this?” He was staring at his breakfast plate. 

Calpurnia said, “Tom Robinson’s daddy sent you along this chicken this morning. 
I fixed it.” 

“You tell him I’m proud to get it — bet they don’t have chicken for breakfast at the 
White House. What are these?” 

“Rolls,” said Calpurnia. “Estelle down at the hotel sent ‘em.” 

Atticus looked up at her, puzzled, and she said, “You better step out here and see 
what’s in the kitchen, Mr. Finch.” 

We followed him. The kitchen table was loaded with enough food to bury the 
family: hunks of salt pork, tomatoes, beans, even scuppernongs. Atticus grinned 
when he found ajar of pickled pigs’ knuckles. “Reckon Aunty’ll let me eat these 
in the diningroom?” 

Calpurnia said, “This was all ‘round the back steps when I got here this morning. 
They — they ’preciate what you did, Mr. Finch. They — they aren’t oversteppin‘ 
themselves, are they?” 

Atticus’s eyes filled with tears. He did not speak for a moment. “Tell them I’m 
very grateful,” he said. “Tell them — tell them they must never do this again. 

Times are too hard. . .” 

He left the kitchen, went in the diningroom and excused himself to Aunt 
Alexandra, put on his hat and went to town. 

We heard Dill’s step in the hall, so Calpurnia left Atticus’s uneaten breakfast on 
the table. Between rabbit-bites Dill told us of Miss Rachel’s reaction to last night, 
which was: if a man like Atticus Finch wants to butt his head against a stone wall 
it’s his head. 

“I ’da got her told,” growled Dill, gnawing a chicken leg, “but she didn’t look 
much like tellin‘ this morning. Said she was up half the night wonderin’ where I 
was, said she’da had the sheriff after me but he was at the hearing.” 

“Dill, you’ve got to stop goin‘ off without tellin’ her,” said Jem. “It just 

aggravates her.” 

Dill sighed patiently. “I told her till I was blue in the face where I was goin‘ — 
she’s just seein’ too many snakes in the closet. Bet that woman drinks a pint for 
breakfast every morning — know she drinks two glasses full. Seen her.” 

“Don’t talk like that, Dill,” said Aunt Alexandra. “It’s not becoming to a child. It’s 
— cynical.” 

“I ain’t cynical, Miss Alexandra. TellhT the truth’s not cynical, is it?” 

“The way you tell it, it is.” 

Jem’s eyes flashed at her, but he said to Dill, “Let’s go. You can take that runner 
with you.” 

When we went to the front porch, Miss Stephanie Crawford was busy telling it to 
Miss Maudie Atkinson and Mr. Avery. They looked around at us and went on 
talking. Jem made a feral noise in his throat. I wished for a weapon. 

“I hate grown folks lookin‘ at you,” said Dill. “Makes you feel like you’ve done 

Miss Maudie yelled for Jem Finch to come there. 

Jem groaned and heaved himself up from the swing. “We’ll go with you,” Dill 

Miss Stephanie’s nose quivered with curiosity. She wanted to know who all gave 
us permission to go to court — she didn’t see us but it was all over town this 
morning that we were in the Colored balcony. Did Atticus put us up there as a sort 
of — ? Wasn’t it right close up there with all those — ? Did Scout understand all the 
— ? Didn’t it make us mad to see our daddy beat? 

“Hush, Stephanie.” Miss Maudie’ s diction was deadly. “I’ve not got all the 
morning to pass on the porch — Jem Finch, I called to find out if you and your 
colleagues can eat some cake. Got up at five to make it, so you better say yes. 
Excuse us, Stephanie. Good morning, Mr. Avery.” 

There was a big cake and two little ones on Miss Maudie’ s kitchen table. There 
should have been three little ones. It was not like Miss Maudie to forget Dill, and 
we must have shown it. But we understood when she cut from the big cake and 
gave the slice to Jem. 

As we ate, we sensed that this was Miss Maudie’s way of saying that as far as she 
was concerned, nothing had changed. She sat quietly in a kitchen chair, watching 

Suddenly she spoke: “Don’t fret, Jem. Things are never as bad as they seem.” 

Indoors, when Miss Maudie wanted to say something lengthy she spread her 
fingers on her knees and settled her bridgework. This she did, and we waited. 

“I simply want to tell you that there are some men in this world who were born to 
do our unpleasant jobs for us. Your father’s one of them.” 

“Oh,” said Jem. “Well.” 

“Don’t you oh well me, sir,” Miss Maudie replied, recognizing Jem’s fatalistic 
noises, “you are not old enough to appreciate what I said.” 

Jem was staring at his half-eaten cake. “It’s like bein‘ a caterpillar in a cocoon, 
that’s what it is,” he said. “Like somethin’ asleep wrapped up in a warm place. I 
always thought Maycomb folks were the best folks in the world, least that’s what 
they seemed like.” 

“We’re the safest folks in the world,” said Miss Maudie. “We’re so rarely called 
on to be Christians, but when we are, we’ve got men like Atticus to go for us.” 

Jem grinned ruefully. “Wish the rest of the county thought that.” 

“You’d be surprised how many of us do.” 

“Who?” Jem’s voice rose. “Who in this town did one thing to help Tom 
Robinson, just who?” 

“His colored friends for one thing, and people like us. People like Judge Taylor. 
People like Mr. Heck Tate. Stop eating and start thinking, Jem. Did it ever strike 
you that Judge Taylor naming Atticus to defend that boy was no accident? That 
Judge Taylor might have had his reasons for naming him?” 

This was a thought. Court-appointed defenses were usually given to Maxwell 
Green, Maycomb’ s latest addition to the bar, who needed the experience. 

Maxwell Green should have had Tom Robinson’s case. 

“You think about that,” Miss Maudie was saying. “It was no accident. I was sittin‘ 
there on the porch last night, waiting. I waited and waited to see you all come 

down the sidewalk, and as I waited I thought, Atticus Finch won’t win, he can’t 
win, but he’s the only man in these parts who can keep a jury out so long in a case 
like that. And I thought to myself, well, we’re making a step — it’s just a baby- 
step, but it’s a step.” 

‘“t’s all right to talk like that — can’t any Christian judges an’ lawyers make up for 
heathen juries,” Jem muttered. “Soon’s I get grown — ” 

“That’s something you’ll have to take up with your father,” Miss Maudie said. 

We went down Miss Maudie’ s cool new steps into the sunshine and found Mr. 
Avery and Miss Stephanie Crawford still at it. They had moved down the 
sidewalk and were standing in front of Miss Stephanie’s house. Miss Rachel was 
walking toward them. 

“I think I’ll be a clown when I get grown,” said Dill. 

Jem and I stopped in our tracks. 

“Yes sir, a clown,” he said. “There ain’t one thing in this world I can do about 
folks except laugh, so I’m gonna join the circus and laugh my head off.” 

“You got it backwards, Dill,” said Jem. “Clowns are sad, it’s folks that laugh at 

“Well I’m gonna be a new kind of clown. I’m gonna stand in the middle of the 
ring and laugh at the folks. Just looka yonder,” he pointed. “Every one of ‘em 
oughta be ridin’ broomsticks. Aunt Rachel already does.” 

Miss Stephanie and Miss Rachel were waving wildly at us, in a way that did not 
give the lie to Dill’s observation. 

“Oh gosh,” breathed Jem. “I reckon it’d be ugly not to see ‘em.” 

Something was wrong. Mr. Avery was red in the face from a sneezing spell and 
nearly blew us off the sidewalk when we came up. Miss Stephanie was trembling 
with excitement, and Miss Rachel caught Dill’s shoulder. “You get on in the back 
yard and stay there,” she said. “There’s danger a’comin 4 .” 

“‘s matter?” I asked. 

“Ain’t you heard yet? It’s all over town — ” 

At that moment Aunt Alexandra came to the door and called us, but she was too 

late. It was Miss Stephanie’s pleasure to tell us: this morning Mr. Bob Ewell 
stopped Atticus on the post office corner, spat in his face, and told him he’d get 
him if it took the rest of his life. 

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Chapter 23 

“I wish Bob Ewell wouldn’t chew tobacco,” was all Atticus said about it. 

According to Miss Stephanie Crawford, however, Atticus was leaving the post 
office when Mr. Ewell approached him, cursed him, spat on him, and threatened 
to kill him. Miss Stephanie (who, by the time she had told it twice was there and 
had seen it all — passing by from the Jitney Jungle, she was) — Miss Stephanie said 
Atticus didn’t bat an eye, just took out his handkerchief and wiped his face and 
stood there and let Mr. Ewell call him names wild horses could not bring her to 
repeat. Mr. Ewell was a veteran of an obscure war; that plus Atticus ’s peaceful 
reaction probably prompted him to inquire, “Too proud to fight, you nigger-lovin 4 
bastard?” Miss Stephanie said Atticus said, “No, too old,” put his hands in his 
pockets and strolled on. Miss Stephanie said you had to hand it to Atticus Finch, 
he could be right dry sometimes. 

Jem and I didn’t think it entertaining. 

“After all, though,” I said, “he was the deadest shot in the county one time. JJe 
could — ” 

“You know he wouldn’t carry a gun, Scout. JJe ain’t even got one — ” said Jem. 
“You know he didn’t even have one down at the jail that night. JJe told me havin‘ 
a gun around’ s an invitation to somebody to shoot you.” 

“This is different,” I said. “We can ask him to borrow one.” 

We did, and he said, “Nonsense.” 

Dill was of the opinion that an appeal to Atticus ’s better nature might work: after 

all, we would starve if Mr. Ewell killed him, besides be raised exclusively by 
Aunt Alexandra, and we all knew the first thing she’d do before Atticus was 
under the ground good would be to fire Calpurnia. Jem said it might work if I 
cried and flung a fit, being young and a girl. That didn’t work either. But when he 
noticed us dragging around the neighborhood, not eating, taking little interest in 
our normal pursuits, Atticus discovered how deeply frightened we were. He 
tempted Jem with a new football magazine one night; when he saw Jem flip the 
pages and toss it aside, he said, “What’s bothering you, son?” 

Jem came to the point: “Mr. Ewell.” 

“What has happened?” 

“Nothing’s happened. We’re scared for you, and we think you oughta do 
something about him.” 

Atticus smiled wryly. “Do what? Put him under a peace bond?” 

“When a man says he’s gonna get you, looks like he means it.” 

“He meant it when he said it,” said Atticus. “Jem, see if you can stand in Bob 
Ewell’s shoes a minute. I destroyed his last shred of credibility at that trial, if he 
had any to begin with. The man had to have some kind of comeback, his kind 
always does. So if spitting in my face and threatening me saved Mayella Ewell 
one extra beating, that’s something I’ll gladly take. He had to take it out on 
somebody and I’d rather it be me than that houseful of children out there. You 

Jem nodded. 

Aunt Alexandra entered the room as Atticus was saying, “We don’t have anything 
to fear from Bob Ewell, he got it all out of his system that morning.” 

“I wouldn’t be so sure of that, Atticus,” she said. “His kind’d do anything to pay 
off a grudge. You know how those people are.” 

“What on earth could Ewell do to me, sister?” 

“Something furtive,” Aunt Alexandra said. “You may count on that.” 

“Nobody has much chance to be furtive in Maycomb,” Atticus answered. 

After that, we were not afraid. Summer was melting away, and we made the most 
of it. Atticus assured us that nothing would happen to Tom Robinson until the 

higher court reviewed his case, and that Tom had a good chance of going free, or 
at least of having a new trial. He was at Enfield Prison Farm, seventy miles away 
in Chester County. I asked Atticus if Tom’s wife and children were allowed to 
visit him, but Atticus said no. 

“If he loses his appeal,” I asked one evening, “what’ll happen to him?” 

“He’ll go to the chair,” said Atticus, “unless the Governor commutes his sentence. 
Not time to worry yet, Scout. We’ve got a good chance.” 

Jem was sprawled on the sofa reading Popular Mechanics. He looked up. “It ain’t 
right. He didn’t kill anybody even if he was guilty. He didn’t take anybody’s life.” 

“You know rape’s a capital offense in Alabama,” said Atticus. 

“Yessir, but the jury didn’t have to give him death — if they wanted to they 
could’ve gave him twenty years.” 

“Given,” said Atticus. “Tom Robinson’s a colored man, Jem. No jury in this part 
of the world’s going to say, ‘We think you’re guilty, but not very,’ on a charge 
like that. It was either a straight acquittal or nothing.” 

Jem was shaking his head. “I know it’s not right, but I can’t figure out what’s 
wrong — maybe rape shouldn’t be a capital offense. . .” 

Atticus dropped his newspaper beside his chair. He said he didn’t have any 
quarrel with the rape statute, none what ever, but he did have deep misgivings 
when the state asked for and the jury gave a death penalty on purely 
circumstantial evidence. He glanced at me, saw I was listening, and made it 
easier. “ — I mean, before a man is sentenced to death for murder, say, there 
should be one or two eye-witnesses. Some one should be able to say, ‘Yes, I was 
there and saw him pull the trigger.’” 

“But lots of folks have been hung — hanged — on circumstantial evidence,” said 

“I know, and lots of ‘em probably deserved it, too — but in the absence of eye- 
witnesses there’s always a doubt, some times only the shadow of a doubt. The law 
says ’reasonable doubt/ but I think a defendant’s entitled to the shadow of a 
doubt. There’s always the possibility, no matter how improbable, that he’s 

“Then it all goes back to the jury, then. We oughta do away with juries.” Jem was 

Atticus tried hard not to smile but couldn’t help it. “You’re rather hard on us, son. 
I think maybe there might be a better way. Change the law. Change it so that only 
judges have the power of fixing the penalty in capital cases.” 

“Then go up to Montgomery and change the law.” 

“You’d be surprised how hard that’d be. I won’t live to see the law changed, and 
if you live to see it you’ll be an old man.” 

This was not good enough for Jem. “No sir, they oughta do away with juries. He 
wasn’t guilty in the first place and they said he was.” 

“If you had been on that jury, son, and eleven other boys like you, Tom would be 
a free man,” said Atticus. “So far nothing in your life has interfered with your 
reasoning process. Those are twelve reasonable men in everyday life, Tom’s jury, 
but you saw something come between them and reason. You saw the same thing 
that night in front of the jail. When that crew went away, they didn’t go as 
reasonable men, they went because we were there. There’s something in our 
world that makes men lose their heads — they couldn’t be fair if they tried. In our 
courts, when it’s a white man’s word against a black man’s, the white man always 
wins. They’re ugly, but those are the facts of life.” 

“Doesn’t make it right,” said Jem stolidly. He beat his fist softly on his knee. 

“You just can’t convict a man on evidence like that — you can’t.” 

“You couldn’t, but they could and did. The older you grow the more of it you’ll 
see. The one place where a man ought to get a square deal is in a courtroom, be he 
any color of the rainbow, but people have a way of carrying their resentments 
right into a jury box. As you grow older, you’ll see white men cheat black men 
every day of your life, but let me tell you something and don’t you forget it — 
whenever a white man does that to a black man, no matter who he is, how rich he 
is, or how fine a family he comes from, that white man is trash.” 

Atticus was speaking so quietly his last word crashed on our ears. I looked up, 
and his face was vehement. “There’s nothing more sickening to me than a low- 
grade white man who’ll take advantage of a Negro’s ignorance. Don’t fool 
yourselves — it’s all adding up and one of these days we’re going to pay the bill 

for it. I hope it’s not in you children’s time.” 

Jem was scratching his head. Suddenly his eyes widened. “Atticus,” he said, “why 
don’t people like us and Miss Maudie ever sit on juries? You never see anybody 
from Maycomb on a jury — they all come from out in the woods.” 

Atticus leaned back in his rocking-chair. For some reason he looked pleased with 
Jem. “I was wondering when that’d occur to you,” he said. “There are lots of 
reasons. For one thing, Miss Maudie can’t serve on a jury because she’s a woman 

“You mean women in Alabama can’t — ?” I was indignant. 

“I do. I guess it’s to protect our frail ladies from sordid cases like Tom’s. 

Besides,” Atticus grinned, “I doubt if we’d ever get a complete case tried — the 
ladies’d be interrupting to ask questions.” 

Jem and I laughed. Miss Maudie on a jury would be impressive. I thought of old 
Mrs. Dubose in her wheelchair — “Stop that rapping, John Taylor, I want to ask 
this man something.” Perhaps our forefathers were wise. 

Atticus was saying, “With people like us — that’s our share of the bill. We 
generally get the juries we deserve. Our stout Maycomb citizens aren’t interested, 
in the first place. In the second place, they’re afraid. Then, they’re — ” 

“Afraid, why?” asked Jem. 

“Well, what if — say, Mr. Link Deas had to decide the amount of damages to 
award, say, Miss Maudie, when Miss Rachel ran over her with a car. Link 
wouldn’t like the thought of losing either lady’s business at his store, would he? 
So he tells Judge Taylor that he can’t serve on the jury because he doesn’t have 
anybody to keep store for him while he’s gone. So Judge Taylor excuses him. 
Sometimes he excuses him wrathfully.” 

“What’d make him think either one of ‘em’d stop trading with him?” I asked. 

Jem said, “Miss Rachel would, Miss Maudie wouldn’t. But a jury’s vote’s secret, 

Our father chuckled. “You’ve many more miles to go, son. A jury’s vote’s 
supposed to be secret. Serving on a jury forces a man to make up his mind and 
declare himself about something. Men don’t like to do that. Sometimes it’s 


“Tom’s jury sho‘ made up its mind in a hurry,” Jem muttered. 

Atticus’s fingers went to his watchpocket. “No it didn’t,” he said, more to himself 
than to us. “That was the one thing that made me think, well, this may be the 
shadow of a beginning. That jury took a few hours. An inevitable verdict, maybe, 
but usually it takes ‘em just a few minutes. This time — ” he broke off and looked 
at us. “You might like to know that there was one fellow who took considerable 
wearing down — in the beginning he was rarin’ for an outright acquittal.” 

“Who?” Jem was astonished. 

Atticus’s eyes twinkled. “It’s not for me to say, but I’ll tell you this much. He was 
one of your Old Sarum friends. . .” 

“One of the Cunninghams?” Jem yelped. “One of — I didn’t recognize any of 
‘em. . . you’re jokin’.” He looked at Atticus from the corners of his eyes. 

“One of their connections. On a hunch, I didn’t strike him. Just on a hunch. 
Could’ve, but I didn’t.” 

“Golly Moses,” Jem said reverently. “One minute they’re tryin‘ to kill him and 
the next they’re tryin’ to turn him loose. . . I’ll never understand those folks as 
long as I live.” 

Atticus said you just had to know ‘em. He said the Cunninghams hadn’t taken 
anything from or off of anybody since they migrated to the New World. He said 
the other thing about them was, once you earned their respect they were for you 
tooth and nail. Atticus said he had a feeling, nothing more than a suspicion, that 
they left the jail that night with considerable respect for the Finches. Then too, he 
said, it took a thunderbolt plus another Cunningham to make one of them change 
his mind. “If we’d had two of that crowd, we’d’ ve had a hung jury.” 

Jem said slowly, “You mean you actually put on the jury a man who wanted to 
kill you the night before? How could you take such a risk, Atticus, how could 

“When you analyze it, there was little risk. There’s no difference between one 
man who’s going to convict and another man who’s going to convict, is there? 
There’s a faint difference between a man who’s going to convict and a man who’s 

a little disturbed in his mind, isn’t there? He was the only uncertainty on the 
whole list.” 

“What kin was that man to Mr. Walter Cunningham?” I asked. 

Atticus rose, stretched and yawned. It was not even our bedtime, but we knew he 
wanted a chance to read his newspaper. He picked it up, folded it, and tapped my 
head. “Let’s see now,” he droned to himself. “I’ve got it. Double first cousin.” 

“How can that be?” 

“Two sisters married two brothers. That’s all I’ll tell you — you figure it out.” 

I tortured myself and decided that if I married Jem and Dill had a sister whom he 
married our children would be double first cousins. “Gee minetti, Jem,” I said, 
when Atticus had gone, “they’re funny folks, ‘d you hear that, Aunty?” 

Aunt Alexandra was hooking a rug and not watching us, but she was listening. 

She sat in her chair with her workbasket beside it, her rug spread across her lap. 
Why ladies hooked woolen rugs on boiling nights never became clear to me. 

“I heard it,” she said. 

I remembered the distant disastrous occasion when I rushed to young Walter 
Cunningham’s defense. Now I was glad I’d done it. “Soon’s school starts I’m 
gonna ask Walter home to dinner,” I planned, having forgotten my private resolve 
to beat him up the next time I saw him. “He can stay over sometimes after school, 
too. Atticus could drive him back to Old Sarum. Maybe he could spend the night 
with us sometime, okay, Jem?” 

“We’ll see about that,” Aunt Alexandra said, a declaration that with her was 
always a threat, never a promise. Surprised, I turned to her. “Why not, Aunty? 
They’re good folks.” 

She looked at me over her sewing glasses. “Jean Louise, there is no doubt in my 
mind that they’re good folks. But they’re not our kind of folks.” 

Jem says, “She means they’re yappy, Scout.” 

“What’s a yap?” 

“Aw, tacky. They like fiddlhT and things like that.” 

“Well I do too—” 

“Don’t be silly, Jean Louise,” said Aunt Alexandra. “The thing is, you can scrub 
Walter Cunningham till he shines, you can put him in shoes and a new suit, but 
he’ll never be like Jem. Besides, there’s a drinking streak in that family a mile 
wide. Finch women aren’t interested in that sort of people.” 

“Aun-ty,” said Jem, “she ain’t nine yet.” 

“She may as well learn it now.” 

Aunt Alexandra had spoken. I was reminded vividly of the last time she had put 
her foot down. I never knew why. It was when I was absorbed with plans to visit 
Calpurnia’s house — I was curious, interested; I wanted to be her “company,” to 
see how she lived, who her friends were. I might as well have wanted to see the 
other side of the moon. This time the tactics were different, but Aunt Alexandra’s 
aim was the same. Perhaps this was why she had come to live with us — to help us 
choose our friends. I would hold her off as long as I could: “If they’re good folks, 
then why can’t I be nice to Walter?” 

“I didn’t say not to be nice to him. You should be friendly and polite to him, you 
should be gracious to everybody, dear. But you don’t have to invite him home.” 

“What if he was kin to us, Aunty?” 

“The fact is that he is not kin to us, but if he were, my answer would be the same.” 

“Aunty,” Jem spoke up, “Atticus says you can choose your friends but you sho‘ 
can’t choose your family, an’ they’re still kin to you no matter whether you 
acknowledge ‘em or not, and it makes you look right silly when you don’t.” 

“That’s your father all over again,” said Aunt Alexandra, “and I still say that Jean 
Louise will not invite Walter Cunningham to this house. If he were her double 
first cousin once removed he would still not be received in this house unless he 
comes to see Atticus on business. Now that is that.” 

She had said Indeed Not, but this time she would give her reasons: “But I want to 
play with Walter, Aunty, why can’t I?” 

She took off her glasses and stared at me. “I’ll tell you why,” she said. “Because — 
he — is — trash, that’s why you can’t play with him. I’ll not have you around him, 
picking up his habits and learning Lord-know s- what. You’re enough of a problem 
to your father as it is.” 

I don’t know what I would have done, but Jem stopped me. He caught me by the 
shoulders, put his arm around me, and led me sobbing in fury to his bedroom. 
Atticus heard us and poked his head around the door, ‘“s all right, sir,” Jem said 
gruffly, “’s not anything.” Atticus went away. 

“Have a chew, Scout.” Jem dug into his pocket and extracted a Tootsie Roll. It 
took a few minutes to work the candy into a comfortable wad inside my jaw. 

Jem was rearranging the objects on his dresser. His hair stuck up behind and 
down in front, and I wondered if it would ever look like a man’s — maybe if he 
shaved it off and started over, his hair would grow back neatly in place. His 
eyebrows were becoming heavier, and I noticed a new slimness about his body. 

He was growing taller. When he looked around, he must have thought I would 
start crying again, for he said, “Show you something if you won’t tell anybody.” I 
said what. He unbuttoned his shirt, grinning shyly. 

“Well what?” 

“Well can’t you see it?” 

“Well no.” 

“Well it’s hair.” 


“There. Right there.” 

He had been a comfort to me, so I said it looked lovely, but I didn’t see anything. 
“It’s real nice, Jem.” 

“Under my arms, too,” he said. “Goin‘ out for football next year. Scout, don’t let 
Aunty aggravate you.” 

It seemed only yesterday that he was telling me not to aggravate Aunty. 

“You know she’s not used to girls,” said Jem, “leastways, not girls like you. She’s 
trying to make you a lady. Can’t you take up sewin‘ or somethin’?” 

“Hell no. She doesn’t like me, that’s all there is to it, and I don’t care. It was her 
callin‘ Walter Cunningham trash that got me goin’, Jem, not what she said about 
being a problem to Atticus. We got that all straight one time, I asked him if I was 
a problem and he said not much of one, at most one that he could always figure 
out, and not to worry my head a second about botherhT him. Naw, it was Walter — 

that boy’s not trash, Jem. He ain’t like the Ewells.” 

Jem kicked off his shoes and swung his feet to the bed. He propped himself 
against a pillow and switched on the reading light. “You know something, Scout? 
I’ve got it all figured out, now. I’ve thought about it a lot lately and I’ve got it 
figured out. There’s four kinds of folks in the world. There’s the ordinary kind 
like us and the neighbors, there’s the kind like the Cunninghams out in the woods, 
the kind like the Ewells down at the dump, and the Negroes.” 

“What about the Chinese, and the Cajuns down yonder in Baldwin County?” 

“I mean in Maycomb County. The thing about it is, our kind of folks don’t like 
the Cunninghams, the Cunninghams don’t like the Ewells, and the Ewells hate 
and despise the colored folks.” 

I told Jem if that was so, then why didn’t Tom’s jury, made up of folks like the 
Cunninghams, acquit Tom to spite the Ewells?“ 

Jem waved my question away as being infantile. 

“You know,” he said, “I’ve seen Atticus pat his foot when there’s fiddlin‘ on the 
radio, and he loves pot liquor better’n any man I ever saw — ” 

“Then that makes us like the Cunninghams,” I said. “I can’t see why Aunty — ” 

“No, lemme finish — it does, but we’re still different somehow. Atticus said one 
time the reason Aunty’s so hipped on the family is because all we’ve got’s 
background and not a dime to our names.” 

“Well Jem, I don’t know — Atticus told me one time that most of this Old Family 
stuff’s foolishness because everybody’s family’s just as old as everybody else’s. I 
said did that include the colored folks and Englishmen and he said yes.” 

“Background doesn’t mean Old Family,” said Jem. “I think it’s how long your 
family’s been readin‘ and writin’. Scout, I’ve studied this real hard and that’s the 
only reason I can think of. Somewhere along when the Finches were in Egypt one 
of ‘em must have learned a hieroglyphic or two and he taught his boy.” Jem 
laughed. “Imagine Aunty being proud her great-grandaddy could read an’ write — 
ladies pick funny things to be proud of.” 

“Well I’m glad he could, or who’ da taught Atticus and them, and if Atticus 
couldn’t read, you and me’d be in a fix. I don’t think that’s what background is, 


“Well then, how do you explain why the Cunninghams are different? Mr. Walter 
can hardly sign his name, I’ve seen him. We’ve just been readin‘ and writin’ 
longer’n they have.” 

“No, everybody’s gotta learn, nobody’s born knowin‘. That Walter’s as smart as 
he can be, he just gets held back sometimes because he has to stay out and help 
his daddy. Nothin’s wrong with him. Naw, Jem, I think there’s just one kind of 
folks. Folks.” 

Jem turned around and punched his pillow. When he settled back his face was 
cloudy. JJe was going into one of his declines, and I grew wary. His brows came 
together; his mouth became a thin line. He was silent for a while. 

“That’s what I thought, too,” he said at last, “when I was your age. If there’s just 
one kind of folks, why can’t they get along with each other? If they’re all alike, 
why do they go out of their way to despise each other? Scout, I think I’m 
beginning to understand something. I think I’m beginning to understand why Boo 
Radley’s stayed shut up in the house all this time. . . it’s because he wants to stay 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 24 

Calpurnia wore her stiffest starched apron. She carried a tray of charlotte. She 
backed up to the swinging door and pressed gently. I admired the ease and grace 
with which she handled heavy loads of dainty things. So did Aunt Alexandra, I 
guess, because she had let Calpurnia serve today. 

August was on the brink of September. Dill would be leaving for Meridian 
tomorrow; today he was off with Jem at Barker’s Eddy. Jem had discovered with 
angry amazement that nobody had ever bothered to teach Dill how to swim, a 

skill Jem considered necessary as walking. They had spent two afternoons at the 
creek, they said they were going in naked and I couldn’t come, so I divided the 
lonely hours between Calpurnia and Miss Maudie. 

Today Aunt Alexandra and her missionary circle were fighting the good fight all 
over the house. From the kitchen, I heard Mrs. Grace Merriweather giving a 
report in the livingroom on the squalid lives of the Mrunas, it sounded like to me. 
They put the women out in huts when their time came, whatever that was; they 
had no sense of family — I knew that’d distress Aunty — they subjected children to 
terrible ordeals when they were thirteen; they were crawling with yaws and 
earworms, they chewed up and spat out the bark of a tree into a communal pot 
and then got drunk on it. 

Immediately thereafter, the ladies adjourned for refreshments. 

I didn’t know whether to go into the diningroom or stay out. Aunt Alexandra told 
me to join them for refreshments; it was not necessary that I attend the business 
part of the meeting, she said it’d bore me. I was wearing my pink Sunday dress, 
shoes, and a petticoat, and reflected that if I spilled anything Calpurnia would 
have to wash my dress again for tomorrow. This had been a busy day for her. I 
decided to stay out. 

“Can I help you, Cal?” I asked, wishing to be of some service. 

Calpurnia paused in the doorway. “You be still as a mouse in that corner,” she 
said, “an‘ you can help me load up the trays when I come back.” 

The gentle hum of ladies’ voices grew louder as she opened the door: “Why, 
Alexandra, I never saw such charlotte. . . just lovely. . . I never can get my crust 
like this, never can. . . who’d‘ve thought of little dewberry tarts. . . Calpurnia?. . . 
who’da thought it. . . anybody tell you that the preacher’s wife’s. . . nooo, well she 
is, and that other one not walkin’ yet. . .” 

They became quiet, and I knew they had all been served. Calpurnia returned and 
put my mother’s heavy silver pitcher on a tray. “This coffee pitcher’s a curiosity,” 
she murmured, “they don’t make ‘em these days.” 

“Can I carry it in?” 

“If you be careful and don’t drop it. Set it down at the end of the table by Miss 

Alexandra. Down there by the cups’n things. She’s gonna pour.” 

I tried pressing my behind against the door as Calpurnia had done, but the door 
didn’t budge. Grinning, she held it open for me. “Careful now, it’s heavy. Don’t 
look at it and you won’t spill it.” 

My journey was successful: Aunt Alexandra smiled brilliantly. “Stay with us, 

Jean Louise,” she said. This was a part of her campaign to teach me to be a lady. 

It was customary for every circle hostess to invite her neighbors in for 
refreshments, be they Baptists or Presbyterians, which accounted for the presence 
of Miss Rachel (sober as a judge), Miss Maudie and Miss Stephanie Crawford. 
Rather nervous, I took a seat beside Miss Maudie and wondered why ladies put on 
their hats to go across the street. Ladies in bunches always filled me with vague 
apprehension and a firm desire to be elsewhere, but this feeling was what Aunt 
Alexandra called being “spoiled.” 

The ladies were cool in fragile pastel prints: most of them were heavily powdered 
but unrouged; the only lipstick in the room was Tangee Natural. Cutex Natural 
sparkled on their fingernails, but some of the younger ladies wore Rose. They 
smelled heavenly. I sat quietly, having conquered my hands by tightly gripping 
the arms of the chair, and waited for someone to speak to me. 

Miss Maudie’ s gold bridgework twinkled. “You’re mighty dressed up, Miss Jean 
Louise,” she said, “Where are your britches today?” 

“Under my dress.” 

I hadn’t meant to be funny, but the ladies laughed. My cheeks grew hot as I 
realized my mistake, but Miss Maudie looked gravely down at me. She never 
laughed at me unless I meant to be funny. 

In the sudden silence that followed, Miss Stephanie Crawford called from across 
the room, “Whatcha going to be when you grow up, Jean Louise? A lawyer?” 

“Nome, I hadn’t thought about it. . .” I answered, grateful that Miss Stephanie was 
kind enough to change the subject. Hurriedly I began choosing my vocation. 
Nurse? Aviator? “Well...” 

“Why shoot, I thought you wanted to be a lawyer, you’ve already commenced 
going to court.” 

The ladies laughed again. “That Stephanie’s a card,” somebody said. Miss 
Stephanie was encouraged to pursue the subject: “Don’t you want to grow up to 
be a lawyer?” 

Miss Maudie’s hand touched mine and I answered mildly enough, “Nome, just a 

Miss Stephanie eyed me suspiciously, decided that I meant no impertinence, and 
contented herself with, “Well, you won’t get very far until you start wearing 
dresses more often.” 

Miss Maudie’s hand closed tightly on mine, and I said nothing. Its warmth was 

Mrs. Grace Merriweather sat on my left, and I felt it would be polite to talk to her. 
Mr. Merriweather, a faithful Methodist under duress, apparently saw nothing 
personal in singing, “Amazing Grace, how sweet the sound, that saved a wretch 
like me. . .” It was the general opinion of May comb, however, that Mrs. 
Merriweather had sobered him up and made a reasonably useful citizen of him. 
For certainly Mrs. Merriweather was the most devout lady in Maycomb. I 
searched for a topic of interest to her. “What did you all study this afternoon?” I 

“Oh child, those poor Mrunas,” she said, and was off. Few other questions would 
be necessary. 

Mrs. Merriweather’ s large brown eyes always filled with tears when she 
considered the oppressed. “Living in that jungle with nobody but J. Grimes 
Everett,” she said. “Not a white person’ll go near ‘em but that saintly J. Grimes 

Mrs. Merriweather played her voice like an organ; every word she said received 
its full measure: “The poverty. . . the darkness. . . the immorality — nobody but J. 
Grimes Everett knows. You know, when the church gave me that trip to the camp 
grounds J. Grimes Everett said to me — ” 

“Was he there, ma’am? I thought — ” 

“Home on leave. J. Grimes Everett said to me, he said, ‘Mrs. Merriweather, you 
have no conception, no conception of what we are fighting over there.’ That’s 

what he said to me.” 

“Yes ma’am.” 

“I said to him, ‘Mr. Everett,’ I said, ‘the ladies of the Maycomb Alabama 
Methodist Episcopal Church South are behind you one hundred percent.’ That’s 
what I said to him. And you know, right then and there I made a pledge in my 
heart. I said to myself, when I go home I’m going to give a course on the Mrunas 
and bring J. Grimes Everett’s message to Maycomb and that’s just what I’m 

“Yes ma’am.” 

When Mrs. Merriweather shook her head, her black curls jiggled. “Jean Louise,” 
she said, “you are a fortunate girl. You live in a Christian home with Christian 
folks in a Christian town. Out there in J. Grimes Everett’s land there’s nothing but 
sin and squalor.” 

“Yes ma’am.” 

“Sin and squalor — what was that, Gertrude?” Mrs. Merriweather turned on her 
chimes for the lady sitting beside her. “Oh that. Well, I always say forgive and 
forget, forgive and forget. Thing that church ought to do is help her lead a 
Christian life for those children from here on out. Some of the men ought to go 
out there and tell that preacher to encourage her.” 

“Excuse me, Mrs. Merriweather,” I interrupted, “are you all talking about Mayella 

“May — ? No, child. That darky’s wife. Tom’s wife, Tom — ” 

“Robinson, ma’am.” 

Mrs. Merriweather turned back to her neighbor. “There’s one thing I truly believe, 
Gertrude,” she continued, “but some people just don’t see it my way. If we just let 
them know we forgive ‘em, that we’ve forgotten it, then this whole thing ’ll blow 

“Ah — Mrs. Merriweather,” I interrupted once more, “what’ll blow over?” 

Again, she turned to me. Mrs. Merriweather was one of those childless adults who 
find it necessary to assume a different tone of voice when speaking to children. 
“Nothing, Jean Louise,” she said, in stately largo, “the cooks and field hands are 

just dissatisfied, but they’re settling down now — they grumbled all next day after 
that trial.” 

Mrs. Merriweather faced Mrs. Farrow: “Gertrude, I tell you there’s nothing more 
distracting than a sulky darky. Their mouths go down to here. Just ruins your day 
to have one of ‘em in the kitchen. You know what I said to my Sophy, Gertrude? I 
said, ’Sophy/ I said, ’you simply are not being a Christian today. Jesus Christ 
never went around grumbling and complaining/ and you know, it did her good. 
She took her eyes off that floor and said, ’Nome, Miz Merriweather, Jesus never 
went around grumblin/’ I tell you, Gertrude, you never ought to let an 
opportunity go by to witness for the Lord.” 

I was reminded of the ancient little organ in the chapel at Finch’s Landing. When 
I was very small, and if I had been very good during the day, Atticus would let me 
pump its bellows while he picked out a tune with one finger. The last note would 
linger as long as there was air to sustain it. Mrs. Merriweather had run out of air, I 
judged, and was replenishing her supply while Mrs. Farrow composed herself to 

Mrs. Farrow was a splendidly built woman with pale eyes and narrow feet. She 
had a fresh permanent wave, and her hair was a mass of tight gray ringlets. She 
was the second most devout lady in Maycomb. She had a curious habit of 
prefacing everything she said with a soft sibilant sound. 

“S-s-s Grace,” she said, “it’s just like I was telling Brother Hutson the other day. 
‘S-s-s Brother Hutson,’ I said, ‘looks like we’re fighting a losing battle, a losing 
battle.’ I said, ‘S-s-s it doesn’t matter to ’em one bit. We can educate ‘em till 
we’re blue in the face, we can try till we drop to make Christians out of ’em, but 
there’s no lady safe in her bed these nights/ He said to me, ’Mrs. Farrow, I don’t 
know what we’re coming to down here/ S-s-s I told him that was certainly a fact.” 

Mrs. Merriweather nodded wisely. Her voice soared over the clink of coffee cups 
and the soft bovine sounds of the ladies munching their dainties. “Gertrude,” she 
said, “I tell you there are some good but misguided people in this town. Good, but 
misguided. Folks in this town who think they’re doing right, I mean. Now far be it 
from me to say who, but some of ‘em in this town thought they were doing the 
right thing a while back, but all they did was stir ’em up. That’s all they did. 

Might’ve looked like the right thing to do at the time, I’m sure I don’t know, I’m 
not read in that field, but sulky. . . dissatisfied. . . I tell you if my Sophy’ d kept it up 
another day I’d have let her go. It’s never entered that wool of hers that the only 
reason I keep her is because this depression’s on and she needs her dollar and a 
quarter every week she can get it.” 

“His food doesn’t stick going down, does it?” 

Miss Maudie said it. Two tight lines had appeared at the corners of her mouth. 

She had been sitting silently beside me, her coffee cup balanced on one knee. I 
had lost the thread of conversation long ago, when they quit talking about Tom 
Robinson’s wife, and had contented myself with thinking of Finch’s Landing and 
the river. Aunt Alexandra had got it backwards: the business part of the meeting 
was blood-curdling, the social hour was dreary. 

“Maudie, I’m sure I don’t know what you mean,” said Mrs. Merriweather. 

“I’m sure you do,” Miss Maudie said shortly. 

She said no more. When Miss Maudie was angry her brevity was icy. Something 
had made her deeply angry, and her gray eyes were as cold as her voice. Mrs. 
Merriweather reddened, glanced at me, and looked away. I could not see Mrs. 

Aunt Alexandra got up from the table and swiftly passed more refreshments, 
neatly engaging Mrs. Merriweather and Mrs. Gates in brisk conversation. When 
she had them well on the road with Mrs. Perkins, Aunt Alexandra stepped back. 
She gave Miss Maudie a look of pure gratitude, and I wondered at the world of 
women. Miss Maudie and Aunt Alexandra had never been especially close, and 
here was Aunty silently thanking her for something. For what, I knew not. I was 
content to learn that Aunt Alexandra could be pierced sufficiently to feel gratitude 
for help given. There was no doubt about it, I must soon enter this world, where 
on its surface fragrant ladies rocked slowly, fanned gently, and drank cool water. 

But I was more at home in my father’s world. People like Mr. Heck Tate did not 
trap you with innocent questions to make fun of you; even Jem was not highly 
critical unless you said something stupid. Ladies seemed to live in faint horror of 
men, seemed unwilling to approve wholeheartedly of them. But I liked them. 
There was something about them, no matter how much they cussed and drank and 

gambled and chewed; no matter how undelectable they were, there was something 
about them that I instinctively liked. . . they weren’t — 

“Hypocrites, Mrs. Perkins, born hypocrites,” Mrs. Merriweather was saying. “At 
least we don’t have that sin on our shoulders down here. People up there set ‘em 
free, but you don’t see ’em settin‘ at the table with ’em. At least we don’t have the 
deceit to say to ‘em yes you’re as good as we are but stay away from us. Down 
here we just say you live your way and we’ll live ours. I think that woman, that 
Mrs. Roosevelt’s lost her mind — just plain lost her mind coming down to 
Birmingham and tryin’ to sit with ‘em. If I was the Mayor of Birmingham I’d — ” 

Well, neither of us was the Mayor of Birmingham, but I wished I was the 
Governor of Alabama for one day: I’d let Tom Robinson go so quick the 
Missionary Society wouldn’t have time to catch its breath. Calpurnia was telling 
Miss Rachel’s cook the other day how bad Tom was taking things and she didn’t 
stop talking when I came into the kitchen. She said there wasn’t a thing Atticus 
could do to make being shut up easier for him, that the last thing he said to 
Atticus before they took him down to the prison camp was, “Good-bye, Mr. 

Finch, there ain’t nothin 4 you can do now, so there ain’t no use tryin’.” Calpurnia 
said Atticus told her that the day they took Tom to prison he just gave up hope. 
She said Atticus tried to explain things to him, and that he must do his best not to 
lose hope because Atticus was doing his best to get him free. Miss Rachel’s cook 
asked Calpurnia why didn’t Atticus just say yes, you’ll go free, and leave it at that 
— seemed like that’d be a big comfort to Tom. Calpurnia said, “Because you ain’t 
familiar with the law. First thing you learn when you’re in a lawin‘ family is that 
there ain’t any definite answers to anything. Mr. Finch couldn’t say somethin’s so 
when he doesn’t know for sure it’s so.” 

The front door slammed and I heard Atticus ’s footsteps in the hall. Automatically 
I wondered what time it was. Not nearly time for him to be home, and on 
Missionary Society days he usually stayed downtown until black dark. 

He stopped in the doorway. His hat was in his hand, and his face was white. 

“Excuse me, ladies,” he said. “Go right ahead with your meeting, don’t let me 
disturb you. Alexandra, could you come to the kitchen a minute? I want to borrow 
Calpurnia for a while.” 

He didn’t go through the diningroom, but went down the back hallway and 
entered the kitchen from the rear door. Aunt Alexandra and I met him. The 
diningroom door opened again and Miss Maudie joined us. Calpurnia had half 
risen from her chair. 

“Cal,” Atticus said, “I want you to go with me out to Helen Robinson’s house — ” 

“What’s the matter?” Aunt Alexandra asked, alarmed by the look on my father’s 

“Tom’s dead.” 

Aunt Alexandra put her hands to her mouth. 

“They shot him,” said Atticus. “He was running. It was during their exercise 
period. They said he just broke into a blind raving charge at the fence and started 
climbing over. Right in front of them — ” 

“Didn’t they try to stop him? Didn’t they give him any warning?” Aunt 
Alexandra’ s voice shook. 

“Oh yes, the guards called to him to stop. They fired a few shots in the air, then to 
kill. They got him just as he went over the fence. They said if he’d had two good 
arms he’d have made it, he was moving that fast. Seventeen bullet holes in him. 
They didn’t have to shoot him that much. Cal, I want you to come out with me 
and help me tell Helen.” 

“Yes sir,” she murmured, fumbling at her apron. Miss Maudie went to Calpurnia 
and untied it. 

“This is the last straw, Atticus,” Aunt Alexandra said. 

“Depends on how you look at it,” he said. “What was one Negro, more or less, 
among two hundred of ‘em? He wasn’t Tom to them, he was an escaping 

Atticus leaned against the refrigerator, pushed up his glasses, and rubbed his eyes. 
“We had such a good chance,” he said. “I told him what I thought, but I couldn’t 
in truth say that we had more than a good chance. I guess Tom was tired of white 
men’s chances and preferred to take his own. Ready, Cal?” 

“Yessir, Mr. Finch.” 

“Then let’s go.” 

Aunt Alexandra sat down in Calpurnia’s chair and put her hands to her face. She 
sat quite still; she was so quiet I wondered if she would faint. I heard Miss 
Maudie breathing as if she had just climbed the steps, and in the diningroom the 
ladies chattered happily. 

I thought Aunt Alexandra was crying, but when she took her hands away from her 
face, she was not. She looked weary. She spoke, and her voice was flat. 

“I can’t say I approve of everything he does, Maudie, but he’s my brother, and I 
just want to know when this will ever end.” Her voice rose: “It tears him to 
pieces. He doesn’t show it much, but it tears him to pieces. I’ve seen him when — 
what else do they want from him, Maudie, what else?” 

“What does who want, Alexandra?” Miss Maudie asked. 

“I mean this town. They’re perfectly willing to let him do what they’re too afraid 
to do themselves — it might lose ‘em a nickel. They’re perfectly willing to let him 
wreck his health doing what they’re afraid to do, they’re — ” 

“Be quiet, they’ll hear you,” said Miss Maudie. “Have you ever thought of it this 
way, Alexandra? Whether Maycomb knows it or not, we’re paying the highest 
tribute we can pay a man. We trust him to do right. It’s that simple.” 

“Who?” Aunt Alexandra never knew she was echoing her twelve-year-old 

“The handful of people in this town who say that fair play is not marked White 
Only; the handful of people who say a fair trial is for everybody, not just us; the 
handful of people with enough humility to think, when they look at a Negro, there 
but for the Lord’s kindness am 1.” Miss Maudie’ s old crispness was returning: 
“The handful of people in this town with background, that’s who they are.” 

Had I been attentive, I would have had another scrap to add to Jem’s definition of 
background, but I found myself shaking and couldn’t stop. I had seen Enfield 
Prison Farm, and Atticus had pointed out the exercise yard to me. It was the size 
of a football field. 

“Stop that shaking,” commanded Miss Maudie, and I stopped. “Get up, 

Alexandra, we’ve left ‘em long enough.” 

Aunt Alexandra rose and smoothed the various whalebone ridges along her hips. 

She took her handkerchief from her belt and wiped her nose. She patted her hair 
and said, “Do I show it?” 

“Not a sign,” said Miss Maudie. “Are you together again, Jean Louise?” 

“Yes ma’am.” 

“Then let’s join the ladies,” she said grimly. 

Their voices swelled when Miss Maudie opened the door to the diningroom. Aunt 
Alexandra was ahead of me, and I saw her head go up as she went through the 

“Oh, Mrs. Perkins,” she said, “you need some more coffee. Let me get it.” 

“Calpurnia’s on an errand for a few minutes, Grace,” said Miss Maudie. “Let me 
pass you some more of those dewberry tarts, ‘dyou hear what that cousin of mine 
did the other day, the one who likes to go fishing?. . .” 

And so they went, down the row of laughing women, around the diningroom, 
refilling coffee cups, dishing out goodies as though their only regret was the 
temporary domestic disaster of losing Calpurnia. The gentle hum began again. 
“Yes sir, Mrs. Perkins, that J. Grimes Everett is a martyred saint, he... needed to 
get married so they ran. . . to the beauty parlor every Saturday afternoon. . . soon as 
the sun goes down. He goes to bed with the. . . chickens, a crate full of sick 
chickens, Fred says that’s what started it all. Fred says...” 

Aunt Alexandra looked across the room at me and smiled. She looked at a tray of 
cookies on the table and nodded at them. I carefully picked up the tray and 
watched myself walk to Mrs. Merriweather. With my best company manners, I 
asked her if she would have some. 

After all, if Aunty could be a lady at a time like this, so could I. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 25 

“Don’t do that, Scout. Set him out on the back steps.” 

“Jem, are you crazy?. . .” 

“I said set him out on the back steps.” 

Sighing, I scooped up the small creature, placed him on the bottom step and went 
back to my cot. September had come, but not a trace of cool weather with it, and 
we were still sleeping on the back screen porch. Lightning bugs were still about, 
the night crawlers and flying insects that beat against the screen the summer long 
had not gone wherever they go when autumn comes. 

A roly-poly had found his way inside the house; I reasoned that the tiny varmint 
had crawled up the steps and under the door. I was putting my book on the floor 
beside my cot when I saw him. The creatures are no more than an inch long, and 
when you touch them they roll themselves into a tight gray ball. 

I lay on my stomach, reached down and poked him. He rolled up. Then, feeling 
safe, I suppose, he slowly unrolled. He traveled a few inches on his hundred legs 
and I touched him again. He rolled up. Feeling sleepy, I decided to end things. My 
hand was going down on him when Jem spoke. 

Jem was scowling. It was probably a part of the stage he was going through, and I 
wished he would hurry up and get through it. He was certainly never cruel to 
animals, but I had never known his charity to embrace the insect world. 

“Why couldn’t I mash him?” I asked. 

“Because they don’t bother you,” Jem answered in the darkness. He had turned 
out his reading light. 

“Reckon you’re at the stage now where you don’t kill flies and mosquitoes now, I 
reckon,” I said. “Lemme know when you change your mind. Tell you one thing, 
though, I ain’t gonna sit around and not scratch a redbug.” 

“Aw dry up,” he answered drowsily. 

Jem was the one who was getting more like a girl every day, not I. Comfortable, I 
lay on my back and waited for sleep, and while waiting I thought of Dill. He had 
left us the first of the month with firm assurances that he would return the minute 
school was out — he guessed his folks had got the general idea that he liked to 
spend his summers in Maycomb. Miss Rachel took us with them in the taxi to 

Maycomb Junction, and Dill waved to us from the train window until he was out 
of sight. He was not out of mind: I missed him. The last two days of his time with 
us, Jem had taught him to swim — 

Taught him to swim. I was wide awake, remembering what Dill had told me. 

Barker’ s Eddy is at the end of a dirt road off the Meridian highway about a mile 
from town. It is easy to catch a ride down the highway on a cotton wagon or from 
a passing motorist, and the short walk to the creek is easy, but the prospect of 
walking all the way back home at dusk, when the traffic is light, is tiresome, and 
swimmers are careful not to stay too late. 

According to Dill, he and Jem had just come to the highway when they saw 
Atticus driving toward them. He looked like he had not seen them, so they both 
waved. Atticus finally slowed down; when they caught up with him he said, 
“You’d better catch a ride back. I won’t be going home for a while.” Calpurnia 
was in the back seat. Jem protested, then pleaded, and Atticus said, “All right, you 
can come with us if you stay in the car.” 

On the way to Tom Robinson’s, Atticus told them what had happened. 

They turned off the highway, rode slowly by the dump and past the Ewell 
residence, down the narrow lane to the Negro cabins. Dill said a crowd of black 
children were playing marbles in Tom’s front yard. Atticus parked the car and got 
out. Calpurnia followed him through the front gate. 

Dill heard him ask one of the children, “Where’s your mother, Sam?” and heard 
Sam say, “She down at Sis Stevens’s, Mr. Finch. Want me run fetch her?” 

Dill said Atticus looked uncertain, then he said yes, and Sam scampered off. “Go 
on with your game, boys,” Atticus said to the children. 

A little girl came to the cabin door and stood looking at Atticus. Dill said her hair 
was a wad of tiny stiff pigtails, each ending in a bright bow. She grinned from ear 
to ear and walked toward our father, but she was too small to navigate the steps. 
Dill said Atticus went to her, took off his hat, and offered her his finger. She 
grabbed it and he eased her down the steps. Then he gave her to Calpurnia. 

Sam was trotting behind his mother when they came up. Dill said Helen said, 
“‘evenin’, Mr. Finch, won’t you have a seat?” But she didn’t say any more. 

Neither did Atticus. 

“Scout,” said Dill, “she just fell down in the dirt. Just fell down in the dirt, like a 
giant with a big foot just came along and stepped on her. Just ump — ” Dill’s fat 
foot hit the ground. “Like you’d step on an ant.” 

Dill said Calpurnia and Atticus lifted Helen to her feet and half carried, half 
walked her to the cabin. They stayed inside a long time, and Atticus came out 
alone. When they drove back by the dump, some of the Ewells hollered at them, 
but Dill didn’t catch what they said. 

Maycomb was interested by the news of Tom’s death for perhaps two days; two 
days was enough for the information to spread through the county. “Did you hear 
about?. . . No? Well, they say he was runnin‘ fit to beat lightnin’ . . .” To Maycomb, 
Tom’s death was typical. Typical of a nigger to cut and run. Typical of a nigger’s 
mentality to have no plan, no thought for the future, just run blind first chance he 
saw. Funny thing, Atticus Finch might’ve got him off scot free, but wait — ? Hell 
no. You know how they are. Easy come, easy go. Just shows you, that Robinson 
boy was legally married, they say he kept himself clean, went to church and all 
that, but when it comes down to the line the veneer’ s mighty thin. Nigger always 
comes out in ‘em. 

A few more details, enabling the listener to repeat his version in turn, then 
nothing to talk about until The Maycomb Tribune appeared the following 
Thursday. There was a brief obituary in the Colored News, but there was also an 

Mr. B. B. Underwood was at his most bitter, and he couldn’t have cared less who 
canceled advertising and subscriptions. (But Maycomb didn’t play that way: Mr. 
Underwood could holler till he sweated and write whatever he wanted to, he’d 
still get his advertising and subscriptions. If he wanted to make a fool of himself 
in his paper that was his business.) Mr. Underwood didn’t talk about miscarriages 
of justice, he was writing so children could understand. Mr. Underwood simply 
figured it was a sin to kill cripples, be they standing, sitting, or escaping. He 
likened Tom’s death to the senseless slaughter of songbirds by hunters and 
children, and Maycomb thought he was trying to write an editorial poetical 
enough to be reprinted in The Montgomery Advertiser. 

How could this be so, I wondered, as I read Mr. Underwood’s editorial. Senseless 
killing — Tom had been given due process of law to the day of his death; he had 
been tried openly and convicted by twelve good men and true; my father had 
fought for him all the way. Then Mr. Underwood’s meaning became clear: 

Atticus had used every tool available to free men to save Tom Robinson, but in 
the secret courts of men’s hearts Atticus had no case. Tom was a dead man the 
minute Mayella Ewell opened her mouth and screamed. 

The name Ewell gave me a queasy feeling. Maycomb had lost no time in getting 
Mr. Ewell’s views on Tom’s demise and passing them along through that English 
Channel of gossip, Miss Stephanie Crawford. Miss Stephanie told Aunt 
Alexandra in Jem’s presence (“Oh foot, he’s old enough to listen.”) that Mr. 
Ewell said it made one down and about two more to go. Jem told me not to be 
afraid, Mr. Ewell was more hot gas than anything. Jem also told me that if I 
breathed a word to Atticus, if in any way I let Atticus know I knew, Jem would 
personally never speak to me again. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 26 

School started, and so did our daily trips past the Radley Place. Jem was in the 
seventh grade and went to high school, beyond the grammar-school building; I 
was now in the third grade, and our routines were so different I only walked to 
school with Jem in the mornings and saw him at mealtimes. He went out for 
football, but was too slender and too young yet to do anything but carry the team 
water buckets. This he did with enthusiasm; most afternoons he was seldom home 
before dark. 

The Radley Place had ceased to terrify me, but it was no less gloomy, no less 
chilly under its great oaks, and no less uninviting. Mr. Nathan Radley could still 
be seen on a clear day, walking to and from town; we knew Boo was there, for the 

same old reason — nobody ’d seen him carried out yet. I sometimes felt a twinge of 
remorse, when passing by the old place, at ever having taken part in what must 
have been sheer torment to Arthur Radley — what reasonable recluse wants 
children peeping through his shutters, delivering greetings on the end of a fishing- 
pole, wandering in his collards at night? And yet I remembered. Two Indian-head 
pennies, chewing gum, soap dolls, a rusty medal, a broken watch and chain. Jem 
must have put them away somewhere. I stopped and looked at the tree one 
afternoon: the trunk was swelling around its cement patch. The patch itself was 
turning yellow. 

We had almost seen him a couple of times, a good enough score for anybody. 

But I still looked for him each time I went by. Maybe someday we would see him. 
I imagined how it would be: when it happened, he’d just be sitting in the swing 
when I came along. “Hidy do, Mr. Arthur,” I would say, as if I had said it every 
afternoon of my life. “Evening, Jean Louise,” he would say, as if he had said it 
every afternoon of my life, “right pretty spell we’re having, isn’t it?” “Yes sir, 
right pretty,” I would say, and go on. 

It was only a fantasy. We would never see him. fie probably did go out when the 
moon was down and gaze upon Miss Stephanie Crawford. I’d have picked 
somebody else to look at, but that was his business. JJe would never gaze at us. 

“You aren’t starting that again, are you?” said Atticus one night, when I expressed 
a stray desire just to have one good look at Boo Radley before I died. “If you are, 
I’ll tell you right now: stop it. I’m too old to go chasing you off the Radley 
property. Besides, it’s dangerous. You might get shot. You know Mr. Nathan 
shoots at every shadow he sees, even shadows that leave size-four bare footprints. 
You were lucky not to be killed.” 

I hushed then and there. At the same time I marveled at Atticus. This was the first 
he had let us know he knew a lot more about something than we thought he knew. 
And it had happened years ago. No, only last summer — no, summer before last, 
when. . . time was playing tricks on me. I must remember to ask Jem. 

So many things had happened to us, Boo Radley was the least of our fears. 

Atticus said he didn’t see how anything else could happen, that things had a way 
of settling down, and after enough time passed people would forget that Tom 

Robinson’s existence was ever brought to their attention. 

Perhaps Atticus was right, but the events of the summer hung over us like smoke 
in a closed room. The adults in Maycomb never discussed the case with Jem and 
me; it seemed that they discussed it with their children, and their attitude must 
have been that neither of us could help having Atticus for a parent, so their 
children must be nice to us in spite of him. The children would never have 
thought that up for themselves: had our classmates been left to their own devices, 
Jem and I would have had several swift, satisfying fist-fights apiece and ended the 
matter for good. As it was, we were compelled to hold our heads high and be, 
respectively, a gentleman and a lady. In a way, it was like the era of Mrs. Henry 
Lafayette Dubose, without all her yelling. There was one odd thing, though, that I 
never understood: in spite of Atticus’ s shortcomings as a parent, people were 
content to re-elect him to the state legislature that year, as usual, without 
opposition. I came to the conclusion that people were just peculiar, I withdrew 
from them, and never thought about them until I was forced to. 

I was forced to one day in school. Once a week, we had a Current Events period. 
Each child was supposed to clip an item from a newspaper, absorb its contents, 
and reveal them to the class. This practice allegedly overcame a variety of evils: 
standing in front of his fellows encouraged good posture and gave a child poise; 
delivering a short talk made him word-conscious; learning his current event 
strengthened his memory; being singled out made him more than ever anxious to 
return to the Group. 

The idea was profound, but as usual, in Maycomb it didn’t work very well. In the 
first place, few rural children had access to newspapers, so the burden of Current 
Events was borne by the town children, convincing the bus children more deeply 
that the town children got all the attention anyway. The rural children who could, 
usually brought clippings from what they called The Grit Paper, a publication 
spurious in the eyes of Miss Gates, our teacher. Why she frowned when a child 
recited from The Grit Paper I never knew, but in some way it was associated with 
liking fiddling, eating syrupy biscuits for lunch, being a holy-roller, singing 
Sweetly Sings the Donkey and pronouncing it dunkey, all of which the state paid 
teachers to discourage. 

Even so, not many of the children knew what a Current Event was. Little Chuck 
Little, a hundred years old in his knowledge of cows and their habits, was halfway 
through an Uncle Natchell story when Miss Gates stopped him: “Charles, that is 
not a current event. That is an advertisement.” 

Cecil Jacobs knew what one was, though. When his turn came, he went to the 
front of the room and began, “Old Hitler — ” 

“Adolf Hitler, Cecil,” said Miss Gates. “One never begins with Old anybody.” 
“Yes ma’am,” he said. “Old Adolf Hitler has been prosecuthT the — ” 

“Persecuting Cecil...” 

“Nome, Miss Gates, it says here — well anyway, old Adolf Hitler has been after 
the Jews and he’s puttin‘ ’em in prisons and he’s taking away all their property 
and he won’t let any of ‘em out of the country and he’s washin’ all the feeble- 
minded and — ” 

“Washing the feeble-minded?” 

“Yes ma’am, Miss Gates, I reckon they don’t have sense enough to wash 
themselves, I don’t reckon an idiot could keep hisself clean. Well anyway, 

Hitler’s started a program to round up all the half- Jews too and he wants to 
register ‘em in case they might wanta cause him any trouble and I think this is a 
bad thing and that’s my current event.” 

“Very good, Cecil,” said Miss Gates. Puffing, Cecil returned to his seat. 

A hand went up in the back of the room. “How can he do that?” 

“Who do what?” asked Miss Gates patiently. 

“I mean how can Hitler just put a lot of folks in a pen like that, looks like the 
govamint’d stop him,” said the owner of the hand. 

“Hitler is the government,” said Miss Gates, and seizing an opportunity to make 
education dynamic, she went to the blackboard. She printed DEMOCRACY in 
large letters. “Democracy,” she said. “Does anybody have a definition?” 

“Us,” somebody said. 

I raised my hand, remembering an old campaign slogan Atticus had once told me 

“What do you think it means, Jean Louise?” 

‘“Equal rights for all, special privileges for none,”’ I quoted. 

“Very good, Jean Louise, very good,” Miss Gates smiled. In front of 
DEMOCRACY, she printed WE ARE A. “Now class, say it all together, ‘We are 
a democracy.’” 

We said it. Then Miss Gates said, “That’s the difference between America and 
Germany. We are a democracy and Germany is a dictatorship. Dictator-ship,” she 
said. “Over here we don’t believe in persecuting anybody. Persecution comes 
from people who are prejudiced. Prejudice,” she enunciated carefully. “There are 
no better people in the world than the Jews, and why Hitler doesn’t think so is a 
mystery to me.” 

An inquiring soul in the middle of the room said, “Why don’t they like the Jews, 
you reckon, Miss Gates?” 

“I don’t know, Henry. They contribute to every society they live in, and most of 
all, they are a deeply religious people. Hitler’s trying to do away with religion, so 
maybe he doesn’t like them for that reason.” 

Cecil spoke up. “Well I don’t know for certain,” he said, “they’re supposed to 
change money or somethin 4 , but that ain’t no cause to persecute ’em. They’re 
white, ain’t they?” 

Miss Gates said, “When you get to high school, Cecil, you’ll learn that the Jews 
have been persecuted since the beginning of history, even driven out of their own 
country. It’s one of the most terrible stories in history. Time for arithmetic, 

As I had never liked arithmetic, I spent the period looking out the window. The 
only time I ever saw Atticus scowl was when Elmer Davis would give us the 
latest on Hitler. Atticus would snap off the radio and say, “Hmp!” I asked him 
once why he was impatient with Hitler and Atticus said, “Because he’s a maniac.” 

This would not do, I mused, as the class proceeded with its sums. One maniac and 
millions of German folks. Looked to me like they’d shut Hitler in a pen instead of 
letting him shut them up. There was something else wrong — I would ask my 
father about it. 

I did, and he said he could not possibly answer my question because he didn’t 
know the answer. 

“But it’s okay to hate Hitler?” 

“It is not,” he said. “It’s not okay to hate anybody.” 

“Atticus,” I said, “there’s somethin 4 1 don’t understand. Miss Gates said it was 
awful, Hitler doin’ like he does, she got real red in the face about it — ” 

“I should think she would.” 



“Nothing, sir.” I went away, not sure that I could explain to Atticus what was on 
my mind, not sure that I could clarify what was only a feeling. Perhaps Jem could 
provide the answer. Jem understood school things better than Atticus. 

Jem was worn out from a day’s water-carrying. There were at least twelve banana 
peels on the floor by his bed, surrounding an empty milk bottle. “Whatcha stuffin' 
for?” I asked. 

“Coach says if I can gain twenty-five pounds by year after next I can play,” he 
said. “This is the quickest way.” 

“If you don’t throw it all up. Jem,” I said, “I wanta ask you somethin 4 .” 

“Shoot.” He put down his book and stretched his legs. 

“Miss Gates is a nice lady, ain’t she?” 

“Why sure,” said Jem. “I liked her when I was in her room.” 

“She hates Hitler a lot. . .” 

“What’s wrong with that?” 

“Well, she went on today about how bad it was him treatin' the Jews like that. 
Jem, it’s not right to persecute anybody, is it? I mean have mean thoughts about 
anybody, even, is it?” 

“Gracious no, Scout. What’s eatin 4 you?” 

“Well, coming out of the courthouse that night Miss Gates was — she was goin 4 
down the steps in front of us, you musta not seen her — she was talking with Miss 
Stephanie Crawford. I heard her say it’s time somebody taught ’em a lesson, they 

were gettin‘ way above themselves, an’ the next thing they think they can do is 
marry us. Jem, how can you hate Hitler so bad an‘ then turn around and be ugly 
about folks right at home — ” 

Jem was suddenly furious. He leaped off the bed, grabbed me by the collar and 
shook me. “I never wanta hear about that courthouse again, ever, ever, you hear 
me? You hear me? Don’t you ever say one word to me about it again, you hear? 
Now go on!” 

I was too surprised to cry. I crept from Jem’s room and shut the door softly, lest 
undue noise set him off again. Suddenly tired, I wanted Atticus. He was in the 
livingroom, and I went to him and tried to get in his lap. 

Atticus smiled. “You’re getting so big now, I’ll just have to hold a part of you.” 
He held me close. “Scout,” he said softly, “don’t let Jem get you down. He’s 
having a rough time these days. I heard you back there.” 

Atticus said that Jem was trying hard to forget something, but what he was really 
doing was storing it away for a while, until enough time passed. Then he would 
be able to think about it and sort things out. When he was able to think about it, 
Jem would be himself again. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 27 

Things did settle down, after a fashion, as Atticus said they would. By the middle 
of October, only two small things out of the ordinary happened to two Maycomb 
citizens. No, there were three things, and they did not directly concern us — the 
Finches — but in a way they did. 

The first thing was that Mr. Bob Ewell acquired and lost a job in a matter of days 
and probably made himself unique in the annals of the nineteen-thirties: he was 
the only man I ever heard of who was fired from the WPA for laziness. I suppose 

his brief burst of fame brought on a briefer burst of industry, but his job lasted 
only as long as his notoriety: Mr. Ewell found himself as forgotten as Tom 
Robinson. Thereafter, he resumed his regular weekly appearances at the welfare 
office for his check, and received it with no grace amid obscure mutterings that 
the bastards who thought they ran this town wouldn’t permit an honest man to 
make a living. Ruth Jones, the welfare lady, said Mr. Ewell openly accused 
Atticus of getting his job. She was upset enough to walk down to Atticus’s office 
and tell him about it. Atticus told Miss Ruth not to fret, that if Bob Ewell wanted 
to discuss Atticus’s “getting” his job, he knew the way to the office. 

The second thing happened to Judge Taylor. Judge Taylor was not a Sunday-night 
churchgoer: Mrs. Taylor was. Judge Taylor savored his Sunday night hour alone 
in his big house, and churchtime found him holed up in his study reading the 
writings of Bob Taylor (no kin, but the judge would have been proud to claim it). 
One Sunday night, lost in fruity metaphors and florid diction, Judge Taylor’s 
attention was wrenched from the page by an irritating scratching noise. “Hush,” 
he said to Ann Taylor, his fat nondescript dog. Then he realized he was speaking 
to an empty room; the scratching noise was coming from the rear of the house. 
Judge Taylor clumped to the back porch to let Ann out and found the screen door 
swinging open. A shadow on the corner of the house caught his eye, and that was 
all he saw of his visitor. Mrs. Taylor came home from church to find her husband 
in his chair, lost in the writings of Bob Taylor, with a shotgun across his lap. 

The third thing happened to Helen Robinson, Tom’s widow. If Mr. Ewell was as 
forgotten as Tom Robinson, Tom Robinson was as forgotten as Boo Radley. But 
Tom was not forgotten by his employer, Mr. Link Deas. Mr. Link Deas made a 
job for Helen. He didn’t really need her, but he said he felt right bad about the 
way things turned out. I never knew who took care of her children while Helen 
was away. Calpurnia said it was hard on Helen, because she had to walk nearly a 
mile out of her way to avoid the Ewells, who, according to Helen, “chunked at 
her” the first time she tried to use the public road. Mr. Link Deas eventually 
received the impression that Helen was coming to work each morning from the 
wrong direction, and dragged the reason out of her. “Just let it be, Mr. Link, 
please suh,” Helen begged. “The hell I will,” said Mr. Link. He told her to come 
by his store that afternoon before she left. She did, and Mr. Link closed his store, 

put his hat firmly on his head, and walked Helen home. He walked her the short 
way, by the Ewells 4 . On his way back, Mr. Link stopped at the crazy gate. 

“Ewell?” he called. “I say Ewell!” 

The windows, normally packed with children, were empty. 

“I know every last one of you’s in there a-layin‘ on the floor! Now hear me, Bob 
Ewell: if I hear one more peep outa my girl Helen about not bein’ able to walk 
this road I’ll have you in jail before sundown!” Mr. Link spat in the dust and 
walked home. 

Helen went to work next morning and used the public road. Nobody chunked at 
her, but when she was a few yards beyond the Ewell house, she looked around 
and saw Mr. Ewell walking behind her. She turned and walked on, and Mr. Ewell 
kept the same distance behind her until she reached Mr. Link Deas’s house. All 
the way to the house, Helen said, she heard a soft voice behind her, crooning foul 
words. Thoroughly frightened, she telephoned Mr. Link at his store, which was 
not too far from his house. As Mr. Link came out of his store he saw Mr. Ewell 
leaning on the fence. Mr. Ewell said, “Don’t you look at me, Link Deas, like I 
was dirt. I ain’t jumped your — ” 

“First thing you can do, Ewell, is get your stinkhT carcass off my property. 

You’re leanin’ on it an‘ I can’t afford fresh paint for it. Second thing you can do 
is stay away from my cook or I’ll have you up for assault — ” 

“I ain’t touched her, Link Deas, and ain’t about to go with no nigger!” 

“You don’t have to touch her, all you have to do is make her afraid, an‘ if assault 
ain’t enough to keep you locked up awhile, I’ll get you in on the Ladies’ Law, so 
get outa my sight! If you don’t think I mean it, just bother that girl again!” 

Mr. Ewell evidently thought he meant it, for Helen reported no further trouble. 

“I don’t like it, Atticus, I don’t like it at all,” was Aunt Alexandra’s assessment of 
these events. “That man seems to have a permanent running grudge against 
everybody connected with that case. I know how that kind are about paying off 
grudges, but I don’t understand why he should harbor one — he had his way in 
court, didn’t he?” 

“I think I understand,” said Atticus. “It might be because he knows in his heart 

that very few people in Maycomb really believed his and Mayella’s yarns. He 
thought he’d be a hero, but all he got for his pain was. . . was, okay, we’ll convict 
this Negro but get back to your dump. He’s had his fling with about everybody 
now, so he ought to be satisfied. He’ll settle down when the weather changes.” 

“But why should he try to burgle John Taylor’s house? He obviously didn’t know 
John was home or he wouldn’t‘ve tried. Only lights John shows on Sunday nights 
are on the front porch and back in his den. . .” 

“You don’t know if Bob Ewell cut that screen, you don’t know who did it,” said 
Atticus. “But I can guess. I proved him a liar but John made him look like a fool. 
All the time Ewell was on the stand I couldn’t dare look at John and keep a 
straight face. John looked at him as if he were a three-legged chicken or a square 
egg. Don’t tell me judges don’t try to prejudice juries,” Atticus chuckled. 

By the end of October, our lives had become the familiar routine of school, play, 
study. Jem seemed to have put out of his mind whatever it was he wanted to 
forget, and our classmates mercifully let us forget our father’s eccentricities. Cecil 
Jacobs asked me one time if Atticus was a Radical. When I asked Atticus, Atticus 
was so amused I was rather annoyed, but he said he wasn’t laughing at me. He 
said, “You tell Cecil I’m about as radical as Cotton Tom Heflin.” 

Aunt Alexandra was thriving. Miss Maudie must have silenced the whole 
missionary society at one blow, for Aunty again ruled that roost. Her refreshments 
grew even more delicious. I learned more about the poor Mrunas’ social life from 
listening to Mrs. Merriweather: they had so little sense of family that the whole 
tribe was one big family. A child had as many fathers as there were men in the 
community, as many mothers as there were women. J. Grimes Everett was doing 
his utmost to change this state of affairs, and desperately needed our prayers. 

Maycomb was itself again. Precisely the same as last year and the year before 
that, with only two minor changes. Firstly, people had removed from their store 
windows and automobiles the stickers that said NRA — WE DO OUR PART. I 
asked Atticus why, and he said it was because the National Recovery Act was 
dead. I asked who killed it: he said nine old men. 

The second change in Maycomb since last year was not one of national 
significance. Until then, Halloween in Maycomb was a completely unorganized 

affair. Each child did what he wanted to do, with assistance from other children if 
there was anything to be moved, such as placing a light buggy on top of the livery 
stable. But parents thought things went too far last year, when the peace of Miss 
Tutti and Miss Frutti was shattered. 

Misses Tutti and Frutti Barber were maiden ladies, sisters, who lived together in 
the only May comb residence boasting a cellar. The Barber ladies were rumored to 
be Republicans, having migrated from Clanton, Alabama, in 1911. Their ways 
were strange to us, and why they wanted a cellar nobody knew, but they wanted 
one and they dug one, and they spent the rest of their lives chasing generations of 
children out of it. 

Misses Tutti and Frutti (their names were Sarah and Frances), aside from their 
Yankee ways, were both deaf. Miss Tutti denied it and lived in a world of silence, 
but Miss Frutti, not about to miss anything, employed an ear trumpet so enormous 
that Jem declared it was a loudspeaker from one of those dog Victrolas. 

With these facts in mind and Halloween at hand, some wicked children had 
waited until the Misses Barber were thoroughly asleep, slipped into their 
livingroom (nobody but the Radleys locked up at night), stealthily made away 
with every stick of furniture therein, and hid it in the cellar. I deny having taken 
part in such a thing. 

“I heard ‘em!” was the cry that awoke the Misses Barber’s neighbors at dawn 
next morning. “Heard ’em drive a truck up to the door! Stomped around like 
horses. They’re in New Orleans by now!” 

Miss Tutti was sure those traveling fur sellers who came through town two days 
ago had purloined their furniture. “Da-rk they were,” she said. “Syrians.” 

Mr. Heck Tate was summoned. He surveyed the area and said he thought it was a 
local job. Miss Frutti said she’d know a Maycomb voice anywhere, and there 
were no Maycomb voices in that parlor last night — rolling their r’s all over her 
premises, they were. Nothing less than the bloodhounds must be used to locate 
their furniture, Miss Tutti insisted, so Mr. Tate was obliged to go ten miles out the 
road, round up the county hounds, and put them on the trail. 

Mr. Tate started them off at the Misses Barber’s front steps, but all they did was 
run around to the back of the house and howl at the cellar door. When Mr. Tate 

set them in motion three times, he finally guessed the truth. By noontime that day, 
there was not a barefooted child to be seen in Maycomb and nobody took off his 
shoes until the hounds were returned. 

So the Maycomb ladies said things would be different this year. The high-school 
auditorium would be open, there would be a pageant for the grown-ups; apple- 
bobbing, taffy-pulling, pinning the tail on the donkey for the children. There 
would also be a prize of twenty-five cents for the best Halloween costume, 
created by the wearer. 

Jem and I both groaned. Not that we’d ever done anything, it was the principle of 
the thing. Jem considered himself too old for Halloween anyway; he said he 
wouldn’t be caught anywhere near the high school at something like that. Oh 
well, I thought, Atticus would take me. 

I soon learned, however, that my services would be required on stage that 
evening. Mrs. Grace Merriweather had composed an original pageant entitled 
Maycomb County: Ad Astra PerAspera, and I was to be a ham. She thought it 
would be adorable if some of the children were costumed to represent the 
county’s agricultural products: Cecil Jacobs would be dressed up to look like a 
cow; Agnes Boone would make a lovely butterbean, another child would be a 
peanut, and on down the line until Mrs. Merriweather’ s imagination and the 
supply of children were exhausted. 

Our only duties, as far as I could gather from our two rehearsals, were to enter 
from stage left as Mrs. Merriweather (not only the author, but the narrator) 
identified us. When she called out, “Pork,” that was my cue. Then the assembled 
company would sing, “Maycomb County, Maycomb County, we will aye be true 
to thee,” as the grand finale, and Mrs. Merriweather would mount the stage with 
the state flag. 

My costume was not much of a problem. Mrs. Crenshaw, the local seamstress, 
had as much imagination as Mrs. Merriweather. Mrs. Crenshaw took some 
chicken wire and bent it into the shape of a cured ham. This she covered with 
brown cloth, and painted it to resemble the original. I could duck under and 
someone would pull the contraption down over my head. It came almost to my 
knees. Mrs. Crenshaw thoughtfully left two peepholes for me. She did a fine job. 

Jem said I looked exactly like a ham with legs. There were several discomforts, 
though: it was hot, it was a close fit; if my nose itched I couldn’t scratch, and once 
inside I could not get out of it alone. 

When Halloween came, I assumed that the whole family would be present to 
watch me perform, but I was disappointed. Atticus said as tactfully as he could 
that he just didn’t think he could stand a pageant tonight, he was all in. He had 
been in Montgomery for a week and had come home late that afternoon. He 
thought Jem might escort me if I asked him. 

Aunt Alexandra said she just had to get to bed early, she’d been decorating the 
stage all afternoon and was worn out — she stopped short in the middle of her 
sentence. She closed her mouth, then opened it to say something, but no words 

‘“s matter, Aunty?” I asked. 

“Oh nothing, nothing,” she said, “somebody just walked over my grave.” She put 
away from her whatever it was that gave her a pinprick of apprehension, and 
suggested that I give the family a preview in the livingroom. So Jem squeezed me 
into my costume, stood at the livingroom door, called out “Po-ork,” exactly as 
Mrs. Merriweather would have done, and I marched in. Atticus and Aunt 
Alexandra were delighted. 

I repeated my part for Calpurnia in the kitchen and she said I was wonderful. I 
wanted to go across the street to show Miss Maudie, but Jem said she’d probably 
be at the pageant anyway. 

After that, it didn’t matter whether they went or not. Jem said he would take me. 
Thus began our longest journey together. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 28 

The weather was unusually warm for the last day of October. We didn’t even 
need jackets. The wind was growing stronger, and Jem said it might be raining 
before we got home. There was no moon. The street light on the corner cast sharp 
shadows on the Radley house. I heard Jem laugh softly. “Bet nobody bothers 
them tonight,” he said. Jem was carrying my ham costume, rather awkwardly, as 
it was hard to hold. I thought it gallant of him to do so. 

“It is a scary place though, ain’t it?” I said. “Boo doesn’t mean anybody any 
harm, but I’m right glad you’re along.” “You know Atticus wouldn’t let you go to 
the schoolhouse by yourself,” Jem said. 

“Don’t see why, it’s just around the corner and across the yard.” 

“That yard’s a mighty long place for little girls to cross at night,” Jem teased. 
“Ain’t you scared of haints?” 

We laughed. Haints, Hot Steams, incantations, secret signs, had vanished with our 
years as mist with sunrise. “What was that old thing,” Jem said, “Angel bright, 
life-in-death; get off the road, don’t suck my breath.” 

“Cut it out, now,” I said. We were in front of the Radley Place. 

Jem said, “Boo must not be at home. Listen.” 

High above us in the darkness a solitary mocker poured out his repertoire in 
blissful unawareness of whose tree he sat in, plunging from the shrill kee, kee of 
the sunflower bird to the irascible qua-ack of a bluejay, to the sad lament of Poor 
Will, Poor Will, Poor Will. 

We turned the corner and I tripped on a root growing in the road. Jem tried to help 
me, but all he did was drop my costume in the dust. I didn’t fall, though, and soon 
we were on our way again. 

We turned off the road and entered the schoolyard. It was pitch black. 

“How do you know where we’re at, Jem?” I asked, when we had gone a few steps. 

“I can tell we’re under the big oak because we’re passin‘ through a cool spot. 
Careful now, and don’t fall again.” 

We had slowed to a cautious gait, and were feeling our way forward so as not to 
bump into the tree. The tree was a single and ancient oak; two children could not 
reach around its trunk and touch hands. It was far away from teachers, their spies, 

and curious neighbors: it was near the Radley lot, but the Radleys were not 
curious. A small patch of earth beneath its branches was packed hard from many 
fights and furtive crap games. 

The lights in the high school auditorium were blazing in the distance, but they 
blinded us, if anything. “Don’t look ahead, Scout,” Jem said. “Look at the ground 
and you won’t fall.” 

“You should have brought the flashlight, Jem.” 

“Didn’t know it was this dark. Didn’t look like it’d be this dark earlier in the 
evening. So cloudy, that’s why. It’ll hold off a while, though.” 

Someone leaped at us. 

“God almighty!” Jem yelled. 

A circle of light burst in our faces, and Cecil Jacobs jumped in glee behind it. “Ha- 
a-a, gotcha!” he shrieked. “Thought you’d be comnT along this way!” 

“What are you doin‘ way out here by yourself, boy? Ain’t you scared of Boo 

Cecil had ridden safely to the auditorium with his parents, hadn’t seen us, then 
had ventured down this far because he knew good and well we’d be coming 
along. He thought Mr. Finch’ d be with us, though. 

“Shucks, ain’t much but around the corner,” said Jem. “Who’s scared to go 
around the corner?” We had to admit that Cecil was pretty good, though. He had 
given us a fright, and he could tell it all over the schoolhouse, that was his 

“Say,” I said, “ain’t you a cow tonight? Where’s your costume?” 

“It’s up behind the stage,” he said. “Mrs. Merriweather says the pageant ain’t 
comin‘ on for a while. You can put yours back of the stage by mine, Scout, and 
we can go with the rest of ’em.” 

This was an excellent idea, Jem thought. He also thought it a good thing that Cecil 
and I would be together. This way, Jem would be left to go with people his own 

When we reached the auditorium, the whole town was there except Atticus and 
the ladies worn out from decorating, and the usual outcasts and shut-ins. Most of 

the county, it seemed, was there: the hall was teeming with slicked-up country 
people. The high school building had a wide downstairs hallway; people milled 
around booths that had been installed along each side. 

“Oh Jem. I forgot my money,” I sighed, when I saw them. 

“Atticus didn’t,” Jem said. “JJere’s thirty cents, you can do six things. See you 
later on.” 

“Okay,” I said, quite content with thirty cents and Cecil. I went with Cecil down 
to the front of the auditorium, through a door on one side, and backstage. I got rid 
of my ham costume and departed in a hurry, for Mrs. Merriweather was standing 
at a lectern in front of the first row of seats making last-minute, frenzied changes 
in the script. 

“How much money you got?” I asked Cecil. Cecil had thirty cents, too, which 
made us even. We squandered our first nickels on the House of Horrors, which 
scared us not at all; we entered the black seventh-grade room and were led around 
by the temporary ghoul in residence and were made to touch several objects 
alleged to be component parts of a human being. “Here’s his eyes,” we were told 
when we touched two peeled grapes on a saucer. “Here’s his heart,” which felt 
like raw liver. “These are his innards,” and our hands were thrust into a plate of 
cold spaghetti. 

Cecil and I visited several booths. We each bought a sack of Mrs. Judge Taylor’s 
homemade divinity. I wanted to bob for apples, but Cecil said it wasn’t sanitary. 
His mother said he might catch something from everybody’s heads having been in 
the same tub. “Ain’t anything around town now to catch,” I protested. But Cecil 
said his mother said it was unsanitary to eat after folks. I later asked Aunt 
Alexandra about this, and she said people who held such views were usually 

We were about to purchase a blob of taffy when Mrs. Merriweather’ s runners 
appeared and told us to go backstage, it was time to get ready. The auditorium 
was filling with people; the Maycomb County High School band had assembled 
in front below the stage; the stage footlights were on and the red velvet curtain 
rippled and billowed from the scurrying going on behind it. 

Backstage, Cecil and I found the narrow hallway teeming with people: adults in 

homemade three-corner hats, Confederate caps, Spanish- American War hats, and 
World War helmets. Children dressed as various agricultural enterprises crowded 
around the one small window. 

“Somebody’s mashed my costume,” I wailed in dismay. Mrs. Merriweather 
galloped to me, reshaped the chicken wire, and thrust me inside. 

“You all right in there, Scout?” asked Cecil. “You sound so far off, like you was 
on the other side of a hill.” 

“You don’t sound any nearer,” I said. 

The band played the national anthem, and we heard the audience rise. Then the 
bass drum sounded. Mrs. Merriweather, stationed behind her lectern beside the 
band, said: “Maycomb County Ad Astra Per Aspera.” The bass drum boomed 
again. “That means,” said Mrs. Merriweather, translating for the rustic elements, 
“from the mud to the stars.” She added, unnecessarily, it seemed to me, “A 

“Reckon they wouldn’t know what it was if she didn’t tell ‘em,” whispered Cecil, 
who was immediately shushed. 

“The whole town knows it,” I breathed. 

“But the country folks’ve come in,” Cecil said. 

“Be quiet back there,” a man’s voice ordered, and we were silent. 

The bass drum went boom with every sentence Mrs. Merriweather uttered. She 
chanted mournfully about Maycomb County being older than the state, that it was 
a part of the Mississippi and Alabama Territories, that the first white man to set 
foot in the virgin forests was the Probate Judge’s great-grandfather five times 
removed, who was never heard of again. Then came the fearless Colonel 
Maycomb, for whom the county was named. 

Andrew Jackson appointed him to a position of authority, and Colonel 
Maycomb ’s misplaced self-confidence and slender sense of direction brought 
disaster to all who rode with him in the Creek Indian Wars. Colonel Maycomb 
persevered in his efforts to make the region safe for democracy, but his first 
campaign was his last. His orders, relayed to him by a friendly Indian runner, 
were to move south. After consulting a tree to ascertain from its lichen which way 

was south, and taking no lip from the subordinates who ventured to correct him, 
Colonel Maycomb set out on a purposeful journey to rout the enemy and 
entangled his troops so far northwest in the forest primeval that they were 
eventually rescued by settlers moving inland. 

Mrs. Merriweather gave a thirty-minute description of Colonel Maycomb’ s 
exploits. I discovered that if I bent my knees I could tuck them under my costume 
and more or less sit. I sat down, listened to Mrs. Merriweather’ s drone and the 
bass drum’s boom and was soon fast asleep. 

They said later that Mrs. Merriweather was putting her all into the grand finale, 
that she had crooned, “Po-ork,” with a confidence born of pine trees and 
butterbeans entering on cue. She waited a few seconds, then called, “Po-ork?” 
When nothing materialized, she yelled, “Pork!” 

I must have heard her in my sleep, or the band playing Dixie woke me, but it was 
when Mrs. Merriweather triumphantly mounted the stage with the state flag that I 
chose to make my entrance. Chose is incorrect: I thought I’d better catch up with 
the rest of them. 

They told me later that Judge Taylor went out behind the auditorium and stood 
there slapping his knees so hard Mrs. Taylor brought him a glass of water and one 
of his pills. 

Mrs. Merriweather seemed to have a hit, everybody was cheering so, but she 
caught me backstage and told me I had ruined her pageant. She made me feel 
awful, but when Jem came to fetch me he was sympathetic. He said he couldn’t 
see my costume much from where he was sitting. How he could tell I was feeling 
bad under my costume I don’t know, but he said I did all right, I just came in a 
little late, that was all. Jem was becoming almost as good as Atticus at making 
you feel right when things went wrong. Almost — not even Jem could make me go 
through that crowd, and he consented to wait backstage with me until the 
audience left. 

“You wanta take it off, Scout?” he asked. 

“Naw, I’ll just keep it on,” I said. I could hide my mortification under it. 

“You all want a ride home?” someone asked. 

“No sir, thank you,” I heard Jem say. “It’s just a little walk.” 

“Be careful of haints,” the voice said. “Better still, tell the haints to be careful of 

“There aren’t many folks left now,” Jem told me. “Let’s go.” 

We went through the auditorium to the hallway, then down the steps. It was still 
black dark. The remaining cars were parked on the other side of the building, and 
their headlights were little help. “If some of ‘em were goin’ in our direction we 
could see better,” said Jem. “Here Scout, let me hold onto your — hock. You might 
lose your balance.” 

“I can see all right.” 

“Yeah, but you might lose your balance.” I felt a slight pressure on my head, and 
assumed that Jem had grabbed that end of the ham. “You got me?” 

“Uh huh.” 

We began crossing the black schoolyard, straining to see our feet. “Jem,” I said, 

“I forgot my shoes, they’re back behind the stage.” 

“Well let’s go get ‘em.” But as we turned around the auditorium lights went off. 
“You can get ’em tomorrow,” he said. 

“But tomorrow’s Sunday,” I protested, as Jem turned me homeward. 

“You can get the Janitor to let you in. . . Scout?” 



Jem hadn’t started that in a long time. I wondered what he was thinking. He’d tell 
me when he wanted to, probably when we got home. I felt his fingers press the 
top of my costume, too hard, it seemed. I shook my head. “Jem, you don’t hafta 

“Hush a minute, Scout,” he said, pinching me. 

We walked along silently. “Minute’s up,” I said. “Whatcha thinknT about?” I 
turned to look at him, but his outline was barely visible. 

“Thought I heard something,” he said. “Stop a minute.” 

We stopped. 

“Hear anything?” he asked. 


We had not gone five paces before he made me stop again. 

“Jem, are you tryin‘ to scare me? You know I’m too old — ” 

“Be quiet,” he said, and I knew he was not joking. 

The night was still. I could hear his breath coming easily beside me. Occasionally 
there was a sudden breeze that hit my bare legs, but it was all that remained of a 
promised windy night. This was the stillness before a thunderstorm. We listened. 

“Heard an old dog just then,” I said. 

“It’s not that,” Jem answered. “I hear it when we’re walkin‘ along, but when we 
stop I don’t hear it.” 

“You hear my costume rustlin? Aw, it’s just Halloween got you. . .” 

I said it more to convince myself than Jem, for sure enough, as we began walking, 
I heard what he was talking about. It was not my costume. 

“It’s just old Cecil,” said Jem presently. “He won’t get us again. Let’s don’t let 
him think we’re hurrying.” 

We slowed to a crawl. I asked Jem how Cecil could follow us in this dark, looked 
to me like he’d bump into us from behind. 

“I can see you, Scout,” Jem said. 

“How? I can’t see you.” 

“Your fat streaks are showin‘. Mrs. Crenshaw painted ’em with some of that 
shiny stuff so they’d show up under the footlights. I can see you pretty well, an‘ I 
expect Cecil can see you well enough to keep his distance.” 

I would show Cecil that we knew he was behind us and we were ready for him. 
“Cecil Jacobs is a big wet he-en!” I yelled suddenly, turning around. 

We stopped. There was no acknowledgement save he-en bouncing off the distant 
schoolhouse wall. 

“I’ll get him,” said Jem. “He-y!” 

Hay-e-hay-e-hay-ey, answered the schoolhouse wall. It was unlike Cecil to hold 

out for so long; once he pulled a joke he’d repeat it time and again. We should 
have been leapt at already. Jem signaled for me to stop again. 

He said softly, “Scout, can you take that thing off?” 

“I think so, but I ain’t got anything on under it much.” 

“I’ve got your dress here.” 

“I can’t get it on in the dark.” 

“Okay,” he said, “never mind.” 

“Jem, are you afraid?” 

“No. Think we’re almost to the tree now. Few yards from that, an‘ we’ll be to the 
road. We can see the street light then.” Jem was talking in an unhurried, flat 
toneless voice. I wondered how long he would try to keep the Cecil myth going. 

“You reckon we oughta sing, Jem?” 

“No. Be real quiet again, Scout.” 

We had not increased our pace. Jem knew as well as I that it was difficult to walk 
fast without stumping a toe, tripping on stones, and other inconveniences, and I 
was barefooted. Maybe it was the wind rustling the trees. But there wasn’t any 
wind and there weren’t any trees except the big oak. 

Our company shuffled and dragged his feet, as if wearing heavy shoes. Whoever 
it was wore thick cotton pants; what I thought were trees rustling was the soft 
swish of cotton on cotton, wheek, wheek, with every step. 

I felt the sand go cold under my feet and I knew we were near the big oak. Jem 
pressed my head. We stopped and listened. 

Shuffle-foot had not stopped with us this time. His trousers swished softly and 
steadily. Then they stopped. He was running, running toward us with no child’s 

“Run, Scout! Run! Run!” Jem screamed. 

I took one giant step and found myself reeling: my arms useless, in the dark, I 
could not keep my balance. 

“Jem, Jem, help me, Jem!” 

Something crushed the chicken wire around me. Metal ripped on metal and I fell 

to the ground and rolled as far as I could, floundering to escape my wire prison. 
From somewhere near by came scuffling, kicking sounds, sounds of shoes and 
flesh scraping dirt and roots. Someone rolled against me and I felt Jem. He was up 
like lightning and pulling me with him but, though my head and shoulders were 
free, I was so entangled we didn’t get very far. 

We were nearly to the road when I felt Jem’s hand leave me, felt him jerk 
backwards to the ground. More scuffling, and there came a dull crunching sound 
and Jem screamed. 

I ran in the direction of Jem’s scream and sank into a flabby male stomach. Its 
owner said, “Uff !” and tried to catch my arms, but they were tightly pinioned. His 
stomach was soft but his arms were like steel. He slowly squeezed the breath out 
of me. I could not move. Suddenly he was jerked backwards and flung on the 
ground, almost carrying me with him. I thought, Jem’s up. 

One’s mind works very slowly at times. Stunned, I stood there dumbly. The 
scuffling noises were dying; someone wheezed and the night was still again. 

Still but for a man breathing heavily, breathing heavily and staggering. I thought 
he went to the tree and leaned against it. He coughed violently, a sobbing, bone- 
shaking cough. 


There was no answer but the man’s heavy breathing. 


Jem didn’t answer. 

The man began moving around, as if searching for something. I heard him groan 
and pull something heavy along the ground. It was slowly coming to me that there 
were now four people under the tree. 


The man was walking heavily and unsteadily toward the road. 

I went to where I thought he had been and felt frantically along the ground, 
reaching out with my toes. Presently I touched someone. 


My toes touched trousers, a belt buckle, buttons, something I could not identify, a 
collar, and a face. A prickly stubble on the face told me it was not Jem’s. I 
smelled stale whiskey. 

I made my way along in what I thought was the direction of the road. I was not 
sure, because I had been turned around so many times. But I found it and looked 
down to the street light. A man was passing under it. The man was walking with 
the staccato steps of someone carrying a load too heavy for him. He was going 
around the corner. He was carrying Jem. Jem’s arm was dangling crazily in front 
of him. 

By the time I reached the corner the man was crossing our front yard. Light from 
our front door framed Atticus for an instant; he ran down the steps, and together, 
he and the man took Jem inside. 

I was at the front door when they were going down the hall. Aunt Alexandra was 
running to meet me. “Call Dr. Reynolds!” Atticus’ s voice came sharply from 
Jem’s room. “Where’s Scout?” 

“Here she is,” Aunt Alexandra called, pulling me along with her to the telephone. 
She tugged at me anxiously. “I’m all right, Aunty,” I said, “you better call.” 

She pulled the receiver from the hook and said, “Eula May, get Dr. Reynolds, 

“Agnes, is your father home? Oh God, where is he? Please tell him to come over 
here as soon as he comes in. Please, it’s urgent!” 

There was no need for Aunt Alexandra to identify herself, people in Maycomb 
knew each other’s voices. 

Atticus came out of Jem’s room. The moment Aunt Alexandra broke the 
connection, Atticus took the receiver from her. He rattled the hook, then said, 
“Eula May, get me the sheriff, please.” 

“Heck? Atticus Finch. Someone’s been after my children. Jem’s hurt. Between 
here and the schoolhouse. I can’t leave my boy. Run out there for me, please, and 
see if he’s still around. Doubt if you’ll find him now, but I’d like to see him if you 
do. Got to go now. Thanks, Heck.” 

“Atticus, is Jem dead?” 

“No, Scout. Look after her, sister,” he called, as he went down the hall. 

Aunt Alexandra’s fingers trembled as she unwound the crushed fabric and wire 
from around me. “Are you all right, darling?” she asked over and over as she 
worked me free. 

It was a relief to be out. My arms were beginning to tingle, and they were red with 
small hexagonal marks. I rubbed them, and they felt better. 

“Aunty, is Jem dead?” 

“No — no, darling, he’s unconscious. We won’t know how badly he’s hurt until 
Dr. Reynolds gets here. Jean Louise, what happened?” 

“I don’t know.” 

She left it at that. She brought me something to put on, and had I thought about it 
then, I would have never let her forget it: in her distraction, Aunty brought me my 
overalls. “Put these on, darling,” she said, handing me the garments she most 

She rushed back to Jem’s room, then came to me in the hall. She patted me 
vaguely, and went back to Jem’s room. 

A car stopped in front of the house. I knew Dr. Reynolds’s step almost as well as 
my father’s. He had brought Jem and me into the world, had led us through every 
childhood disease known to man including the time Jem fell out of the treehouse, 
and he had never lost our friendship. Dr. Reynolds said if we had been boil-prone 
things would have been different, but we doubted it. 

He came in the door and said, “Good Lord.” He walked toward me, said, “You’re 
still standing,” and changed his course. He knew every room in the house. He also 
knew that if I was in bad shape, so was Jem. 

After ten forevers Dr. Reynolds returned. “Is Jem dead?” I asked. 

“Far from it,” he said, squatting down to me. “He’s got a bump on the head just 
like yours, and a broken arm. Scout, look that way — no, don’t turn your head, roll 
your eyes. Now look over yonder. He’s got a bad break, so far as I can tell now 
it’s in the elbow. Like somebody tried to wring his arm off. . . Now look at me.” 

“Then he’s not dead?” 

“No-o!” Dr. Reynolds got to his feet. “We can’t do much tonight,” he said, 

“except try to make him as comfortable as we can. We’ll have to X-ray his arm — 
looks like he’ll be wearing his arm ‘way out by his side for a while. Don’t worry, 
though, he’ll be as good as new. Boys his age bounce.” 

While he was talking, Dr. Reynolds had been looking keenly at me, lightly 
fingering the bump that was coming on my forehead. “You don’t feel broke 
anywhere, do you?” 

Dr. Reynolds’s small joke made me smile. “Then you don’t think he’s dead, 

He put on his hat. “Now I may be wrong, of course, but I think he’s very alive. 
Shows all the symptoms of it. Go have a look at him, and when I come back we’ll 
get together and decide.” 

Dr. Reynolds’s step was young and brisk. Mr. Heck Tate’s was not. His heavy 
boots punished the porch and he opened the door awkwardly, but he said the same 
thing Dr. Reynolds said when he came in. “You all right, Scout?” he added. 

“Yes sir, I’m goin‘ in to see Jem. Atticus’n’them’s in there.” 

“I’ll go with you,” said Mr. Tate. 

Aunt Alexandra had shaded Jem’s reading light with a towel, and his room was 
dim. Jem was lying on his back. There was an ugly mark along one side of his 
face. His left arm lay out from his body; his elbow was bent slightly, but in the 
wrong direction. Jem was frowning. 


Atticus spoke. “He can’t hear you, Scout, he’s out like a light. He was coming 
around, but Dr. Reynolds put him out again.” 

“Yes sir.” I retreated. Jem’s room was large and square. Aunt Alexandra was 
sitting in a rocking-chair by the fireplace. The man who brought Jem in was 
standing in a corner, leaning against the wall. He was some countryman I did not 
know. He had probably been at the pageant, and was in the vicinity when it 
happened. He must have heard our screams and come running. 

Atticus was standing by Jem’s bed. 

Mr. Heck Tate stood in the doorway. His hat was in his hand, and a flashlight 
bulged from his pants pocket. He was in his working clothes. 

“Come in, Heck,” said Atticus. “Did you find anything? I can’t conceive of 
anyone low-down enough to do a thing like this, but I hope you found him.” 

Mr. Tate sniffed. He glanced sharply at the man in the corner, nodded to him, then 
looked around the room — at Jem, at Aunt Alexandra, then at Atticus. 

“Sit down, Mr. Finch,” he said pleasantly. 

Atticus said, “Let’s all sit down. Have that chair, Heck. I’ll get another one from 
the livingroom.” 

Mr. Tate sat in Jem’s desk chair. He waited until Atticus returned and settled 
himself. I wondered why Atticus had not brought a chair for the man in the 
corner, but Atticus knew the ways of country people far better than I. Some of his 
rural clients would park their long-eared steeds under the chinaberry trees in the 
back yard, and Atticus would often keep appointments on the back steps. This one 
was probably more comfortable where he was. 

“Mr. Finch,” said Mr. Tate, “tell you what I found. I found a little girl’s dress — 
it’s out there in my car. That your dress, Scout?” 

“Yes sir, if it’s a pink one with smockhT,” I said. Mr. Tate was behaving as if he 
were on the witness stand. He liked to tell things his own way, untrammeled by 
state or defense, and sometimes it took him a while. 

“I found some funny-looking pieces of muddy-colored cloth — ” 

“That’s m’ costume, Mr. Tate.” 

Mr. Tate ran his hands down his thighs. He rubbed his left arm and investigated 
Jem’s mantelpiece, then he seemed to be interested in the fireplace. His fingers 
sought his long nose. 

“What is it, Heck?” said Atticus. 

Mr. Tate found his neck and rubbed it. “Bob Ewell’s lyin‘ on the ground under 
that tree down yonder with a kitchen knife stuck up under his ribs. He’s dead, Mr. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 29 

Aunt Alexandra got up and reached for the mantelpiece. Mr. Tate rose, but she 
declined assistance. For once in his life, Atticus’s instinctive courtesy failed him: 
he sat where he was. 

Somehow, I could think of nothing but Mr. Bob Ewell saying he’d get Atticus if it 
took him the rest of his life. Mr. Ewell almost got him, and it was the last thing he 

“Are you sure?” Atticus said bleakly. 

“He’s dead all right,” said Mr. Tate. “He’s good and dead. He won’t hurt these 
children again.” 

“I didn’t mean that.” Atticus seemed to be talking in his sleep. His age was 
beginning to show, his one sign of inner turmoil, the strong line of his jaw melted 
a little, one became aware of telltale creases forming under his ears, one noticed 
not his jet-black hair but the gray patches growing at his temples. 

“Hadn’t we better go to the livingroom?” Aunt Alexandra said at last. 

“If you don’t mind,” said Mr. Tate, “I’d rather us stay in here if it won’t hurt Jem 
any. I want to have a look at his injuries while Scout. . . tells us about it.” 

“Is it all right if I leave?” she asked. “I’m just one person too many in here. I’ll be 
in my room if you want me, Atticus.” Aunt Alexandra went to the door, but she 
stopped and turned. “Atticus, I had a feeling about this tonight — I — this is my 
fault,” she began. “I should have — ” 

Mr. Tate held up his hand. “You go ahead, Miss Alexandra, I know it’s been a 
shock to you. And don’t you fret yourself about anything — why, if we followed 
our feelings all the time we’d be like cats chasin‘ their tails. Miss Scout, see if 
you can tell us what happened, while it’s still fresh in your mind. You think you 
can? Did you see him following you?” 

I went to Atticus and felt his arms go around me. I buried my head in his lap. “We 
started home. I said Jem, I’ve forgot m’ shoes. Soon’s we started back for ‘em the 

lights went out. Jem said I could get ’em tomorrow. . .” 

“Scout, raise up so Mr. Tate can hear you,” Atticus said. I crawled into his lap. 

“Then Jem said hush a minute. I thought he was thinkhT — he always wants you to 
hush so he can think — then he said he heard somethin’. We thought it was Cecil.” 


“Cecil Jacobs. He scared us once tonight, an‘ we thought it was him again. He 
had on a sheet. They gave a quarter for the best costume, I don’t know who won it 

“Where were you when you thought it was Cecil?” 

“Just a little piece from the schoolhouse. I yelled somethin 4 at him — ” 

“You yelled, what?” 

“Cecil Jacobs is a big fat hen, I think. We didn’t hear nothin 4 — then Jem yelled 
hello or somethin’ loud enough to wake the dead — ” 

“Just a minute, Scout,” said Mr. Tate. “Mr. Finch, did you hear them?” 

Atticus said he didn’t. He had the radio on. Aunt Alexandra had hers going in her 
bedroom. He remembered because she told him to turn his down a bit so she 
could hear hers. Atticus smiled. “I always play a radio too loud.” 

“I wonder if the neighbors heard anything. . .” said Mr. Tate. 

“I doubt it, Heck. Most of them listen to their radios or go to bed with the 
chickens. Maudie Atkinson may have been up, but I doubt it.” 

“Go ahead, Scout,” Mr. Tate said. 

“Well, after Jem yelled we walked on. Mr. Tate, I was shut up in my costume but 
I could hear it myself, then. Footsteps, I mean. They walked when we walked and 
stopped when we stopped. Jem said he could see me because Mrs. Crenshaw put 
some kind of shiny paint on my costume. I was a ham.” 

“How’s that?” asked Mr. Tate, startled. 

Atticus described my role to Mr. Tate, plus the construction of my garment. “You 
should have seen her when she came in,” he said, “it was crushed to a pulp.” 

Mr. Tate rubbed his chin. “I wondered why he had those marks on him, His 
sleeves were perforated with little holes. There were one or two little puncture 

marks on his arms to match the holes. Let me see that thing if you will, sir.” 

Atticus fetched the remains of my costume. Mr. Tate turned it over and bent it 
around to get an idea of its former shape. “This thing probably saved her life,” he 
said. “Look.” 

He pointed with a long forefinger. A shiny clean line stood out on the dull wire. 
“Bob Ewell meant business,” Mr. Tate muttered. 

“He was out of his mind,” said Atticus. 

“Don’t like to contradict you, Mr. Finch — wasn’t crazy, mean as hell. Low-down 
skunk with enough liquor in him to make him brave enough to kill children. He’d 
never have met you face to face.” 

Atticus shook his head. “I can’t conceive of a man who’d — ” 

“Mr. Finch, there’s just some kind of men you have to shoot before you can say 
hidy to ‘em. Even then, they ain’t worth the bullet it takes to shoot ’em. Ewell ‘as 
one of ’em.” 

Atticus said, “I thought he got it all out of him the day he threatened me. Even if 
he hadn’t, I thought he’d come after me.” 

“He had guts enough to pester a poor colored woman, he had guts enough to 
pester Judge Taylor when he thought the house was empty, so do you think he’ da 
met you to your face in daylight?” Mr. Tate sighed. “We’d better get on. Scout, 
you heard him behind you — ” 

“Y es sir. When we got under the tree — ” 

“How’d you know you were under the tree, you couldn’t see thunder out there.” 
“I was barefooted, and Jem says the ground’s always cooler under a tree.” 

“We’ll have to make him a deputy, go ahead.” 

“Then all of a sudden somethin 4 grabbed me an’ mashed my costume. . . think I 
ducked on the ground. . . heard a tusslin 4 under the tree sort of. . . they were 
bammin’ against the trunk, sounded like. Jem found me and started pullin 4 me 
toward the road. Some — Mr. Ewell yanked him down, I reckon. They tussled 
some more and then there was this funny noise — Jem hollered. . .” I stopped. That 
was Jem’s arm. 

“Anyway, Jem hollered and I didn’t hear him any more an’ the next thing — Mr. 
Ewell was tryin’ to squeeze me to death, I reckon. . . then somebody yanked Mr. 
Ewell down. Jem must have got up, I guess. That’s all I know. . .” 

“And then?” Mr. Tate was looking at me sharply. 

“Somebody was staggerin’ around and pantin’ and — coughing fit to die. I thought 
it was Jem at first, but it didn’t sound like him, so I went lookin’ for Jem on the 
ground. I thought Atticus had come to help us and had got wore out — ” 

“Who was it?” 

“Why there he is, Mr. Tate, he can tell you his name.” 

As I said it, I half pointed to the man in the corner, but brought my arm down 
quickly lest Atticus reprimand me for pointing. It was impolite to point. 

He was still leaning against the wall. He had been leaning against the wall when I 
came into the room, his arms folded across his chest. As I pointed he brought his 
arms down and pressed the palms of his hands against the wall. They were white 
hands, sickly white hands that had never seen the sun, so white they stood out 
garishly against the dull cream wall in the dim light of Jem’s room. 

I looked from his hands to his sand-stained khaki pants; my eyes traveled up his 
thin frame to his torn denim shirt. His face was as white as his hands, but for a 
shadow on his jutting chin. His cheeks were thin to hollowness; his mouth was 
wide; there were shallow, almost delicate indentations at his temples, and his gray 
eyes were so colorless I thought he was blind. His hair was dead and thin, almost 
feathery on top of his head. 

When I pointed to him his palms slipped slightly, leaving greasy sweat streaks on 
the wall, and he hooked his thumbs in his belt. A strange small spasm shook him, 
as if he heard fingernails scrape slate, but as I gazed at him in wonder the tension 
slowly drained from his face. His lips parted into a timid smile, and our 
neighbor’s image blurred with my sudden tears. 

“Hey, Boo,” I said. 

Contents - Prev / Next 

Chapter 30 

“Mr. Arthur, honey,” said Atticus, gently correcting me. “Jean Louise, this is Mr. 
Arthur Radley. I believe he already knows you.” 

If Atticus could blandly introduce me to Boo Radley at a time like this, well — that 
was Atticus. 

Boo saw me run instinctively to the bed where Jem was sleeping, for the same shy 
smile crept across his face. JJot with embarrassment, I tried to cover up by 
covering Jem up. 

“Ah-ah, don’t touch him,” Atticus said. 

Mr. Heck Tate sat looking intently at Boo through his horn-rimmed glasses. He 
was about to speak when Dr. Reynolds came down the hall. 

“Everybody out,” he said, as he came in the door. “Evenin‘, Arthur, didn’t notice 
you the first time I was here.” 

Dr. Reynolds’s voice was as breezy as his step, as though he had said it every 
evening of his life, an announcement that astounded me even more than being in 
the same room with Boo Radley. Of course. . . even Boo Radley got sick 
sometimes, I thought. But on the other hand I wasn’t sure. 

Dr. Reynolds was carrying a big package wrapped in newspaper. He put it down 
on Jem’s desk and took off his coat. “You’re quite satisfied he’s alive, now? Tell 
you how I knew. When I tried to examine him he kicked me. Had to put him out 
good and proper to touch him. So scat,” he said to me. 

“Er — ” said Atticus, glancing at Boo. “Heck, let’s go out on the front porch. 

There are plenty of chairs out there, and it’s still warm enough.” 

I wondered why Atticus was inviting us to the front porch instead of the 
livingroom, then I understood. The livingroom lights were awfully strong. 

We filed out, first Mr. Tate — Atticus was waiting at the door for him to go ahead 
of him. Then he changed his mind and followed Mr. Tate. 

People have a habit of doing everyday things even under the oddest conditions. I 

was no exception: “Come along, Mr. Arthur,” I heard myself saying, “you don’t 
know the house real well. I’ll just take you to the porch, sir.” 

He looked down at me and nodded. 

I led him through the hall and past the livingroom. 

“Won’t you have a seat, Mr. Arthur? This rocking-chair’s nice and comfortable.” 

My small fantasy about him was alive again: he would be sitting on the porch. . . 
right pretty spell we’re having, isn’t it, Mr. Arthur? 

Yes, a right pretty spell. Feeling slightly unreal, I led him to the chair farthest 
from Atticus and Mr. Tate. It was in deep shadow. Boo would feel more 
comfortable in the dark. 

Atticus was sitting in the swing, and Mr. Tate was in a chair next to him. The 
light from the livingroom windows was strong on them. I sat beside Boo. 

“Well, Heck,” Atticus was saying, “I guess the thing to do — good Lord, I’m 
losing my memory. . .” Atticus pushed up his glasses and pressed his fingers to his 
eyes. “Jem’s not quite thirteen... no, he’s already thirteen — I can’t remember. 
Anyway, it’ll come before county court — ” 

“What will, Mr. Finch?” Mr. Tate uncrossed his legs and leaned forward. 

“Of course it was clear-cut self defense, but I’ll have to go to the office and hunt 

“Mr. Finch, do you think Jem killed Bob Ewell? Do you think that?” 

“You heard what Scout said, there’s no doubt about it. She said Jem got up and 
yanked him off her — he probably got hold of Ewell’s knife somehow in the 
dark. . . we’ll find out tomorrow.” 

“Mis-ter Finch, hold on,” said Mr. Tate. “Jem never stabbed Bob Ewell.” 

Atticus was silent for a moment. He looked at Mr. Tate as if he appreciated what 
he said. But Atticus shook his head. 

“Heck, it’s mighty kind of you and I know you’re doing it from that good heart of 
yours, but don’t start anything like that.” 

Mr. Tate got up and went to the edge of the porch. He spat into the shrubbery, 
then thrust his hands into his hip pockets and faced Atticus. “Like what?” he said. 

“I’m sorry if I spoke sharply, Heck,” Atticus said simply, “but nobody’s hushing 
this up. I don’t live that way.” 

“Nobody’s gonna hush anything up, Mr. Finch.” 

Mr. Tate’s voice was quiet, but his boots were planted so solidly on the porch 
floorboards it seemed that they grew there. A curious contest, the nature of which 
eluded me, was developing between my father and the sheriff. 

It was Atticus ’s turn to get up and go to the edge of the porch. He said, “H’rm,” 
and spat dryly into the yard. He put his hands in his pockets and faced Mr. Tate. 

“Heck, you haven’t said it, but I know what you’re thinking. Thank you for it. 

Jean Louise — ” he turned to me. “You said Jem yanked Mr. Ewell off you?” 

“Yes sir, that’s what I thought. . . I — ” 

“See there, Heck? Thank you from the bottom of my heart, but I don’t want my 
boy starting out with something like this over his head. Best way to clear the air is 
to have it all out in the open. Let the county come and bring sandwiches. I don’t 
want him growing up with a whisper about him, I don’t want anybody saying, 

‘Jem Finch. . . his daddy paid a mint to get him out of that.’ Sooner we get this 
over with the better.” 

“Mr. Finch,” Mr. Tate said stolidly, “Bob Ewell fell on his knife. He killed 

Atticus walked to the corner of the porch. He looked at the wisteria vine. In his 
own way, I thought, each was as stubborn as the other. I wondered who would 
give in first. Atticus’ s stubbornness was quiet and rarely evident, but in some 
ways he was as set as the Cunninghams. Mr. Tate’s was unschooled and blunt, but 
it was equal to my father’s. 

“Heck,” Atticus’ s back was turned. “If this thing’s hushed up it’ll be a simple 
denial to Jem of the way I’ve tried to raise him. Sometimes I think I’m a total 
failure as a parent, but I’m all they’ve got. Before Jem looks at anyone else he 
looks at me, and I’ve tried to live so I can look squarely back at him. . . if I 
connived at something like this, frankly I couldn’t meet his eye, and the day I 
can’t do that I’ll know I’ve lost him. I don’t want to lose him and Scout, because 
they’re all I’ve got.” 

“Mr. Finch.” Mr. Tate was still planted to the floorboards. “Bob Ewell fell on his 
knife. I can prove it.” 

Atticus wheeled around. His hands dug into his pockets. “Heck, can’t you even 
try to see it my way? You’ve got children of your own, but I’m older than you. 
When mine are grown I’ll be an old man if I’m still around, but right now I’m — if 
they don’t trust me they won’t trust anybody. Jem and Scout know what 
happened. If they hear of me saying downtown something different happened — 
Heck, I won’t have them any more. I can’t live one way in town and another way 
in my home.” 

Mr. Tate rocked on his heels and said patiently, “He’d flung Jem down, he 
stumbled over a root under that tree and — look, I can show you.” 

Mr. Tate reached in his side pocket and withdrew a long switchblade knife. As he 
did so, Dr. Reynolds came to the door. “The son — deceased’s under that tree, 
doctor, just inside the schoolyard. Got a flashlight? Better have this one.” 

“I can ease around and turn my car lights on,” said Dr. Reynolds, but he took Mr. 
Tate’s flashlight. “Jem’s all right. He won’t wake up tonight, I hope, so don’t 
worry. That the knife that killed him, Heck?” 

“No sir, still in him. Looked like a kitchen knife from the handle. Ken oughta be 
there with the hearse by now, doctor, ‘night.” 

Mr. Tate flicked open the knife. “It was like this,” he said. He held the knife and 
pretended to stumble; as he leaned forward his left arm went down in front of 
him. “See there? Stabbed himself through that soft stuff between his ribs. His 
whole weight drove it in.” 

Mr. Tate closed the knife and jammed it back in his pocket. “Scout is eight years 
old,” he said. “She was too scared to know exactly what went on.” 

“You’d be surprised,” Atticus said grimly. 

“I’m not sayin‘ she made it up, I’m sayin’ she was too scared to know exactly 
what happened. It was mighty dark out there, black as ink. ‘d take somebody 
mighty used to the dark to make a competent witness. . .” 

“I won’t have it,” Atticus said softly. 

“God damn it, I’m not thinking of Jem!” 

Mr. Tate’s boot hit the floorboards so hard the lights in Miss Maudie’s bedroom 
went on. Miss Stephanie Crawford’s lights went on. Atticus and Mr. Tate looked 
across the street, then at each other. They waited. 

When Mr. Tate spoke again his voice was barely audible. “Mr. Finch, I hate to 
fight you when you’re like this. You’ve been under a strain tonight no man should 
ever have to go through. Why you ain’t in the bed from it I don’t know, but I do 
know that for once you haven’t been able to put two and two together, and we’ve 
got to settle this tonight because tomorrow’ll be too late. Bob Ewell’s got a 
kitchen knife in his craw.” 

Mr. Tate added that Atticus wasn’t going to stand there and maintain that any boy 
Jem’s size with a busted arm had fight enough left in him to tackle and kill a 
grown man in the pitch dark. 

“Heck,” said Atticus abruptly, “that was a switchblade you were waving. Where’ d 
you get it?” 

“Took it off a drunk man,” Mr. Tate answered coolly. 

I was trying to remember. Mr. Ewell was on me. . . then he went down. . . Jem 
must have gotten up. At least I thought. . . 


“I said I took it off a drunk man downtown tonight. Ewell probably found that 
kitchen knife in the dump somewhere. Honed it down and bided his time. . . just 
bided his time.” 

Atticus made his way to the swing and sat down. His hands dangled limply 
between his knees. He was looking at the floor. He had moved with the same 
slowness that night in front of the jail, when I thought it took him forever to fold 
his newspaper and toss it in his chair. 

Mr. Tate clumped softly around the porch. “It ain’t your decision, Mr. Finch, it’s 
all mine. It’s my decision and my responsibility. For once, if you don’t see it my 
way, there’s not much you can do about it. If you wanta try, I’ll call you a liar to 
your face. Your boy never stabbed Bob Ewell,” he said slowly, “didn’t come near 
a mile of it and now you know it. All he wanted to do was get him and his sister 
safely home.” 

Mr. Tate stopped pacing. He stopped in front of Atticus, and his back was to us. 
“I’m not a very good man, sir, but I am sheriff of Maycomb County. Lived in this 
town all my life an‘ I’m goin’ on forty-three years old. Know everything that’s 
happened here since before I was born. There’s a black boy dead for no reason, 
and the man responsible for it’s dead. Let the dead bury the dead this time, Mr. 
Finch. Let the dead bury the dead.” 

Mr. Tate went to the swing and picked up his hat. It was lying beside Atticus. Mr. 
Tate pushed back his hair and put his hat on. 

“I never heard tell that it’ s against the law for a citizen to do his utmost to prevent 
a crime from being committed, which is exactly what he did, but maybe you’ll 
say it’s my duty to tell the town all about it and not hush it up. Know what’d 
happen then? All the ladies in Maycomb includin‘ my wife’d be knocking on his 
door bringing angel food cakes. To my way of thinkin’, Mr. Finch, taking the one 
man who’s done you and this town a great service an‘ draggin’ him with his shy 
ways into the limelight — to me, that’s a sin. It’s a sin and I’m not about to have it 
on my head. If it was any other man, it’d be different. But not this man, Mr. 

Mr. Tate was trying to dig a hole in the floor with the toe of his boot. He pulled 
his nose, then he massaged his left arm. “I may not be much, Mr. Finch, but I’m 
still sheriff of Maycomb County and Bob Ewell fell on his knife. Good night, sir.” 

Mr. Tate stamped off the porch and strode across the front yard. His car door 
slammed and he drove away. 

Atticus sat looking at the floor for a long time. Finally he raised his head. 

“Scout,” he said, “Mr. Ewell fell on his knife. Can you possibly understand?” 

Atticus looked like he needed cheering up. I ran to him and hugged him and 
kissed him with all my might. “Yes sir, I understand,” I reassured him. “Mr. Tate 
was right.” 

Atticus disengaged himself and looked at me. “What do you mean?” 

“Well, it’d be sort of like shootin‘ a mockingbird, wouldn’t it?” 

Atticus put his face in my hair and rubbed it. When he got up and walked across 
the porch into the shadows, his youthful step had returned. Before he went inside 

the house, he stopped in front of Boo Radley. “Thank you for my children, 
Arthur,” he said. 

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Chapter 31 

When Boo Radley shuffled to his feet, light from the livingroom windows 
glistened on his forehead. Every move he made was uncertain, as if he were not 
sure his hands and feet could make proper contact with the things he touched. He 
coughed his dreadful raling cough, and was so shaken he had to sit down again. 
His hand searched for his hip pocket, and he pulled out a handkerchief. He 
coughed into it, then he wiped his forehead. 

Having been so accustomed to his absence, I found it incredible that he had been 
sitting beside me all this time, present. He had not made a sound. 

Once more, he got to his feet. He turned to me and nodded toward the front door. 
“You’d like to say good night to Jem, wouldn’t you, Mr. Arthur? Come right in.” 

I led him down the hall. Aunt Alexandra was sitting by Jem’s bed. “Come in, 
Arthur,” she said. “He’s still asleep. Dr. Reynolds gave him a heavy sedative. 

Jean Louise, is your father in the livingroom?” 

“Yes ma’am, I think so.” 

“I’ll just go speak to him a minute. Dr. Reynolds left some. . .” her voice trailed 

Boo had drifted to a corner of the room, where he stood with his chin up, peering 
from a distance at Jem. I took him by the hand, a hand surprisingly warm for its 
whiteness. I tugged him a little, and he allowed me to lead him to Jem’s bed. 

Dr. Reynolds had made a tent-like arrangement over Jem’s arm, to keep the cover 
off, I guess, and Boo leaned forward and looked over it. An expression of timid 
curiosity was on his face, as though he had never seen a boy before. His mouth 

was slightly open, and he looked at Jem from head to foot. Boo’s hand came up, 
but he let it drop to his side. 

“You can pet him, Mr. Arthur, he’s asleep. You couldn’t if he was awake, though, 
he wouldn’t let you. . .” I found myself explaining. “Go ahead.” 

Boo’s hand hovered over Jem’s head. 

“Go on, sir, he’s asleep.” 

His hand came down lightly on Jem’s hair. 

I was beginning to learn his body English. His hand tightened on mine and he 
indicated that he wanted to leave. 

I led him to the front porch, where his uneasy steps halted. He was still holding 
my hand and he gave no sign of letting me go. 

“Will you take me home?” 

He almost whispered it, in the voice of a child afraid of the dark. 

I put my foot on the top step and stopped. I would lead him through our house, 
but I would never lead him home. 

“Mr. Arthur, bend your arm down here, like that. That’s right, sir.” 

I slipped my hand into the crook of his arm. 

He had to stoop a little to accommodate me, but if Miss Stephanie Crawford was 
watching from her upstairs window, she would see Arthur Radley escorting me 
down the sidewalk, as any gentleman would do. 

We came to the street light on the corner, and I wondered how many times Dill 
had stood there hugging the fat pole, watching, waiting, hoping. I wondered how 
many times Jem and I had made this journey, but I entered the Radley front gate 
for the second time in my life. Boo and I walked up the steps to the porch. His 
fingers found the front doorknob. He gently released my hand, opened the door, 
went inside, and shut the door behind him. I never saw him again. 

Neighbors bring food with death and flowers with sickness and little things in 
between. Boo was our neighbor. He gave us two soap dolls, a broken watch and 
chain, a pair of good-luck pennies, and our lives. But neighbors give in return. We 
never put back into the tree what we took out of it: we had given him nothing, and 

it made me sad. 

I turned to go home. Street lights winked down the street all the way to town. I 
had never seen our neighborhood from this angle. There were Miss Maudie’s, 
Miss Stephanie’s — there was our house, I could see the porch swing — Miss 
Rachel’s house was beyond us, plainly visible. I could even see Mrs. Dubose’s. 

I looked behind me. To the left of the brown door was a long shuttered window. I 
walked to it, stood in front of it, and turned around. In daylight, I thought, you 
could see to the postoffice corner. 

Daylight. . . in my mind, the night faded. It was daytime and the neighborhood 
was busy. Miss Stephanie Crawford crossed the street to tell the latest to Miss 
Rachel. Miss Maudie bent over her azaleas. It was summertime, and two children 
scampered down the sidewalk toward a man approaching in the distance. The man 
waved, and the children raced each other to him. 

It was still summertime, and the children came closer. A boy trudged down the 
sidewalk dragging a fishingpole behind him. A man stood waiting with his hands 
on his hips. Summertime, and his children played in the front yard with their 
friend, enacting a strange little drama of their own invention. 

It was fall, and his children fought on the sidewalk in front of Mrs. Dubose’s. The 
boy helped his sister to her feet, and they made their way home. Fall, and his 
children trotted to and fro around the corner, the day’s woes and triumphs on their 
faces. They stopped at an oak tree, delighted, puzzled, apprehensive. 

Winter, and his children shivered at the front gate, silhouetted against a blazing 
house. Winter, and a man walked into the street, dropped his glasses, and shot a 

Summer, and he watched his children’s heart break. Autumn again, and Boo’s 
children needed him. 

Atticus was right. One time he said you never really know a man until you stand 
in his shoes and walk around in them. Just standing on the Radley porch was 

The street lights were fuzzy from the fine rain that was falling. As I made my way 
home, I felt very old, but when I looked at the tip of my nose I could see fine 

misty beads, but looking cross-eyed made me dizzy so I quit. As I made my way 
home, I thought what a thing to tell Jem tomorrow. He’d be so mad he missed it 
he wouldn’t speak to me for days. As I made my way home, I thought Jem and I 
would get grown but there wasn’t much else left for us to learn, except possibly 

I ran up the steps and into the house. Aunt Alexandra had gone to bed, and 
Atticus’s room was dark. I would see if Jem might be reviving. Atticus was in 
Jem’s room, sitting by his bed. He was reading a book. 

“Is Jem awake yet?” 

“Sleeping peacefully. He won’t be awake until morning.” 

“Oh. Are you sittin‘ up with him?” 

“Just for an hour or so. Go to bed, Scout. You’ve had a long day.” 

“Well, I think I’ll stay with you for a while.” 

“Suit yourself,” said Atticus. It must have been after midnight, and I was puzzled 
by his amiable acquiescence. He was shrewder than I, however: the moment I sat 
down I began to feel sleepy. 

“Whatcha readin‘?” I asked. 

Atticus turned the book over. “Something of Jem’s. Called The Gray Ghost.” 

I was suddenly awake. “Why’d you get that one?” 

“Honey, I don’t know. Just picked it up. One of the few things I haven’t read,” he 
said pointedly. 

“Read it out loud, please, Atticus. It’s real scary.” 

“No,” he said. “You’ve had enough scaring for a while. This is too — ” 

“Atticus, I wasn’t scared.” 

He raised his eyebrows, and I protested: “Leastways not till I started telling Mr. 
Tate about it. Jem wasn’t scared. Asked him and he said he wasn’t. Besides, 
nothin’s real scary except in books.” 

Atticus opened his mouth to say something, but shut it again. He took his thumb 
from the middle of the book and turned back to the first page. I moved over and 
leaned my head against his knee. “H’rm,” he said. “The Gray Ghost, by Seckatary 

Hawkins. Chapter One. 

I willed myself to stay awake, but the rain was so soft and the room was so warm 
and his voice was so deep and his knee was so snug that I slept. 

Seconds later, it seemed, his shoe was gently nudging my ribs. He lifted me to my 
feet and walked me to my room. “Heard every word you said,” I muttered. “. . . 
wasn’t sleep at all, ‘s about a ship an’ Three-Fingered Fred ‘n’ Stoner’s Boy...” 

He unhooked my overalls, leaned me against him, and pulled them off. He held 
me up with one hand and reached for my pajamas with the other. 

“Yeah, an‘ they all thought it was Stoner’s Boy messin’ up their clubhouse an‘ 
throwin’ ink all over it an‘ . . .” 

He guided me to the bed and sat me down. He lifted my legs and put me under the 

“An‘ they chased him ’n‘ never could catch him ’cause they didn’t know what he 
looked like, an‘ Atticus, when they finally saw him, why he hadn’t done any of 
those things. . . Atticus, he was real nice. . .” 

His hands were under my chin, pulling up the cover, tucking it around me. 

“Most people are, Scout, when you finally see them.” 

He turned out the light and went into Jem’s room. He would be there all night, 
and he would be there when Jem waked up in the morning. 

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